- Antisocial Personality as a Neurodevelopmental Disorder. [Journal Article]
- ARAnnu Rev Clin Psychol 2018 Jan 25
- Although antisocial personality disorder (APD) is one of the most researched personality disorders, it is still surprisingly resistant to treatment. This lack of clinical progress may be partly due t...
Although antisocial personality disorder (APD) is one of the most researched personality disorders, it is still surprisingly resistant to treatment. This lack of clinical progress may be partly due to the failure to view APD as a neurodevelopmental disorder and to consider early interventions. After first defining what constitutes a neurodevelopmental disorder, this review evaluates the extent to which APD meets neurodevelopmental criteria, covering structural and functional brain imaging, neurocognition, genetics and epigenetics, neurochemistry, and early health risk factors. Prevention and intervention strategies for APD are then outlined, focusing on addressing early biological and health systems, followed by forensic and clinical implications. It is argued both that APD meets criteria for consideration as a neurodevelopmental disorder and that consideration should be given both to the possibility that early onset conduct disorder is neurodevelopmental in nature, and also to the inclusion of psychopathy as a specifier in future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual revisions of APD. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 14 is May 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
- Masculinity, emotion regulation, and psychopathology: A critical review and integrated model. [Review]
- CPClin Psychol Rev 2018 Jan 31
- Relative to girls and women, boys and men experience disproportionate rates of "externalizing" problems (e.g., aggressive behavior, substance use disorders, and antisocial personality disorder). Unfo...
Relative to girls and women, boys and men experience disproportionate rates of "externalizing" problems (e.g., aggressive behavior, substance use disorders, and antisocial personality disorder). Unfortunately, relatively little is understood about how gender operates in the etiology, expression, and maintenance of men's psychopathology. We argue that this gap in knowledge reflects the challenge of accounting for the dynamic nature of masculinity (i.e., the fact that the influence of masculinity on men's lives varies across context, time, and individuals). Likewise, emotion regulation, the process by which individuals modify their emotions to respond to the varying demands of their environment, is itself an inherently dynamic construct. Difficulty regulating emotion has been identified as a transdiagnostic factor common to a range of psychiatric diagnoses and behavior problems. Integrating the literature on emotion regulation and masculinity, therefore, offers promise for enhancing our ability to understand the effects of gender on men's psychopathology and to alleviate its deleterious consequences. In keeping with this goal, we review and synthesize the available literature on masculinity and emotion regulation into a cross-cutting framework of masculinity and men's psychopathology. Implications are discussed in terms of recommendations for an integrated intervention approach.
- Behavioral and electrophysiological responses to fairness norm violations in antisocial offenders. [Journal Article]
- EAEur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Feb 03
- Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a stable, lifelong pattern of disregard for and violation of others' rights. Disruptions in the representation of fairness norms may represent a ke...
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a stable, lifelong pattern of disregard for and violation of others' rights. Disruptions in the representation of fairness norms may represent a key mechanism in the development and maintenance of this disorder. Here, we investigated fairness norm considerations and reactions to their violations. To examine electrophysiological correlates, we assessed the medial frontal negativity (MFN), an event-related potential previously linked to violations of social expectancy and norms. Incarcerated antisocial violent offenders (AVOs, n = 25) and healthy controls (CTLs, n = 24) acted as proposers in the dictator game (DG) and ultimatum game (UG) and received fair vs. unfair UG offers from either another human (social context) or a computer (non-social context). Results showed that AVOs made lower offers in the DG but not the UG, indicating more rational and strategic behavior. Most importantly, when acting as recipients in the UG, acceptance rates were modulated by social context in CTLs, while AVOs generally accepted more offers. Correspondingly, ERP data indicated pronounced MFN amplitudes following human offers in CTLs, whereas MFN amplitudes in AVOs were generally reduced. The current data suggest intact fairness norm representations but altered reactions to their violation in antisocial personality disorder.
- Emergency Department Referrals for Adolescent Urgent Psychiatric Consultation: Comparison of Clinical Characteristics of Repeat-presentations and Single-presentation. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018; 27(1):33-38
- CONCLUSIONS: Repeat-presentations for urgent psychiatric consultation constitute a quarter of referrals to the urgent psychiatric clinic. Identifying and addressing factors that contribute to repeat-presentations may, assist in improving treatment compliance by ensuring focused interventions and service delivery for these youth. In turn, this will improve access to the limited urgent services for other youth.
