- Environmental enrichment has minimal effects on behavior in the Shank3 complete knockout model of autism spectrum disorder. [Journal Article]
- BBBrain Behav 2018 Oct 13; :e01107
- CONCLUSIONS: Although using a different enrichment protocol may have rescued the phenotypes in our mouse model, these results suggest that a "one-size fits all" approach may not be the best when it comes to behavioral intervention for ASD and underscores the need for effective pharmaceutical development in certain genetic syndromes with severe symptom presentation.
- Novel four-session treatment intervention for anxiety and high-functioning autism: A single case report for Externalizing Metaphors Therapy. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs 2018 Oct 14
- CONCLUSIONS: This clinical research challenges the children's mental health field in addressing anxiety and high-functioning autism from a brief framework. Further clinical research is needed to clinically evaluate the current model.
- Relationship between anxiety/depression and oral health-related quality of life in inpatients of convalescent hospitals. [Journal Article]
- OOdontology 2018 Oct 13
- The aim of this study is to examin the association between anxiety/depressive tendency and oral health-related quality of life in inpatients of convalescent wards. This cross-sectional study included...
The aim of this study is to examin the association between anxiety/depressive tendency and oral health-related quality of life in inpatients of convalescent wards. This cross-sectional study included inpatients of convalescent wards (age range 34-100 years). Data on age, sex, functional independence measure, number of teeth, odontotherapy status, and primary disease for which hospitalization was required were collected. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess emotional distress. The oral health-related quality of life was evaluated by the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). Oral hygiene level was assessed by the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT). We performed a multiple regression analysis to assess relationships among HADS, GOHAI, and OHAT. Following the analysis, causal connections of these factors were evaluated with structural equations modeling. The scores of GOHAI and OHAT in the caseness cohort (HADS score > 11) were significantly worse than those in the non-caseness cohort (HADS score < 7). Multiple regression analysis revealed that GOHAI was a statistically significant predictor of HADS score (p = 0.012), and that HADS and OHAT scores were predictors of GOHAI (p = 0.012 and < 0.001, respectively), adjusted by sex and age. We found that a model connected from OHAT to HADS through GOHAI was a good fit for the data of inpatients. Oral health-related quality of life, affected by oral hygiene status, was strongly associated with emotional distress in inpatients of convalescent wards. Daily oral care and assessment by healthcare professionals can reduce the emotional distress of inpatients in convalescent wards.
- Conservative management of a self-fashioned de-functioning colostomy in a patient with complex psychiatric comorbidities. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Oct 12; 2018
- Influence of adjuvant omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, sleep, and emotion regulation among outpatients with major depressive disorders - Results from a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Psychiatr Res 2018 Oct 01; 107:48-56
- CONCLUSIONS: Among outpatients with MDD, and compared to placebo, adjuvant O3PUFAs to a standard medication improved not only symptoms of depression, but also dimensions of anxiety and sleep, and above all patients' competencies to regulate their emotions.
- Anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis: The mediating effects of perceived social support. [Journal Article]
- MSMult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Oct 02; 27:46-51
- CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the important roles played by perceived social support and anxiety in MS. These should be key pharmacological and non-pharmacological targets for optimizing patient care. (NCT 02-880-553).
- Moving toward a metacognitive conceptualization of cyberchondria: Examining the contribution of metacognitive beliefs, beliefs about rituals, and stop signals. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anxiety Disord 2018 Oct 06; 60:11-19
- Cyberchondria refers to the repeated use of the Internet to search for health information that leads to negative consequences. The present set of studies examined the tenability of a proposed metacog...
Cyberchondria refers to the repeated use of the Internet to search for health information that leads to negative consequences. The present set of studies examined the tenability of a proposed metacognitive conceptualization of cyberchondria that includes metacognitive beliefs about health-related thoughts, beliefs about rituals, and stop signals. The contribution of those variables to cyberchondria was examined among 330 undergraduate students from a U.S. university in Study 1 and 331 U.S. community respondents in Study 2. All participants reported using the Internet to search for health information. Across both studies, metacognitive beliefs, beliefs about rituals, and stop signals shared positive bivariate associations with cyberchondria and accounted for unique variance in cyberchondria scores in multivariate analyses. Beliefs about rituals and stop signals emerged as relatively specific to cyberchondria versus health anxiety in multivariate analyses. Results provide preliminary support for a metacognitive conceptualization of cyberchondria, with extensions of the present findings discussed.
