- Cannabinoids prevent depressive-like symptoms and alterations in BDNF expression in a rat model of PTSD. [Journal Article]
- PNProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Feb 16
- Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition highly comorbid with depression. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are suggestively involv...
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition highly comorbid with depression. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are suggestively involved in both disorders. We examined whether cannabinoids can prevent the long-term depressive-like symptoms induced by exposure to the shock and situational reminders (SRs) model of PTSD. The CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (0.5 mg/kg; i.p.), the fatty acid hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle were administered 2 h after severe shock. Cannabinoids prevented the shock/SRs-induced alterations in social recognition memory, locomotion, passive coping, anxiety-like behavior, anhedonia, fear retrieval, fear extinction and startle response as well as the decrease in BDNF levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Furthermore, significant correlations were found between depressive-like behaviors and BDNF levels in the brain. The findings suggest that cannabinoids may prevent both depressive- and PTSD-like symptoms following exposure to severe stress and that alterations in BDNF levels in the brains' fear circuit are involved in these effects.
- The Efficacy of Internet-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on the Anxiety Disorders among Adolescent Girls. [Journal Article]
- ABAdv Biomed Res 2018; 7:13
- CONCLUSIONS: This study is comprised of two Conclusions.the significant reduction in the mean of anxiety disorders scores in the experimental group compared to those in control group can be indicative of the efficacy of ICBT. In addition the significant reduction in the average of anxiety disorders symptoms' scores according to the type of anxiety disorders in the experimental group, compared to those in control group, can be indicative of the efficacy of ICBT.
- Behavioural and emotional disorders in childhood: A brief overview for paediatricians. [Review]
- WJWorld J Clin Pediatr 2018 Feb 08; 7(1):9-26
- Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorde...
Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents. DSM-5 and ICD-10 are the universally accepted standard criteria for the classification of mental and behaviour disorders in childhood and adults. The age and gender prevalence estimation of various childhood behavioural disorders are variable and difficult to compare worldwide. A review of relevant published literature was conducted, including published meta-analyses and national guidelines. We searched for articles indexed by Ovid, PubMed, PubMed Medical Central, CINAHL, EMBASE, Database of Abstracts and Reviews, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews and other online sources. The searches were conducted using a combination of search expressions including "childhood", "behaviour", "disorders" or "problems". Childhood behaviour and emotional problems with their related disorders have significant negative impacts on the individual, the family and the society. They are commonly associated with poor academic, occupational, and psychosocial functioning. It is important for all healthcare professionals, especially the Paediatricians to be aware of the range of presentation, prevention and management of the common mental health problems in children and adolescents.
- Cross-sectional study of anxiety symptoms in students in preexamination period. [Journal Article]
- IPInd Psychiatry J 2017 Jan-Jun; 26(1):56-63
- CONCLUSIONS: This study attempts to give evidence of increased anxiety symptoms, during preexamination phase, compared to the reported prevalence in this age group, and thus to address this becomes imperative which will improve their performance and also the mental health preventing distress along with psychological and behavioral problems.
- Examining Thematic Similarity, Difference, and Membership in Three Online Mental Health Communities from Reddit: A Text Mining and Visualization Approach. [Journal Article]
- CHComput Human Behav 2018; 78:98-112
- CONCLUSIONS: We observed that the members of the three communities shared several overlapping concerns (i.e., sleep- and work-related problems) and discussion patterns (i.e., sharing of positive emotion and showing gratitude for receiving emotional support). We also highlighted that the discussions from the r/Anxiety and r/PTSD communities were more similar to one another than to discussions from the r/Depression community. The r/Anxiety and r/PTSD subreddit members are more likely to be individuals whose experiences with a condition are long-term, and who are interested in treatments and medications. The r/Depression subreddit members may be a comparatively diffuse group, many of whom are dealing with transient issues that cause depressed mood. The findings from this study could be used to inform the design of online mental health communities and patient education programs for these conditions. Moreover, we suggest that researchers employ multiple methods to fully understand the subtle differences when comparing similar discussions from online health communities.
- Prevalence of mental disorders and related functioning and treatment engagement among people with diabetes. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Psychosom Res 2018; 106:62-69
- CONCLUSIONS: Multiple types of mood, anxiety, eating and substance use disorders are prevalent, problematic, and often untreated among people with diabetes.
