- Alpha response reveals attention abnormalities in psychopathy. [Journal Article]
- PDPersonal Disord 2018 Dec 03
- Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with callous, impulsive, and antisocial behaviors. Decades of research indicate that individuals higher on psychopathy exhibit abnormal allocation of ...
Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with callous, impulsive, and antisocial behaviors. Decades of research indicate that individuals higher on psychopathy exhibit abnormal allocation of attention during goal pursuit. However, the manner in which attention is allocated to goal-relevant information and the downstream neurocognitive consequences of this attention abnormality remain unclear. The present study addresses this gap by examining the relationship between psychopathy and the allocation of attention during an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based continuous performance task in a sample of 61 adolescents and young adults. Results indicate that individuals higher on psychopathy overallocate attention to visual cues during the task (i.e., enhanced parieto-occipital alpha suppression), and this overallocation of attention reduces the neural resources required for motor control (i.e., blunted central alpha activity during NoGo trials). Psychopathy appears related to a unique pattern of attention allocation that prioritizes neural resources for goal-relevant information, resulting in alterations in the neural response for downstream cognitive functions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
- Emotional modulation of the pupil response in psychopathy. [Journal Article]
- PDPersonal Disord 2018 Dec 03
- Psychopathy is a form of personality disorder associated with a deficit in emotional processing. However, there is debate whether this deficit applies to all emotions or exists only for negative emot...
Psychopathy is a form of personality disorder associated with a deficit in emotional processing. However, there is debate whether this deficit applies to all emotions or exists only for negative emotions. The pupil dilates rapidly in response to emotional stimuli, allowing a time-sensitive index of emotional processing. Across 3 experiments using (a) visual images of real-world scenes, (b) auditory sound clips, and (c) videos of dynamic facial expressions, we measured emotional modulation of the pupil response to both negative and positive stimuli. Participants were 82 male mentally disordered offenders. Psychopathy was measured using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised to produce factor scores of interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) and lifestyle-antisocial traits (Factor 2). Participants with high Factor 1 scores showed reduced emotional modulation of the pupil response to negative images and angry faces but not to any of the positive stimuli. These effects only occurred shortly after the emotion was presented (<2,000 ms), suggesting delayed processing of negative affective stimuli in Factor 1 psychopathy. Factor 2 scores were not associated with any changes in pupil response. There were no effects of psychopathy on the pupil response to the affective sound clips. The results support a specific psychopathic deficit in the processing of negative stimuli related to the interpersonal-affective dimension of psychopathy. We argue that pupillometry is a powerful and noninvasive tool to investigate emotional processing in clinical populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
- Antisocial personality and risks of cause-specific mortality: results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study with 27 years of follow-up. [Journal Article]
- SPSoc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2018 Dec 01
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that antisocial personality disorder is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality. Early identification, treatment, and prevention of ASPD are important public mental health initiatives that could reduce premature mortality among this vulnerable population.
- Epigenetics in Personality Disorders: Today's Insights. [Review]
- FPFront Psychiatry 2018; 9:579
- Objective: Epigenetic mechanisms have been described in several mental disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia. However, less is known about the influence of epigeneti...
Objective: Epigenetic mechanisms have been described in several mental disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia. However, less is known about the influence of epigenetic mechanisms with regard to personality disorders (PD). Therefore, we conducted a literature review on existing original data with regards to epigenetic peculiarities in connection with personality disorders. Methods: Systematic literature review using PRISMA guidelines. Search was performed via NCBI PubMed by keywords and their combinations. Used search terms included "epigenetic," "methylation," "acetylation" plus designations of specified personality traits and disorders according to DSM-IV. Results: Search yielded in total 345 publications, 257 thereof with psychiatric topic, 72 on personality disorder or traits, 43 of which were in humans and epigenetic, 23 thereof were original studies. Lastly, 23 original publications fulfilled the intended search criteria and were included. Those are 13 studies on gene methylation pattern with aggressive, antisocial and impulsive traits, 9 with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and 2 with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The results of these studies showed significant associations of PD with methylation aberrances in system-wide genes and suggest evidence for epigenetic processes in the development of personality traits and personality disorders. Environmental factors, of which childhood trauma showed a high impact, interfered with many neurofunctional genes. Methylation alterations in ASPD and BPD repeatedly affected HTR2A, HTR3A, NR3C1, and MAOA genes. Summary: Epigenetic studies in PD seem to be a useful approach to elucidate the interaction of co-working risk factors in the pathogenesis of personality traits and disorders. However, the complexity of pathogenesis leads to divergent results and impedes an explicit interpretation. Differing methylation patterns within the selected PD could indicate subgroups which would benefit from patient-oriented therapeutic adjustments. They might play a major role in the future design and observation of early therapeutic intervention and thus could help to prevent severe dysfunctional conduct or full-blown personality disorder in risk subjects.
- Substance use in young adults with ADHD: Comorbidity and symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Clin Health Psychol 2016 May-Aug; 16(2):157-165
- Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at high risk of substance use (SU). The aims of the current study were: 1) to examine the use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and ...
Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at high risk of substance use (SU). The aims of the current study were: 1) to examine the use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other illegal drugs by adults with and without ADHD; 2) to compare the oppositional, conduct, anxiety, depression, sleep and antisocial personality symptoms of ADHD adults with SU and ADHD adults without SU; 3) to examine the ability of ADHD symptoms and conduct problems to predict SU. A total of 93 young adults, 43 without ADHD and 50 with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD, who were part of the Spanish sample of the Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study, collaborated in a follow-up evaluation 10.1 years later. ADHD participants were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of SU. Statistically significant differences were found between young adults with and without ADHD in their use of tobacco, marijuana and alcohol. A statistically significant association was also shown between externalization problems and a greater risk of SU. Conduct problems, to a greater degree than ADHD symptoms, affect SU in ADHD adults.
