- Trihexyphenidyl for dystonia in cerebral palsy. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 May 15; 5:CD012430
- CONCLUSIONS: At present, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of trihexyphenidyl for people with cerebral palsy for the outcomes of: change in dystonia, adverse effects, increased upper limb function and improved participation in activities of daily living. The study did not measure pain or quality of life. There is a need for larger randomised, controlled, multicentre trials that also examine the effect on pain and quality of life in order to determine the effectiveness of trihexyphenidyl for people with cerebral palsy.
- Misuse of Trihexyphenidyl (Artane) on Réunion Island. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Psychopharmacol 2018; 38(3):250-253
- CONCLUSIONS: This cohort describing the clinical characteristics of 69 patients is the largest cohort studied for THP addiction. Patients from the Centres for Addiction Prevention and Treatment were the youngest and most recently addicted, whereas general practice patients had been addicted for longer and were more socially integrated. This clinical description of THP addiction therefore enables us to identify the patients who are the most at risk, to set up an adapted care protocol.
- Pharmacological interventions for treating sialorrhea associated with neurological disorders: A mixed treatment network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. [Review]
- JCJ Clin Neurosci 2018; 51:12-17
- Sialorrhea is a common distress associated with certain neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacological agents used for treating sialorrhea by network meta-analysis. E...
Sialorrhea is a common distress associated with certain neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacological agents used for treating sialorrhea by network meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials comparing active drugs with either placebo or other active drugs. Total drooling scores was the primary outcome measure. Inverse variance heterogeneity model was used for both direct and mixed treatment comparison analysis. Twenty one studies were included in the systematic review and 15 in the meta-analysis. Compared to placebo, benztropine, botulinum toxins A and B are associated with a significant reduction in the frequency and severity of drooling both in the overall neurological disorders as well as for children with cerebral palsy. Only botulinum toxin A and B were associated with significant therapeutic effects in Parkinson's disease. Benztropine and botulinum toxins A and B were observed to be effective in reducing sialorrhea associated with neurological disorders.
- Disabling tremor induced by long-term use of sodium valproate and lamotrigine: Case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96(47):e8711
- CONCLUSIONS: Considering the wide and long-term utilization of VPA and LTG, healthcare providers should be aware of them as a possible cause of tremor. When necessary, an attempt of discontinuing the suspected drugs should be made to confirm the diagnosis, instead of symptomatic treatment, especially when the adverse event was severe and fatal.
- Anticholinergic medication for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 01 17; 1:CD000204
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on currently available evidence, no confident statement can be made about the effectiveness of anticholinergics to treat people with antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. The same applies for the withdrawal of such medications. Whether the withdrawal of anticholinergics may benefit people with antipsychotic-induced TD should be evaluated in a parallel-group, placebo-controlled randomised trial, with adequate sample size and at least 6 weeks of follow-up.
- The effect of intravitreal cholinergic drugs on motor control. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Res 2018 Feb 26; 339:232-238
- The retina bears embryological, neurochemical and functional similarities to the circadian and dopamine systems of the brain. Recent studies have shown that the intravitreal injection of minute quant...
The retina bears embryological, neurochemical and functional similarities to the circadian and dopamine systems of the brain. Recent studies have shown that the intravitreal injection of minute quantities of L-dopa and of the melatonin receptor antagonist ML-23 have anti-Parkinsonian potential. Furthermore, it has been suggested that light therapy may be potentially useful in treating some aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD) and it is hypothesized that this treatment works via the circadian system. Given that little is known about the mechanism by which such treatments work the present study was designed to examine the role of the acetyl cholinergic system of the retina in gross bodily movement. While IVIT atropine was shown to improve movement in intact rats Cogentin treated rats showed impairment of motor function compared to control rats or to rats treated with any other cholinergic drug. Furthermore, a link between the phase of the light/dark cycle and the efficacy of these drugs in altering movement was demonstrated. These results show that anticholinergic systems in the retina can exert control over movement which has been solely attributed to the function of deep brain structures.
