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308 results
  • Antiemetics for adults for prevention of nausea and vomiting caused by moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy: a network meta-analysis. [Review]
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 11 16; 11:CD012775.Piechotta V, Adams A, … Skoetz N
  • CONCLUSIONS: This field of supportive cancer care is very well researched. However, new drugs or drug combinations are continuously emerging and need to be systematically researched and assessed. For people receiving HEC, synthesised evidence does not suggest one superior treatment for prevention and control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. For people receiving MEC, synthesised evidence does not suggest superiority for treatments including both NK₁ and 5-HT₃ inhibitors when compared to treatments including 5-HT₃ inhibitors only. Rather, the results of our NMA suggest that the choice of 5-HT₃ inhibitor may have an impact on treatment efficacy in preventing CINV. When interpreting the results of this systematic review, it is important for the reader to understand that NMAs are no substitute for direct head-to-head comparisons, and that results of our NMA do not necessarily rule out differences that could be clinically relevant for some individuals.
  • In Vitro Inhibition of Renal OCT2 and MATE1 Secretion by Antiemetic Drugs. [Journal Article]
    Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jun 16; 22(12)George B, Wen X, … Aleksunes LM
  • The organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) mediate the renal secretion of drugs. Recent studies suggest that ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist drug used to prevent nausea and vomiting, can inhibit OCT2- and MATE1-mediated transport. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of five 5-HT3 antagonist drugs to inhibit the OCT2 and MATE1 transpor…
  • Palonosetron for Patients Undergoing High or Moderate Emetogenic Chemotherapy [BOOK]
    Palonosetron for Patients Undergoing High or Moderate Emetogenic Chemotherapy. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health: Ottawa (ON)TranKhaiKLoshakHannahHBOOK
  • Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is 1 of the most debilitating side effects of cancer therapy, affecting up to 80% of chemotherapy patients.1 Chemotherapy drugs are classified according to the associated risk of causing CINV: minimal (less than 10%), low (10% to 30%), moderate (30% to 90%), and high (greater than 90%).2 High emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) drugs include a high dose o…
  • Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed): Dolasetron [BOOK]
    Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed). National Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)BOOK
  • Little information is available on the use of dolasetron during breastfeeding. Until more data become available, dolasetron should be used with caution during breastfeeding. An alternate drug may be preferred.
  • Drugs for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults after general anaesthesia: a network meta-analysis. [Meta-Analysis]
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Oct 19; 10(10):CD012859.Weibel S, Rücker G, … Kranke P
  • CONCLUSIONS: We found high-certainty evidence that five single drugs (aprepitant, ramosetron, granisetron, dexamethasone, and ondansetron) reduce vomiting, and moderate-certainty evidence that two other single drugs (fosaprepitant and droperidol) probably reduce vomiting, compared to placebo. Four of the six substance classes (5-HT₃ receptor antagonists, D₂ receptor antagonists, NK₁ receptor antagonists, and corticosteroids) were thus represented by at least one drug with important benefit for prevention of vomiting. Combinations of drugs were generally more effective than the corresponding single drugs in preventing vomiting. NK₁ receptor antagonists were the most effective drug class and had comparable efficacy to most of the drug combinations. 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists were the best studied substance class. For most of the single drugs of direct interest, we found only very low to low certainty evidence for safety outcomes such as occurrence of SAEs, any AE, and substance class-specific side effects. Recommended and high doses of granisetron, dexamethasone, ondansetron, and droperidol were more effective than low doses for prevention of vomiting. Dose dependency of side effects was rarely found due to the limited number of studies, except for the less sedating effect of recommended and high doses of ondansetron. The results of the review are transferable mainly to patients at higher risk of nausea and vomiting (i.e. healthy women undergoing inhalational anaesthesia and receiving perioperative opioids). Overall study quality was limited, but certainty assessments of effect estimates consider this limitation. No further efficacy studies are needed as there is evidence of moderate to high certainty for seven single drugs with relevant benefit for prevention of vomiting. However, additional studies are needed to investigate potential side effects of these drugs and to examine higher-risk patient populations (e.g. individuals with diabetes and heart disease).