- Effect of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) haplotypes on general psychopathology in patients with eating disorders. [Journal Article]
- GENEGene 2018 Feb 15
- Among the many candidate genes analyzed in eating disorder (ED) patients, those involved in dopaminergic functions may be of special relevance, as dopamine is known to play a significant role in feed...
Among the many candidate genes analyzed in eating disorder (ED) patients, those involved in dopaminergic functions may be of special relevance, as dopamine is known to play a significant role in feeding behavior, the distortion of body image, hyperactivity and reward and reinforcement processes. We aimed to determine the effect of functional polymorphisms and haplotypes in the Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) gene on general psychopathological symptoms in ED patients. Two-hundred-and-seventy-three ED patients [199 with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and 74 with Bulimia Nervosa (BN)] completed the SCL-90R inventory and were genotyped for four functional, clinically relevant DRD4 polymorphisms: three variants in the promoter region [120-bp tandem repeat (TR, long vs. short allele), C-616G and C-521 T] and a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3 (7R vs. non-7R allele). After correcting for multiple testing, none of the assayed polymorphisms were individually associated with SCL-90R results. Four DRD4 haplotypes (*1-*4) were detected in the patients with a frequency > 0.1. In the BN group, haplotype *2 (non7R-TR long-C-C) was associated with higher scores in the three global SCL-90R indices (GSI, PSDI and PST) after Bonferroni correction (p ≤ 0.01 in all instances). Furthermore, carriers of this haplotype displayed higher scores (worst symptomatology) in Somatization, Obsessive-Compulsive, Anxiety, Phobic anxiety, Paranoid ideation and the test additional items (p-values for the differences between carriers vs. non-carriers ranging from 0.0001 to 0.0110). Certain combinations of DRD4 variants may contribute to psychopathological features in BN patients.
- Anxiety, depression, and asthma control: Changes after standardized treatment. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Feb 14
- It has been documented that anxiety and depression are prevalent in patients with asthma and are associated with greater frequency of exacerbations, increased use of health-care resources, and poor a...
It has been documented that anxiety and depression are prevalent in patients with asthma and are associated with greater frequency of exacerbations, increased use of health-care resources, and poor asthma control.
- Impact of food additives on the gut-brain axis. [Journal Article]
- PBPhysiol Behav 2018 Feb 14
- The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 1014bacteria. The microbiota gen...
The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 1014bacteria. The microbiota generally benefits the host, as it plays a central role in maturing the immune system, protecting against infection by entero-pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, and favoring nutrient digestion/energy extraction in our intestine. An altered microbiota, however, can become detrimental and lead to inflammation, metabolic disorders, and even altered behavior/neuroinflammation. While there are many factors involved in regulating the intestinal microbiota composition and the way it interacts with its host, this review will focus on the role played by food additives on host/microbiota relationship.
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- Sleep disorder prevalence in at-risk adolescents and potential effects of nightmare triad syndrome. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Adolesc Med Health 2018 Feb 17
- Objective At-risk high school students, those considered to have a higher probability for academic failure or dropping out, were assessed for various sleep disorders. Effects were compared between st...
Objective At-risk high school students, those considered to have a higher probability for academic failure or dropping out, were assessed for various sleep disorders. Effects were compared between students with and without the nightmare triad syndrome (NTS+), the sleep disorders' cluster of frequent nightmares, insomnia disorder and suspected sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Methods Data were gathered at a charter school for at-risk youth using: computer based surveys, physical airway exams, and mental health interviews by school social worker. Ninety-two students were enrolled, and 70 completed all study components. Results Students were teenaged [17.10 (1.50) years], male (52.2%) slightly overweight [BMI 25.50 (6.41)] Hispanics (87.0%); two-thirds (65 of 92) subjectively reported a sleep problem. Frequent nightmares (39.1%), insomnia (ISI ≥ 12, 41.3%), and SDB risk (79.3%) were common. Several presumptive sleep disorders (insomnia, SDB risk, parasomnia, or nightmares) were associated with worse sleep quality and lower quality of life. Nineteen students met criteria for NTS. Compared to NTS-, NTS+ showed significantly lower quality of life (p < 0.003, g = 0.84). Regression analyses revealed higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms in NTS+ students. NTS was associated with reduced quality of life independent of anxiety symptoms. Conclusion Prevalence of presumptive sleep disorders was high with a tendency for clusters of sleep disorders in the same individual. Students with NTS+ showed worse outcomes and reduced quality of life, mediated partially by depression and anxiety. To examine relationships between sleep disorders and mental health in at-risk adolescents, research investigations must include both subjective and objective measurements of sleep.