- Cytomegalovirus-related uncontrolled glaucoma in an immunocompetent patient: a case report and systematic review. [Case Reports]
- BOBMC Ophthalmol 2018 Sep 29; 18(1):259
- CONCLUSIONS: CMV infection is not rare. Patients have unilateral mild anterior inflammation with relapsed attacks of elevated intraocular pressure should be considered for CMV infection. We found that concurrent use of systemic and topical ganciclovir in a short period could reduce ocular CMV significantly, while ocular hypertension recurred. The antiviral treatment should be individualized. Glaucoma surgery could be offered to protect CEC loss and glaucomatous damage.
- Feline Herpesvirus 1 and Mycoplasma spp. Conventional PCR Assay Results From Conjunctival Samples From Cats in Shelters With Suspected Acute Ocular Infections. [Journal Article]
- TCTop Companion Anim Med 2018; 33(2):45-48
- Signs of ocular infections like discharge and conjunctivitis occur commonly in cats in shelters and feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), Chlamydia felis, Mycoplasma spp, and feline calicivirus (FCV) are tho...
Signs of ocular infections like discharge and conjunctivitis occur commonly in cats in shelters and feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), Chlamydia felis, Mycoplasma spp, and feline calicivirus (FCV) are thought to be the most common causes. While molecular assays are available to amplify nucleic acids of each of these agents as single tests or in panels, additional information is needed concerning whether the assay results can be used to predict response to treatment. The objectives of this study were to report results for conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that amplify nucleic acids of FHV-1, Mycoplasma spp., C. felis, and FCV from cats with signs of acute ocular and upper respiratory infections in an animal shelter and to determine whether the results are associated with treatment responses to topical administration of cidofovir (anti-FHV-1) or oxytetracycline (anti-Mycoplasma spp. and C. felis). Conjunctival samples were collected from both eyes of 60 cats with ocular signs of disease. Total deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) were extracted from each sample and assayed for DNA of FHV-1, Mycoplasma spp., and C. felis and RNA of FCV by conventional PCR assays. Cats were randomized to be administered either oxytetracycline ointment or cidofovir drops in both eyes and a standardized ocular disease score system was used to determine a total ocular score for each cat prior to treatment on Day 0 and on Day 7. Nucleic acids of one or more agents were amplified from one or both eyes from 39 of 60 cats (65%). FHV-1 DNA (21 cats), Mycoplasma spp. DNA (25 cats) or FCV RNA (2 cats) were amplified most commonly. After treatment for 7 days, 32 of 60 cats (53.3%) were considered improved with 27 of 32 cats (84.4%) having ocular scores of 0 (21 cats) or 1 (6 cats). When the results of the FHV-1 PCR assay were compared to cidofovir treatment responses, the positive and negative predictive values of the assay were shown to be 29.4% and 60%, respectively. When the results of the Mycoplasma spp. PCR assay were compared to oxytetracycline treatment responses, the positive and negative predictive values of the assay were shown to be 40% and 38.5%, respectively. The predictive value of conventional PCR assay results for FHV-1 or Mycoplasma spp. DNA was low, suggesting that performing these tests to formulate a treatment protocol has minimal clinical utility in cats with suspected acute ocular infections.
- Evaluation of topical ophthalmic ganciclovir gel for the treatment of dogs with experimentally induced ocular canine herpesvirus-1 infection. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Vet Res 2018; 79(7):762-769
- CONCLUSIONS: AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical administration of 0.15% ganciclovir ophthalmic gel was well tolerated and effective in decreasing clinical disease scores, ocular tissue inflammation, and duration of viral shedding in dogs with experimentally induced ocular CHV-1 infection.
- Human Asymptomatic Epitope Peptide/CXCL10-Based Prime/Pull Vaccine Induces Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific Gamma Interferon-Positive CD107+ CD8+ T Cells That Infiltrate the Corneas and Trigeminal Ganglia of Humanized HLA Transgenic Rabbits and Protect against Ocular Herpes Challenge. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2018 08 15; 92(16)
- Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that infects the cornea, causing potentially blinding herpetic disease. A clinical herpes vaccine is still lacking. In the present study, ...