  • The Binding of Palonosetron and Other Antiemetic Drugs to the Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor. [Journal Article]
    Structure. 2020 10 06; 28(10):1131-1140.e4.Zarkadas E, Zhang H, … Nury H
  • Inaccurately perceived as niche drugs, antiemetics are key elements of cancer treatment alleviating the most dreaded side effect of chemotherapy. Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are the most commonly prescribed class of drugs to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. These antagonists have been clinically successful drugs since the 1980s, yet our understanding of how they operate …
  • Challenges in implementing and obtaining acceptance for J-Tpeak assessment as the clinical component of CiPA. [Journal Article]
    J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2018 Sep - Oct; 93:75-79.Darpo B, Couderc JP
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this limited analysis performed on the IQ-CSRC study waveforms using FDA's automated algorithm, J-Tpeak prolongation was observed on moxifloxacin, but not on dolasetron, despite clinical observations of proarrhythmias with both drugs. Challenges for the implementation of the J-Tpeak interval as a replacement or complement to the QTc interval, include to demonstrate that the proposed clinical algorithm using a J-Tpeak threshold of 10 ms, can be used to categorize drugs with a QT effect up to ~20 ms as having low pro-arrhythmic risk.
  • WITHDRAWN: Drugs for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. [Review]
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 07 17; 7:CD004125.Carlisle J, Stevenson CA
  • CONCLUSIONS: Either nausea or vomiting is reported to affect, at most, 80 out of 100 people after surgery. If all 100 of these people are given one of the listed drugs, about 28 would benefit and 72 would not. Nausea and vomiting are usually less common and, therefore, drugs are less useful. For 100 people, of whom 30 would vomit or feel sick after surgery if given placebo, 10 people would benefit from a drug and 90 would not. Between one to five patients out of every 100 people may experience a mild side effect, such as sedation or headache, when given an antiemetic drug. Collaborative research should focus on determining whether antiemetic drugs cause more severe, probably rare, side effects. Further comparison of the antiemetic effect of one drug versus another is not a research priority.
  • The modulation of carbonyl reductase 1 by polyphenols. [Review]
    Drug Metab Rev. 2015; 47(4):520-33.Boušová I, Skálová L, … Matoušková P
  • Carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), an enzyme belonging to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases family, has been detected in all human tissues. CBR1 catalyzes the reduction of many xenobiotics, including important drugs (e.g. anthracyclines, nabumetone, bupropion, dolasetron) and harmful carbonyls and quinones. Moreover, it participates in the metabolism of a number of endogenous compounds and it m…
  • Implications of the IQ-CSRC Prospective Study: Time to Revise ICH E14. [Journal Article]
    Drug Saf. 2015 Sep; 38(9):773-80.Darpo B, Garnett C, … Stockbridge N
  • Exposure-response (ER) analysis has evolved as an important tool to evaluate the effect of a drug on cardiac repolarization, as reflected in the QTc interval. It has been suggested that careful electrocardiogram (ECG) evaluation in 'first-in-human' studies using ER analysis could replace or serve as an alternative to the E14 'thorough QT' study. This commentary shares and discusses the results of…
  • Hepatopathy following consumption of a commercially available blue-green algae dietary supplement in a dog. [Case Reports]
    BMC Vet Res. 2015 Jun 19; 11:136.Bautista AC, Moore CE, … Puschner B
  • CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of microcystin intoxication in a dog after using a commercially available blue-green algae dietary supplement. Veterinarians should recognize the potential harm that these supplements may cause and know that with intervention, recovery is possible. In addition, more prudent oversight of dietary supplement use is recommended for our companion animals to prevent adverse events/intoxications.
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