- Heavy Cannabis Use Associated With Reduction in Activated and Inflammatory Immune Cell Frequencies in Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Feb 17
- CONCLUSIONS: While the clinical implications are unclear, our findings suggest that cannabis use is associated with a potentially beneficial reduction in systemic inflammation and immune activation in the context of antiretroviral-treated HIV infection.
- Effects of docosahexanoic acid supplementation on inflammatory and subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression in HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). A sub-study of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. [Journal Article]
- CCytokine 2018 Feb 19; 105:73-79
- CONCLUSIONS: DHA supplementation down-regulated inflammatory gene expression in SAT. DHA impact on markers of systemic inflammation was restricted to hsCRP and arachidonic acid.
- Increased HIV-1 transcriptional activity and infectious burden in peripheral blood and gut-associated CD4+ T cells expressing CD30. [Journal Article]
- PPPLoS Pathog 2018; 14(2):e1006856
- HIV-1-infected cells persist indefinitely despite the use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and novel therapeutic strategies to target and purge residual infected cells in individuals on A...
HIV-1-infected cells persist indefinitely despite the use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and novel therapeutic strategies to target and purge residual infected cells in individuals on ART are urgently needed. Here, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cell-associated HIV-1 RNA is often highly enriched in cells expressing CD30, and that cells expressing this marker considerably contribute to the total pool of transcriptionally active CD4+ lymphocytes in individuals on suppressive ART. Using in situ RNA hybridization studies, we show co-localization of CD30 with HIV-1 transcriptional activity in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. We also demonstrate that ex vivo treatment with brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that targets CD30, significantly reduces the total amount of HIV-1 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from infected, ART-suppressed individuals. Finally, we observed that an HIV-1-infected individual, who received repeated brentuximab vedotin infusions for lymphoma, had no detectable virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Overall, CD30 may be a marker of residual, transcriptionally active HIV-1 infected cells in the setting of suppressive ART. Given that CD30 is only expressed on a small number of total mononuclear cells, it is a potential therapeutic target of persistent HIV-1 infection.
- Preterm delivery and small-for-gestation outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women on antiretroviral therapy in rural South Africa: Results from a cohort study, 2010-2015. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0192805
- CONCLUSIONS: Preconception TDF-(3TC/FTC)-EFV and post-conception TDF-(3TC/FTC)-EFV were not associated with PTD or SGA, compared with other regimens. Increasing ART use merits further study of the optimum ART regimen for safe birth outcomes.
- Oral lesions as an important marker for HIV progression. [Journal Article]
- DODermatol Online J 2017 Sep 15; 23(9)
- CONCLUSIONS: OHL definitive diagnosis can help clinical management of pediatric HIV+ patients.
- Intestinal Barrier Impairment and Immune Activation in HIV-Infected Advanced Late Presenters are Not Dependent on CD4 Recovery. [Journal Article]
- AIArch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2018 Feb 21
- Damage of the mucosal barrier in HIV infection, microbial translocation, and immune activation can persist even in patients on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) especially advanced late present...
Damage of the mucosal barrier in HIV infection, microbial translocation, and immune activation can persist even in patients on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) especially advanced late presenters. The aim of this study was to find factors that determine immune activation and bacterial translocation in HIV-infected advanced late presenters on suppressive ART. Forty-three late presenters (CD4 < 200 cells/µl prior to ART) on successful ART (more than 2 years of ART) with optimal and suboptimal CD4 recovery were enrolled into this study. The serum concentrations of intestinal fatty acid-binding peptide (I-FABP), zonulin-1, programmed cell death-1 protein (PCDP-1), and soluble (s)CD14 were measured using the ELISA test. We found higher serum levels of I-FABP and sCD14 in successfully antiretroviral-treated advanced late presenters compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0004). The serum concentration of PCDP-1 and zonulin-1 in HIV-infected patients did not differ from healthy controls. The levels of microbial translocation and immune activation markers were not associated with the degree of CD4 recovery. A serum concentration of I-FABP above 2.03 ng/ml was independently associated with a shorter ART (OR 0.78; p = 0.03). Older age was related to serum levels of sCD14 above 2.35 µg/ml (OR 1.1; p = 0.01). Higher serum levels of I-FABP and sCD14 in successfully antiretroviral-treated advanced late presenters compared to healthy subjects suggest an incomplete reconstruction of the intestinal barrier and sustained immune activation despite good CD4 recovery. It was not the CD4 level, but the length of the suppressive ART that was found to be associated with the restoration of the intestinal barrier.
- A case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus affecting the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2018; 9:68-71
- CONCLUSIONS: Chronic hypertrophic herpes simplex virus infection is a rare condition reported in patients with HIV. While there have been few reports of hypertrophic HSV affecting the eyelid, this is the first reported case of hypertrophic HSV affecting the eye, resulting in severe vision loss.
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Brain-Culprit or Facilitator? [Review]
- IDInfect Dis (Auckl) 2018; 11:1178633717752687
- CONCLUSIONS: As HIV can be responsible for considerable brain damage directly or by facilitating other pathogens, more effort is needed to recognize and manage HIV-associated CNS disorders and to eventually target HIV eradication from the brain.
- Epidemiology, determinants, and management of AIDS cholangiopathy: A review. [Review]
- WJWorld J Gastroenterol 2018 Feb 21; 24(7):767-774
- Diseases of the liver and biliary tree have been described with significant frequency among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and its advanced state, acquired immunodeficiency syndrom...
Diseases of the liver and biliary tree have been described with significant frequency among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and its advanced state, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Through a variety of mechanisms, HIV/AIDS has been shown to affect the hepatic parenchyma and biliary tree, leading to liver inflammation and biliary strictures. One of the potential hepatobiliary complications of this viral infection is AIDS cholangiopathy, a syndrome of biliary obstruction and liver damage due to infection-related strictures of the biliary tract. AIDS cholangiopathy is highly associated with opportunistic infections and advanced immunosuppression in AIDS patients, and due to the increased availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy, is now primarily seen in instances of poor access to anti-retroviral therapy and medication non-compliance. While current published literature describes well the clinical, biochemical, and endoscopic management of AIDS-related cholangiopathy, information on its epidemiology, natural history, and pathology are not as well defined. The objective of this review is to summarize the available literature on AIDS cholangiopathy, emphasizing its epidemiology, course of disease, and determinants, while also revealing an updated approach for its evaluation and management.
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- Early antiretroviral therapy on reducing HIV transmission in China: strengths, weaknesses and next focus of the program. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Feb 21; 8(1):3431
- Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is a recommended public health approach for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. In this cohort study, we included 13132 serodiscordant couples. ART was...
Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is a recommended public health approach for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. In this cohort study, we included 13132 serodiscordant couples. ART was initiated for patients with CD4+ T cell counts less than 200 cells/uL, 350 cells/uL, and 500 cells/uL respectively. This divided the ART treated couples into three groups. Univariate and multivariate intention-to-treat analyses were performed to examine the association between the study groups. Early-ART initiation was associated with a 45% lower risk of partner infection than was late-ART initiation (AHR 0.55, 95% CI, 0.37-0.81). Mid-ART initiation was associated with a 39% lower risk of partner infection than was late-ART initiation (AHR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.48-0.78). However, the risk reduction between the early and mid-ART groups was not significant. Drug compliance (AHR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.35) and increased baseline viral load (AHR 1.41, 95% CI 1.33-1.51) were associated with an increased risk of infections among partners in the treatment. Prevention of HIV transmission as a result of early ART initiation was feasible on national and regional scales; however, many factors, such as the motivation to commence ART, adherence, and attrition, may affect the impact of this strategy in programmatic settings.