- Behavioral and biochemical evidences for nootropic activity of boldine in young and aged mice. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018; 97:895-904
- Boldine, a bioactive compound, has been reported to be neuroprotective, but its effect on learning and memory has not been explored. So, the present study was aimed to study the effect of boldine on ...
Boldine, a bioactive compound, has been reported to be neuroprotective, but its effect on learning and memory has not been explored. So, the present study was aimed to study the effect of boldine on the learning and memory of the Swiss albino male young and aged mice. Boldine (1.5, 3 and 6mg/kg, po) and physostigmine salicylate (0.1mg/kg, ip) were administered to separate groups of mice for 7 successive days. Morris water maze was utilized as a behavioural model to study the effect of drugs on learning and memory of mice. Boldine and physostigmine significantly improved learning and memory of young as well as aged mice, as indicated by decrease in escape latency time during training session and increase in time spent in target quadrant during retrieval session. No significant effect on locomotor activities of mice was observed due to drug treatments. Memory-enhancing activity of boldine (3mg/kg) was found to be comparable to physostigmine. Boldine significantly reversed scopolamine-, sodium nitrite- and aging-induced amnesia in mice. Moreover, boldine attenuated oxidative stress, as shown by a significant decrease in brain malondialdehyde as well as brain nitrite levels and a significant increase in brain GSH level of young as well as aged mice. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also significantly inhibited by boldine in young as well as aged mice. In conclusion boldine administered for 7 successive days exhibited significant improvement of learning and memory of young and aged mice possibly through inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase activity and alleviation of brain oxidative stress.
- Adjunctive use of physostigmine salicylate (Anticholium®) in perioperative sepsis and septic shock: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, monocentric trial (Anticholium® per Se). [Journal Article]
- TTrials 2017 Nov 10; 18(1):530
- CONCLUSIONS: This randomized, controlled, monocentric trial investigates for the first time the adjunctive use of physostigmine (Anticholium®) in patients with perioperative sepsis and septic shock and may be a pivotal step toward the clinical use in this indication.
- A fluorescence assay for measuring acetylcholinesterase activity in rat blood and a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2015 Nov-Dec; 76:15-22
- Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme responsible for metabolism of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and inhibition of AChE can have therapeutic applications (e.g., drugs for Alzheimer's diseas...
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme responsible for metabolism of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and inhibition of AChE can have therapeutic applications (e.g., drugs for Alzheimer's disease) or neurotoxic consequences (e.g., pesticides). A common absorbance-based AChE activity assay that uses 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) can have limited sensitivity and be prone to interference. Therefore, an alternative assay was developed, in which AChE activity was determined by measuring fluorescence of resorufin produced from coupled enzyme reactions involving acetylcholine and Amplex Red (10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine). The Amplex Red assay was used for two separate applications. First, AChE activity was measured in rat whole blood, which is a biomarker for exposure to AChE inhibitor pesticides. Activity was quantified from a 10(5)-fold dilution of whole blood, and there was a linear correlation between Amplex Red and DTNB assays. For the second application, Amplex Red assay was used to measure AChE inhibition potency in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y), which is important for assessing pharmacological and toxicological potential of AChE inhibitors including drugs, phytochemicals, and pesticides. Five known reversible inhibitors were evaluated (IC50, 7-225 nM), along with irreversible inhibitors chlorpyrifos-oxon (ki=1.01 nM(-1)h(-1)) and paraoxon (ki=0.16 nM(-1)h(-1)). Lastly, in addition to inhibition, AChE reactivation was measured in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM). The Amplex Red assay is a sensitive, specific, and reliable fluorescence method for measuring AChE activity in both rat whole blood and cultured SH-SY5Y cells.
- Possible interaction of cholinergic and GABAergic systems between MS and CA1 upon memory acquisition in rats. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Res 2012 Dec 1; 235(2):231-43
- The present study explored the possibility that cholinergic and GABAergic systems of medial septum (MS) might influence acquisition of memory by regulation of acetylcholine (Ach) and γ-aminobutyric a...