- Profile of partner aggressors as a function of risk of recidivism. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Clin Health Psychol 2016 Jan-Apr; 16(1):39-46
- Partner aggressors present psychopathological, criminal, and sociodemographic characteristics that have been used for classification in typologies. The goal of the present work was to identify profil...
Partner aggressors present psychopathological, criminal, and sociodemographic characteristics that have been used for classification in typologies. The goal of the present work was to identify profile of aggressors as a function of the risk of recidivism, and assess whether there correspondence with type of offenders proposed by Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart. The sample was made up of 90 men condemned for partner violence, of whom 50 were serving a prison sentence, and 40 mandatory community intervention/programs. The risk of recidivism was assessed with the SARA - Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, completed with information obtained from prison records, clinical interviews for the assessment of personality disorders, and self-reports. The results reveal three profile of aggressors according to their risk of recidivism, related to the above-mentioned classification: high-risk aggressors coincide with the Dysphoric/Borderline (DB) type, medium-risk aggressors with the low-level antisocial type (LLA), and the low-risk group with the type of aggressors family only (FO). The implications are discussed in the penitentiary intervention of these results.
- Predictors of change in cognitive processing therapy for veterans in a residential PTSD treatment program. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Psychol 2018 Nov 28
- CONCLUSIONS: These results provide insight into characteristics that may influence degree of benefit received from group-based CPT.
- Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychiatric Co-Morbidity in the United States. [Journal Article]
- PQPsychiatr Q 2018 Nov 21
- The objective of the present study was to provide a nationally representative psychiatric epidemiologic investigation of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its co-morbid conditions. Data from the Natio...
The objective of the present study was to provide a nationally representative psychiatric epidemiologic investigation of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its co-morbid conditions. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III) collected between 2012 and 2013 was used. Results indicated that TBI was significantly associated with any lifetime mental health (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.65-3.70), substance use disorder (AOR = 1.57-1.01-2.42), and violent (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.03-2.65) and nonviolent (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.25-2.70) criminal behaviors. In our study, TBI was highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders and especially antisocial behaviors, both violent and non-violent.
- Childhood serotonergic function and early adult outcomes in youth with ADHD: A 15-year follow-up study. [Journal Article]
- ENEur Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Nov 16
- Longitudinal studies have shown that clinical precursors of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and more notably comorbid ADHD and conduct d...
Longitudinal studies have shown that clinical precursors of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and more notably comorbid ADHD and conduct disorder (CD). Despite existing evidence for the purported role of abnormal serotonergic function in aggressive youth and adults, little evidence exists on the role of serotonin in the progression from childhood disruptive behavior disorders to adult psychopathology, including ASPD. This study examined the relation between serotonergic function in children diagnosed with ADHD and the development of ASPD in early adulthood. We hypothesized that low serotonin response to a pharmacological probe in childhood would predict the development of adult ASPD. Towards this goal we divided 40 adults (M = 37, F = 3), ages 23-26 (m-24.57, sd-2.33) diagnosed with childhood ADHD into 2 groups: participants with (n = 21) and without (n = 19) ASPD. We used logistic regression to assess whether serotonergic measures in childhood assessed via prolactin and cortisol responses to a fenfluramine challenge, would selectively predict the development of ASPD in early adulthood. Logistic regression models showed that low central serotonergic response in childhood indexed by cortisol response significantly predicted adult ASPD (Wald = 4.427, p = .035) but not ADHD diagnosis in adulthood. Adults without ASPD had the highest serotonergic response whereas adults with adolescent ASPD (i.e. early onset ASPD) had the lowest response. Thus we provide new evidence of the link between low serotonergic function in childhood and the development of ASPD in adulthood, particularly for boys with adolescent onset of ASPD. These findings are relevant for understanding the contribution of childhood neurobiology to risk for later ASPD.
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- Machine learning of brain gray matter differentiates sex in a large forensic sample. [Journal Article]
- HBHum Brain Mapp 2018 Nov 15
- Differences between males and females have been extensively documented in biological, psychological, and behavioral domains. Among these, sex differences in the rate and typology of antisocial behavi...
Differences between males and females have been extensively documented in biological, psychological, and behavioral domains. Among these, sex differences in the rate and typology of antisocial behavior remains one of the most conspicuous and enduring patterns among humans. However, the nature and extent of sexual dimorphism in the brain among antisocial populations remains mostly unexplored. Here, we seek to understand sex differences in brain structure between incarcerated males and females in a large sample (n = 1,300) using machine learning. We apply source-based morphometry, a contemporary multivariate approach for quantifying gray matter measured with magnetic resonance imaging, and carry these parcellations forward using machine learning to classify sex. Models using components of brain gray matter volume and concentration were able to differentiate between males and females with greater than 93% generalizable accuracy. Highly differentiated components include orbitofrontal and frontopolar regions, proportionally larger in females, and anterior medial temporal regions proportionally larger in males. We also provide a complimentary analysis of a nonforensic healthy control sample and replicate our 93% sex discrimination. These findings demonstrate that the brains of males and females are highly distinguishable. Understanding sex differences in the brain has implications for elucidating variability in the incidence and progression of disease, psychopathology, and differences in psychological traits and behavior. The reliability of these differences confirms the importance of sex as a moderator of individual differences in brain structure and suggests future research should consider sex specific models.