- Modification of the natural progression of epileptogenesis by means of biperiden in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. [Journal Article]
- EREpilepsy Res 2017; 138:88-97
- Brain injuries are often associated with the later development of epilepsy. Evidence suggests that morphological and functional changes occur in the remaining neural tissue during a silent (or latent...
Brain injuries are often associated with the later development of epilepsy. Evidence suggests that morphological and functional changes occur in the remaining neural tissue during a silent (or latent) period in which no seizures are expressed. It is believed that this silent (reorganization) period may provide a therapeutic window for modifying the natural history of disease progression. Here we provide evidence that biperiden, a muscarinic anticholinergic agent, is able to alter disease progression in an animal model of epilepsy. We observed that biperiden was capable of slowing the manifestation of the first spontaneous epileptic seizure and effectively reduced the severity and number of recurrent, spontaneous epileptic seizures during the animals' lifespan. Biomolecular (microdialysis) and electrophysiological (extracellular field recordings) studies determined that biperiden was capable of elevating the threshold of hippocampal excitability, thereby making the hippocampal glutamatergic pathways less responsive to stimuli when high concentrations of potassium were used in vivo or in vitro. Notably, there was no hindrance of long-term memory or learning (a potential problem given the amnestic nature of biperiden). We conclude that biperiden has antiepileptogenic potential and may represent an opportunity for the prevention of post-traumatic epilepsy.
- Stability-Indicating UPLC and TLC-Densitometric Methods for Determination of Benztropine Mesylate and Its Carcinogenic Degradation Product. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr Sci 2017 Oct 01; 55(9):961-968
- Two accurate, precise and highly selective stability-indicating methods were adopted for simultaneous determination of benztropine mesylate (BNZ) in presence of its hepatotoxic and carcinogenic degra...
Two accurate, precise and highly selective stability-indicating methods were adopted for simultaneous determination of benztropine mesylate (BNZ) in presence of its hepatotoxic and carcinogenic degradation product, benzophenone (BPH) either in pure form or in the pharmaceutical formulation without any preliminary separation steps. The first method is a thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric method that depended on separation of BNZ from its degradate on TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 as the stationary phase using a developing system consisted of hexane:methylene chloride:triethylamine (5:5:0.6, by volume) and scanning the separated bands at 235 nm. Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots of BNZ and BPH showed perfect linear relationships over the concentration range of 1.5-10 and 1-10 μg band-1, respectively. The second method is (UPLC) method, at which the mixture was separated on a reversed phase C8 analytical column (1.9 μm ps, 50 mm × 2.1 i.d.) using a mobile phase of acetonitrile: aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (50:50, v/v) Adjusted to pH = 3 with phosphoric acid, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min-1. Quantification was achieved at 210 nm based on peak area and linear calibration curves over the concentration ranges of (20-200 μg mL-1) and (5-50 μg mL-1) for BNZ and BPH, respectively, were obtained. The investigated methods were successfully applied to available dosage form and method validation has been carried out. The results obtained by applying the proposed methods were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by reported one and no significant differences were obtained regarding both accuracy and precision.
- Velopharyngeal Dystonia: An Unusual Focal Task-specific Dystonia? [Case Reports]
- TOTremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2017; 7:365
- CONCLUSIONS: Dystonia affecting speech via involvement of the pharyngeal musculature may be an unrecognized etiology of voice disorders.
New Search Next
- Persistent oromandibular dystonia and angioedema secondary to haloperidol. [Case Reports]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2017 Oct 04; 2017
- We report a case in a young man who developed acute, persistent and painful tongue protrusion followed by swelling for more than 24 hours. He had relapse symptoms of schizophrenia and had recently re...
We report a case in a young man who developed acute, persistent and painful tongue protrusion followed by swelling for more than 24 hours. He had relapse symptoms of schizophrenia and had recently received a single dose of parenteral haloperidol to manage his agitation. His record showed history of similar event and he has been taking atypical antipsychotic for maintenance. Mental state examination on admission revealed an agitated man with disorganised speech, restricted affect, auditory hallucination and persecutory delusion. His dystonia and oedema improved after 3 days. His mental status also recovered with the maintenance of low-potency antipsychotic and anticholinergic antiparkinsonian medications.