The present study explored the possibility that cholinergic and GABAergic systems of medial septum (MS) might influence acquisition of memory by regulation of acetylcholine (Ach) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors function in hippocampus and vice versa. The step-through passive avoidance (PA) task was used. The results showed that pre-training intra-MS/CA1 administration of nonselective muscarinic Ach antagonist, scopolamine (0.5, 1 and 2 μg/rat) and GABA(A) receptor agonist, muscimol (0.01 and 0.02 μg/rat) impaired, while acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine (0.5 and 1 μg/rat) and GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline (0.25 μg/rat) improved memory acquisition. Moreover, intra-CA1/MS administration of a subthreshold dose of muscimol or bicuculline increased and reversed the impairment induced by scopolamine in MS/CA1 respectively (cross injection). Also, the result revealed that, intra-CA1/MS administration subthreshold dose of muscimol reduced improvement of memory induced by physostigmine in the MS/CA1, respectively (cross injection). On the other hand, subthreshold dose of bicuculline in CA1/MS did not alter memory improvement induced by physostigmine in the other site (MS/CA1). In conclusion, both cholinergic and GABAergic systems not only seem to play a role in the modulation of memory in the MS and CA1 but also to have a complex interaction.
- Reliability of dissociation constants and resolution capability of SQUAD(84) and SPECFIT/32 in the regression of multiwavelength spectrophotometric pH-titration data. [Journal Article]
- SASpectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2012; 86:305-14
- The resolving power of multicomponent spectral analysis and the computation reliability of the stability constants and molar absorptivities determined for five variously protonated anions of physosti...
The resolving power of multicomponent spectral analysis and the computation reliability of the stability constants and molar absorptivities determined for five variously protonated anions of physostigmine salicylate by the SQUAD(84) and SPECFIT/32 programs has been examined with the use of simulated and experimental spectra containing overlapping spectral bands. The reliability of the dissociation constants of drug was proven with goodness-of-fit tests and by examining the influence of pre-selected noise level s(inst)(A) in synthetic spectra regarding the precision s(pK) and also accuracy of the estimated dissociation constants. Precision was examined as the linear regression model s(pK)=β(0)+β(1)s(inst)(A). In all cases the intercept β(0) was statistically insignificant. When an instrumental error s(inst)(A) is small and less than 0.5 mAU, the parameters' estimates are nearly the same as the bias ΔpK=pK(a,calc)-pK(a,true) is quite negligible. In all four dissociation constants the bias seems to be quite small even though for pK(a4) it is a little bit higher, i.e., +0.05 for s(inst)(A) about 1.0 mAU. In the interval of s(inst)(A) from 0.1 to 1.0 mAU all four dissociation constants pK(i) are accurate enough. Of the various regression diagnostics considered, the goodness-of-fit is the most efficient criterion of whether the parameters found adequately represent the data. The magnitude of instrumental error s(inst)(A) only slightly affects the shape of a Cattel's scree graph s(k)(A)=f(k) to determine the true number of light-absorbing species in the equilibrium mixture.
- Development and optimization of a sublingual tablet formulation for physostigmine salicylate. [Journal Article]
- APActa Pharm 2009; 59(3):301-12
- This study is aimed to design and optimize a sublingual tablet formulation of physostigmine salicylate, an effective drug in Alzheimer's disease and nerve gas poisoning, by means of the D-optimal exp...
This study is aimed to design and optimize a sublingual tablet formulation of physostigmine salicylate, an effective drug in Alzheimer's disease and nerve gas poisoning, by means of the D-optimal experimental design methodology. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone, lactose, starch 1500 and sodium starch glycolate were used in the formulations as independent variables. Tablets were prepared by the direct compression method and evaluated for their physical properties (tablet hardness, disintegration time and friability), which were regarded as responses in a D-optimal design. Due to the significance of the special cubic model for data fitted, compared to other models, it was used to examine the obtained results. Response surface plots were plotted to study the tablet properties and the optimized overlay plot was generated based on the results and targets considered for the responses. After verification of the optimum checkpoint formulations, an optimized formulation was chosen due to its desirable physical properties and closely observed and predicted values. Drug assay, content uniformity of the dosage unit, drug dissolution and accelerated stability studies were done on the optimum formulation as further experiments. All the obtained results complied with the requirements of a sublingual tablet formulation.
- Subacute atropine toxicity in a pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps. [Case Reports]
- JZJ Zoo Wildl Med 2002; 33(1):66-72
- Atropine, an anticholinergic agent commonly used in human and veterinary medicine, is reported to cause toxicity associated with its antimuscarinic action. A juvenile pygmy sperm whale, Kogia brevice...
