- Poor mental health among low-income women in the U.S.: The roles of adverse childhood and adult experiences. [Journal Article]
- SSSoc Sci Med 2018 Apr 14; 206:14-21
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that mental health problems may be better understood by accounting for processes through which early adversity leads to later adversity. Pending replication, this line of research has the potential to improve the identification of populations that are at risk of poor health outcomes.
- Mindfulness-based relapse prevention combined with virtual reality cue exposure for methamphetamine addiction: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- CCContemp Clin Trials 2018 Apr 18
- CONCLUSIONS: This innovative study aims at investigating the effects of MBRP combined with VRCE in people with SUDs. The combined intervention may have important clinical implications for relapse prevention due to its ease of application and high cost-effectiveness. This study may also stimulate research on the neuronal and psychological mechanisms of MBRP in drug addiction.
- Chronic methamphetamine exposure attenuates neural activation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis associated brain regions in a sex-specific manner. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroscience 2018 Apr 18
- Sex differences in methamphetamine (MA) abuse and consequences of MA have been reported with females showing an increased addiction phenotype and withdrawal symptoms. One mechanism through which thes...
Sex differences in methamphetamine (MA) abuse and consequences of MA have been reported with females showing an increased addiction phenotype and withdrawal symptoms. One mechanism through which these effects might occur is via sex-specific alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its associated brain regions. In this study, mice were administered MA (5 mg/kg) or saline for 10 consecutive days. During early withdrawal, anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in the open field, light/dark box, and elevated plus maze. At ten days of withdrawal, mice were injected with a final dose of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic MA did not alter anxiety-like behaviors or corticosterone responses to a final dose of MA, although females showed elevated corticosterone responses compared to males. Chronic MA attenuated final MA-induced c-Fos in both sexes in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), cingulate cortex, central and basolateral amygdala. In CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas, c-Fos attenuation by chronic MA occurred only in females. Within the PVH, final MA injection increased c-Fos to a greater extent in females compared to males regardless of prior MA exposure. Dual-labeling of c-Fos with glucocorticoid receptor revealed a specific attenuation of neural activation within this cell type in the PVH, central and basolateral amygdala, and BNST. Together these findings demonstrate that chronic MA can suppress subsequent activation of HPA axis associated brain regions and cell phenotypes. Further, in select regions this reduction is sex-specific. These changes may contribute to reported sex differences in MA abuse patterns.
- Nutrition Therapy Within and Beyond Gestational Diabetes. [Review]
- DRDiabetes Res Clin Pract 2018 Apr 18
- With the global rising prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM), an adaptable, economical approach to nutrition therapy that effectively controls maternal glycemia while promoting normal fetal growth...
With the global rising prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM), an adaptable, economical approach to nutrition therapy that effectively controls maternal glycemia while promoting normal fetal growth will have far-reaching implications. The conventional focus has been to rigidly limit all types of carbohydrate. While controlling glucose, this approach fosters maternal anxiety and is a primary barrier to adherence. Many mothers substitute fat for carbohydrate, which may unintentionally enhance lipolysis, promote elevated free fatty acids (FFA), and worsen maternal insulin resistance (IR). Nutrition that worsens IR may facilitate nutrient shunting across the placenta, promoting excess fetal fat accretion. Evidence suggests that liberalizing higher quality, nutrient-dense carbohydrates results in controlled fasting/postprandial glucose, lower FFA, improved insulin action, vascular benefits, and may reduce excess infant adiposity. Thus, a less carbohydrate-restricted approach may improve maternal adherence when combined with higher quality carbohydrates, lower fat, appropriate caloric intake, and ethnically acceptable foods. Such a diet can be culturally sensitive, socioeconomically attentive, minimize further weight gain in GDM, with potential relevance for pregnancies complicated by overweight/obesity. Future research is needed to better understand the effect of macronutrient composition on the placenta and gut microbiome, the benefits/risks of nonnutritive sweeteners, and whether precision-nutrition is beneficial in pregnancy.
- Timeline (Bioavailability) of Magnesium Compounds in Hours: Which Magnesium Compound Works Best? [Journal Article]
- BTBiol Trace Elem Res 2018 Apr 21
- Magnesium is an element of great importance functioning because of its association with many cellular physiological functions. The magnesium content of foods is gradually decreasing due to food proce...
Magnesium is an element of great importance functioning because of its association with many cellular physiological functions. The magnesium content of foods is gradually decreasing due to food processing, and magnesium supplementation for healthy living has become increasingly popular. However, data is very limited on the bioavailability of various magnesium preparations. The aim of this study is to investigate the bioavailability of five different magnesium compounds (magnesium sulfate, magnesium oxide, magnesium acetyl taurate, magnesium citrate, and magnesium malate) in different tissues. Following a single dose 400 mg/70 kg magnesium administration to Sprague Dawley rats, bioavailability was evaluated by examining time-dependent absorption, tissue penetration, and the effects on the behavior of the animals. Pharmacokinetically, the area under the curve calculation is highest in the magnesium malate. The magnesium acetyl taurate was found to have the second highest area under the curve calculation. Magnesium acetyl taurate was rapidly absorbed, able to pass through to the brain easily, had the highest tissue concentration level in the brain, and was found to be associated with decreased anxiety indicators. Magnesium malate levels remained high for an extended period of time in the serum. The commonly prescribed dietary supplements magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate had the lowest bioavailability when compared to our control group. More research is needed to investigate the bioavailability of magnesium malate and acetyl taurate compounds and their effects in specific tissues and on behavior.