- Changes in opiate and stimulant use through 10 years: The role of contextual factors, mental health disorders and psychosocial factors in a prospective SUD treatment cohort study. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(1):e0190381
- CONCLUSIONS: There was a substantial reduction in opiate and stimulant use from baseline to all follow-up assessments, most greatly for heroin. Findings regarding sustained use could suggest familial transmission and the challenges of preventive strategies and treatment efforts in an intergenerational context. Co-occurrence between drug abuse and mental health problems highlights the need of highly specialized competence in SUD treatment.
- Testing Genetic and Environmental Associations Between Personality Disorders and Cocaine Use: A Population-Based Twin Study. [Journal Article]
- TRTwin Res Hum Genet 2018; 21(1):24-32
- Until now, data have not been available to elucidate the genetic and environmental sources of comorbidity between all 10 DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) and cocaine use. Our aim was to determine w...
Until now, data have not been available to elucidate the genetic and environmental sources of comorbidity between all 10 DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) and cocaine use. Our aim was to determine which PD traits are linked phenotypically and genetically to cocaine use. Cross-sectional data were obtained in a face-to-face interview between 1999 and 2004. Subjects were 1,419 twins (µage = 28.2 years, range = 19-36) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel, with complete lifetime cocaine use and criteria for all 10 DSM-IV PDs. Stepwise multiple and Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regressions were used to identify PDs related to cocaine use. Twin models were fitted to estimate genetic and environmental associations between the PD traits and cocaine use. In the multiple regression, antisocial (OR = 4.24, 95% CI [2.66, 6.86]) and borderline (OR = 2.19, 95% CI [1.35, 3.57]) PD traits were significant predictors of cocaine use. In the LASSO regression, antisocial, borderline, and histrionic were significant predictors of cocaine use. Antisocial and borderline PD traits each explained 72% and 25% of the total genetic risks in cocaine use, respectively. Genetic risks in histrionic PD were not significantly related to cocaine use. Importantly, after removing criteria referencing substance use, antisocial PD explained 65% of the total genetic variance in cocaine use, whereas borderline explained only 4%. Among PD traits, antisocial is the strongest correlate of cocaine use, for which the association is driven largely by common genetic risks.
- Criminal characteristics of a group of primary criminals diagnosed with aspd: approach to criminal recidivis. [Journal Article]
- RERev Esp Sanid Penit 2017; 19(3):74-78
- CONCLUSIONS: This sample contains a group of variables called dynamic that are more commonly present amongst first time offenders with ASPD; said variables have been associated as major predictors of recidivism. Given that they are regarded as dynamic, they may well be modifiable.
- ADHD, CD, and ODD: Systematic review of genetic and environmental risk factors. [Journal Article]
- RDRes Dev Disabil 2018 Jan 17
- This review aims to analyze the relationships between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD), particularly regarding the relat...
This review aims to analyze the relationships between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD), particularly regarding the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in the development of these disorders. Studies that examined at least two of these disorders were obtained from multiple databases, following the procedures of the Cochrane Collaboration initiative. Of the 279 documents obtained, nine were retained for in-depth analysis and were considered eligible for inclusion. In addition, eight studies from the manual search were included. The objectives, methodological aspects (sample and instruments), and the main conclusions were extracted from each study. Overall, the results suggest that (a) the causes for the onset and maintenance of these disorders are more associated with genetic factors than environmental factors, although the importance of the latter is recognized, and (b) children with ADHD have a predisposition to manifest behaviors that are common to ODD and CD, including the antisocial behavior that these children often display.
- Episodic memory and consciousness in antisocial personality disorder and conduct disorder. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Sci 2018; 41:e13
- Episodic memory is one of the most significant sources of information of humans. It entails cooperative and linguistic skills and, as Mahr & Csibra (M&C) note, the capacity to ground veridical belief...
Episodic memory is one of the most significant sources of information of humans. It entails cooperative and linguistic skills and, as Mahr & Csibra (M&C) note, the capacity to ground veridical beliefs about the past. In some psychiatric disorders (antisocial personality disorder and conduct disorder), it was found that the habit of lying is associated with episodic memory and consciousness deficits.
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- Association of comorbid personality disorders with clinical characteristics and outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing two psychotherapies for early-onset persistent depressive disorder. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Affect Disord 2018 Mar 15; 229:262-268
- CONCLUSIONS: The main limitation was the exclusion of patients with certain personality disorders (antisocial, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders). Furthermore, the study was underpowered to find interaction effects of small size.Persistently depressed patients with and without comorbid PD primarily seemed to differ in the rate of axis I comorbidity and the severity of interpersonal problems. Treatment outcomes appear to be not significantly affected by the presence of PD.