Atropine, an anticholinergic agent commonly used in human and veterinary medicine, is reported to cause toxicity associated with its antimuscarinic action. A juvenile pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps, was treated with atropine in an attempt to relieve symptoms similar to pyloric stenosis, as has been used in humans. Two doses of 0.01 mg/kg were given i.m., 12 hr apart, followed by three doses of 0.005 mg/kg i.m. s.i.d. over the next 3 days. Symptoms associated with atropine toxicity developed gradually and included hyperexcitability, a generalized ascending paralysis of body musculature, shallow, rapid respiration, vomiting, aspiration of seawater, and pulmonary edema. Treatment with physostigmine salicylate (two doses of 2 mg i.m., I hr apart) was effective in counteracting the paralysis, as well as other symptoms, beginning in as little as 17 min after the first dose, and the whale was back to swimming on its own after 8 hr. All overt symptoms of atropine toxicity were gone in about 24 hr, but there were other possible sequella that lasted much longer.
- Use of ferric chloride to identify salicylate-containing poisons. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2002; 40(5):547-9
- CONCLUSIONS: Salicylate-containing products may be identified using FeCl33. When using FeCl3
- Combined use of tertiary amine parasympathomimetics with a quaternary amine parasympatholitic--a new perspective to use parasympathomimetic drugs for systemic analgesia. [Journal Article]
- PPharmazie 2002; 57(7):485-6
- The interactions on antinociception between a muscarinic agonist arecoline (arec), an anticholinesterase physostigmine (physo) which both cross CNS, and a peripherally acting antimuscarinic hyoscine-...
The interactions on antinociception between a muscarinic agonist arecoline (arec), an anticholinesterase physostigmine (physo) which both cross CNS, and a peripherally acting antimuscarinic hyoscine-N-butyl bromide (hyo), were assessed by tail flick test in mice. All drugs were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). While hyoscine-N-butyl bromide (0.15 and 4.00 mg/kg, i.p.) did not produce antinociception, physostigmine salicylate (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) and arecoline hydrobromide (8.00 mg/kg, i.p.) exerted significant antinociceptive effect. In combined applications, physo + hyo (0.075 + 0.15; 0.15 + 0.30; 0.30 + 0.60 mg/kg) and arec + hyo (1.00 + 0.50; 2.00 + 1.00; 4.00 + 2.00; 8.00 + 4.00 mg/kg), respectively, produced significant antinociception and the tail flick latencies produced by physo 0.30 + hyo 0.60 mg/kg and arec 8.00 + hyo 4.00 mg/kg were not significantly different from those of physo 0.30 mg/kg and arec 8.00 mg/kg, respectively, showing that hyo did not antagonise the antinociceptive effects of physo and arec. We believe that combining an centrally acting cholinergic drug applied systemically with a peripherally acting (quaternary amine) antimuscarinic compound might be used as an effective analgesic in clinical practice.
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- Prophylaxis against organophosphate poisoning by sustained release of scopolamine and physostigmine. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Appl Toxicol 2001; 21 Suppl 1:S75-8
- Protection efficacy of continuous prophylactic administration of physostigmine and scopolamine against sarin-induced toxicity was evaluated previously in guinea pigs. The present study in large anima...
Protection efficacy of continuous prophylactic administration of physostigmine and scopolamine against sarin-induced toxicity was evaluated previously in guinea pigs. The present study in large animals used Beagle dogs, that serve as an animal model with cholinergic sensitivity similar to that of humans. Pretreatment with physostigmine salicylate and scopolamine hydrochloride at dose rates of 2.5 and 1 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1), respectively, was administered via Alzet mini-osmotic pumps. At the time of exposure, the physostigmine salicylate concentration in plasma was 0.7 ng x ml(-1) and the scopolamine hydrochloride concentration was ca. 0.2 ng x ml(-1), both of which are levels known to be well tolerated in humans. Whole-blood cholinesterase inhibition was 15-20%. This regimen conferred full protection against 2.5 x LD50 i.v. of sarin. Albeit the high-dose exposure, cholinergic toxicity symptoms were mild with no convulsions. About 11-14 min following poisoning the treated animals started to walk and 15-20 min following exposure full recovery was observed and the dogs behaved normally. With higher dose rates of physostigmine salicylate and scopolamine hydrochloride, at plasma concentrations of 2.1 and 0.6 ng x ml(-1), respectively, treated dogs regained normal posture 6-10 min after exposure.