- Psychological Stress Deteriorates Skin Barrier Function by Activating 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 and the HPA Axis. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Apr 20; 8(1):6334
- Psychological stress (PS) increases endogenous glucocorticoids (GC) by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The negative effects of GC on skin barrier function under PS have been well-...
Psychological stress (PS) increases endogenous glucocorticoids (GC) by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The negative effects of GC on skin barrier function under PS have been well-established. However, endogenous GC can also be active when cortisone (inactive form) is converted to cortisol (active form) by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (11β-HSD1) in the peripheral tissue. Here, we evaluated the changes in 11β-HSD1 and barrier function under PS. Elevated 11β-HSD1 in oral mucosa correlated with increased cortisol in the stratum corneum and deteriorated barrier function. Expression of 11β-HSD1 in the oral mucosa correlated with that in the epidermal keratinocytes. We further investigated whether barrier function improved when PS was relieved using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in patients with anxiety. Decreased 11β-HSD1 and improved barrier function were observed after SSRI treatment. The collective findings suggest that elevated 11β-HSD1 under PS increases the level of cutaneous GC and eventually impairs barrier function. PS-alleviating drugs, such as SSRI, may help to treat PS-aggravated skin diseases.
- Can exercise delay transition to active therapy in men with low-grade prostate cancer? A multicentre randomised controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2018 Apr 20; 8(4):e022331
- Active surveillance is a strategy for managing low-risk, localised prostate cancer, where men are observed with serial prostate-specific antigen assessments to identify signs of disease progression. ...
Active surveillance is a strategy for managing low-risk, localised prostate cancer, where men are observed with serial prostate-specific antigen assessments to identify signs of disease progression. Currently, there are no strategies to support active surveillance compliance nor are there interventions that can prevent or slow disease progression, ultimately delaying transition to active treatment before it is clinically required. Recently, we proposed that exercise may have a therapeutic potential in delaying the need for active treatment in men on active surveillance.
- Feasibility and Acceptability of a Web-Based Treatment with Telephone Support for Postpartum Women With Anxiety: Randomized Controlled Trial. [Journal Article]
- JMJMIR Ment Health 2018 Apr 20; 5(2):e19
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite interest in iWaWa, the results suggest that both the study and iWaWa were not feasible in the current format. However, this first trial provides useful evidence about treatment format and content preferences that can inform iWaWa's future development, as well as research and development of Web-based postpartum anxiety treatments, in general, to optimize adherence.
- Prenatal ethanol induces an anxiety phenotype and alters expression of dynorphin & nociceptin/orphanin FQ genes. [Journal Article]
- PNProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Apr 17
- Animal models have suggested that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) alters the κ opioid receptor system. The present study investigated the brain expression of dynorphin and nociceptin/orphanin FQ rela...
Animal models have suggested that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) alters the κ opioid receptor system. The present study investigated the brain expression of dynorphin and nociceptin/orphanin FQ related genes and assessed anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box (LDB), shelter-seeking and risk-taking behaviors in the concentric square field (CSF) test, and ethanol-induced locomotion in the open field (OF), in infant or adolescent Wistar rats that were exposed to PEE (0.0 or 2.0 g/kg, intragastrically, gestational days 17-20). We measured brain mRNA levels of prodynorphin (PDYN), κ opioid receptors (KOR), the nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide precursor prepronociceptin (ppN/OFQ) and nociceptine/orphanin FQ receptors (NOR). Prenatal ethanol exposure upregulated PDYN and KOR mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in infant and adolescent rats and KOR mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex in infant rats. The changes in gene expression in the VTA were accompanied by a reduction of DNA methylation at the PDYN gene promoter, and by a reduction of DNA methylation at the KOR gene promoter. The PEE-induced upregulation of PDYN/KOR in the VTA was accompanied by lower NOR gene expression in the VTA, and lower PDYN gene expression in the nucleus accumbens. PEE rats exhibited hypolocomotion in the OF, greater avoidance of the white and brightly lit areas in the LDB and CSF, and greater preference for the sheltered area in the CSF test. These results suggest that PEE upregulates the dynorphin system, resulting in an anxiety-prone phenotype and triggering compensatory responses in the nociceptin/orphanin FQ system. These findings may help elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the effects of PEE and suggest that the dynorphin and nociceptin/orphanin FQ systems may be possible targets for the prevention and treatment of PEE-induced alterations.
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- Self-reported pain in patients with schizophrenia. Results from the national first-step FACE-SZ cohort. [Journal Article]
- PNProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Apr 17
- CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that community-dwelling SZ outpatients report a high rate of self-reported physical pain, associated with headache, depression and anxiety and history of childhood trauma. Physical pain should be systematically assessed and specifically treated, when needed, in patients with SZ.