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that infects the cornea, causing potentially blinding herpetic disease. A clinical herpes vaccine is still lacking. In the present study, a novel prime/pull vaccine was tested in a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic rabbit model of ocular herpes (HLA Tg rabbits). Three peptide epitopes were selected, from the HSV-1 membrane glycoprotein C (UL44400-408), the DNA replication binding helicase (UL9196-204), and the tegument protein (UL25572-580), all preferentially recognized by CD8+ T cells from "naturally protected" HSV-1-seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who never had recurrent corneal herpetic disease). HLA Tg rabbits were immunized with a mixture of these three ASYMP CD8+ T cell peptide epitopes (UL44400-408, UL9196-204, and UL25572-580), which were delivered subcutaneously with CpG2007 adjuvant (prime). Fifteen days later, half of the rabbits received a topical ocular treatment with a recombinant neurotropic adeno-associated virus type 8 (AAV8) vector expressing the T cell-attracting CXCL10 chemokine (pull). The frequency and function of HSV-specific CD8+ T cells induced by the prime/pull vaccine were assessed in the peripheral blood, cornea, and trigeminal ganglion (TG). Compared to the cells generated in response to peptide immunization alone, the peptide/CXCL10 prime/pull vaccine generated frequent polyfunctional gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ+) CD107+ CD8+ T cells that infiltrated both the cornea and TG. CD8+ T cell mobilization into the cornea and TG of prime/pull-vaccinated rabbits was associated with a significant reduction in corneal herpesvirus infection and disease following an ocular HSV-1 (strain McKrae) challenge. These findings draw attention to the novel prime/pull vaccine strategy for mobilizing antiviral CD8+ T cells into tissues to protect against herpesvirus infection and disease.IMPORTANCE There is an urgent need for a vaccine against widespread herpes simplex virus infections. The present study demonstrates that immunization of HLA transgenic rabbits with a peptide/CXCL10 prime/pull vaccine triggered mobilization of HSV-specific CD8+ T cells locally into the cornea and TG, the sites of acute and latent herpesvirus infections, respectively. Mobilization of antiviral CD8+ T cells into the cornea and TG of rabbits that received the prime/pull vaccine was associated with protection against ocular herpesvirus infection and disease following an ocular HSV-1 challenge. These results highlight the importance of the prime/pull vaccine strategy to bolster the number and function of protective CD8+ T cells within infected tissues.
- Herpetic eye disease study: lessons learned. [Review]
- COCurr Opin Ophthalmol 2018; 29(4):340-346
- CONCLUSIONS: HEDS established the standard of HSV ocular therapy and is still valid today. However, newer antivirals may provide easier compliance with improved bioavailability, efficacy, dosage, and tolerability. Further research is needed to prevent latency of HSV, decrease recurrences, and more effectively treat necrotizing keratitis associated with HSV.
- Herpes zoster ophthalmicus: acute keratitis. [Review]
- COCurr Opin Ophthalmol 2018; 29(4):328-333
- CONCLUSIONS: Acute zoster keratitis can lead to permanent vision loss. Early diagnosis and management may help reduce these potentially devastating complications. Oral and topical antiviral medications can play a role in managing the acute disease, and herpes zoster vaccinations are important for prevention of disease. Further research must be done to establish standards for treatment of anterior segment complications from herpes zoster.
- Adenoviral keratitis: a review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. [Review]
- COCurr Opin Ophthalmol 2018; 29(4):365-372
- CONCLUSIONS: Although significant effort has been made to develop new methods for diagnosis and management, adenoviral keratitis is predominantly diagnosed clinically with prevention being the mainstay of management. The use of newer DNA analysis techniques and topical anti-inflammatory agents for treatment of corneal infiltrates show promising results, but a better understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical features can lead to more targeted methods of diagnosis and therapy.
- Surgical management of herpetic keratitis. [Review]
- COCurr Opin Ophthalmol 2018; 29(4):347-354
- CONCLUSIONS: Several options are available for surgically managing the complications of herpes keratitis. Ophthalmologists should select the optimal procedure based on the individual patient's situation. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COOP/A28.
- Comparison of the efficacy of various concentrations and combinations of serum, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, and N-acetylcysteine for inhibition of collagenase activity in an in vitro corneal degradation model. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Vet Res 2018; 79(5):555-561
- CONCLUSIONS: AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested EDTA, tetracyclines, and NAC may be beneficial for topical treatment of keratomalacia, but in vivo studies are required.
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- Bilateral herpes simplex keratitis reactivation after lacrimal gland botulinum toxin injection. [Case Reports]
- IJIndian J Ophthalmol 2018; 66(5):697-699
- Botulinum toxin A (BTA) injections into lacrimal gland are being used for refractory epiphora due to intractable lacrimal disorders with success rates reported from 18% to 86%. Most common side effec...
Botulinum toxin A (BTA) injections into lacrimal gland are being used for refractory epiphora due to intractable lacrimal disorders with success rates reported from 18% to 86%. Most common side effects are transient ptosis and diplopia. We report a case of a 59-year-old female injected with 2.5 units of BTA injection in each lacrimal gland for functional epiphora. The patient had a history of herpes simplex viral keratitis that was quiescent for more than 2 years. After 3 weeks, she developed reactivation of viral keratitis bilaterally, which was successfully managed with antivirals and topical steroids. Reactivation of quiescent herpes simplex keratitis is a possibility after lacrimal gland BTA and caution should be exercised in such cases.