- The Negative Hawthorne Effect: Explaining Pain Overexpression. [Journal Article]
- JBJoint Bone Spine 2018 Oct 11
- In medicine, the positive Hawthorne effect is defined as decreased symptom expression due to being observed. This effect occurs in addition to the decrease in symptom experience due to the placebo ef...
In medicine, the positive Hawthorne effect is defined as decreased symptom expression due to being observed. This effect occurs in addition to the decrease in symptom experience due to the placebo effect. Symptom overexpression, in contrast, whether related to conscious or to unconscious factors, defines the negative Hawthorne effect, which should be distinguished from the nocebo effect, defined as an increase in symptom experience. For instance, the negative Hawthorne effect can result in patients who seem fully relaxed evaluating their pain intensity at 11 on a 10-point scale. The negative Hawthorne effect stems from multiple factors including a wish to receive greater consideration or priority management status; concern about failing to meet criteria for receiving a new treatment or being included in a therapeutic trial; conformism related to cultural factors or to circumstance (e.g., avoiding the canceling of a surgical procedure in the event of a last-minute improvement); disease mongering; a desire to be taken seriously by family and friends; a quest for secondary benefits; use of the evaluation to express frustration about being ill or bitterness at receiving a lower level of support; a gap between the expectation of complete relief and the true effectiveness of treatments; and pain exacerbation, with loss of reliability of pain intensity measurements, due to anxiety, guilt, depression, nervosity, catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, or repeated evaluations using methods that involve negative suggestions such as considering the worst pain imaginable. A sequence of a strong negative Hawthorne effect before treatment prescription followed by a strong positive Hawthorne effect after treatment initiation may make a greater contribution than the placebo effect to the improvements produced by treatments for pain.
- Repeated restraint stress decreases Na,K-ATPase activity via oxidative and nitrosative damage in the frontal cortex of rats. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroscience 2018 Oct 11
- Chronic psychogenic stress can increase neuronal calcium influx and generate the intracellular accumulation of oxidative (ROS) and nitrosative (RNS) reactive species, disrupting synaptic transmission...
Chronic psychogenic stress can increase neuronal calcium influx and generate the intracellular accumulation of oxidative (ROS) and nitrosative (RNS) reactive species, disrupting synaptic transmission in the brain. These molecules impair the Na,K-ATPase (NKA) activity, whose malfunction has been related to neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we assessed how 14 days of restraint stress in rats affect NKA activity via oxidative/nitrosative damage in the frontal cortex (FCx), a crucial region for emotional and cognitive control. One day after the last stress session (S14+1d), but not immediately after the last stress session (S14), α2,3-NKA activity was significantly reduced in the FCx, without changes in the protein levels. The S14+1d animals also showed increased lipid peroxidation, iNOS, and AP-1 activities, as well as TNF-α protein levels, evidencing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. No cellular death or neurodegeneration was observed in the FCx of S14+1d animals. Pharmacological inhibition of iNOS or COX-2 before each stress session prevented lipid peroxidation and the α2,3-NKA activity loss. Our results show that repeated restraint exposure for 14 days decreases the activity of α2,3-NKA in FCx 24 hours after the last stress, an effect associated with augmented inflammatory response and oxidative and nitrosative damage and suggest new pathophysiological roles to neuroinflammation in neuropsychiatric diseases.
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- Development of Amygdala Functional Connectivity During Infancy and Its Relationship With 4-Year Behavioral Outcomes. [Journal Article]
- BPBiol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Aug 30
- CONCLUSIONS: The delineation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of amygdala functional connectivity development during infancy and their associations with 4-year behavioral outcomes may provide new references on the early emergence of both typical and atypical emotion processing capabilities.