- Design and synthesis of novel benzenesulfonamide containing 1,2,3-triazoles as potent human carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IV and IX inhibitors. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2018 Jun 08; 155:545-551
- In a quest to discover new biologically active compounds, a series of twenty novel heterocyclic derivatives substituted at position 5 with -H (7a-7j) or -CF3 (8a-8j), bearing benzenesulfonamide at N-...
In a quest to discover new biologically active compounds, a series of twenty novel heterocyclic derivatives substituted at position 5 with -H (7a-7j) or -CF3 (8a-8j), bearing benzenesulfonamide at N-1 position and various aroyl groups at position 4 of the 1,2,3-triazole ring was synthesized and screened for their carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 184.108.40.206) inhibition potential against four human (h) isoforms hCA I, II, IV and IX. All the compounds (7a-7j and 8a-8j) were synthesized via [3+2] cycloaddition reaction from 4-azidobenzenesulfonamide. Interestingly, compounds 7a-7j were prepared in one pot manner via enaminone intermediate using novel methodology. All the newly synthesized compounds (7a-7j &8a-8j) were found to be excellent inhibitors of edema related isoform hCA I with their inhibition constant (Ki) ranging from 30.1 to 86.8 nM as compared to standard drug acetazolamide (AAZ) with Ki = 250 nM. Further it was found that most of tested compounds were weaker inhibitors of isoform, hCA II although compounds 7b, 7d-7e, 8a, 8d-8f, 8i (mostly with electron withdrawing substituents) have shown better inhibition potential (Ki < 50 nM). Against glaucoma associated hCA IV, compound 7d was found to be better inhibitor (Ki = 52.4 nM) than AAZ (Ki = 74 nM) while against tumor associated hCA IX, all the compounds have shown moderate inhibition potential. Present study have added one more step in exploring the 1,2,3-triazlole moiety in the medicinal field.
- 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome and juvenile glaucoma. [Journal Article]
- OGOphthalmic Genet 2018 Jun 14; :1-7
- CONCLUSIONS: 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome can be associated with juvenile glaucoma. Trabeculectomy may be complicated by persistent hypotony. Deep sclerectomy appears to be a better surgical option, although the presence of a thin sclera may result in conversion to trabeculectomy.
- Topiramate is more effective than acetazolamide at lowering intracranial pressure. [Journal Article]
- CCephalalgia 2018 Jan 01; :333102418776455
- Background The management of idiopathic intracranial hypertension focuses on reducing intracranial pressure to preserve vision and reduce headaches. There is sparse evidence to support the use of som...
Background The management of idiopathic intracranial hypertension focuses on reducing intracranial pressure to preserve vision and reduce headaches. There is sparse evidence to support the use of some of the drugs commonly used to manage idiopathic intracranial hypertension, therefore we propose to evaluate the efficacy of these drugs at lowering intracranial pressure in healthy rats. Methods We measured intracranial pressure in female rats before and after subcutaneous administration of acetazolamide, topiramate, furosemide, amiloride and octreotide at clinical doses (equivalent to a single human dose) and high doses (equivalent to a human daily dose). In addition, we measured intracranial pressure after oral administration of acetazolamide and topiramate. Results At clinical and high doses, subcutaneous administration of topiramate lowered intracranial pressure by 32% ( p = 0.0009) and 21% ( p = 0.015) respectively. There was no significant reduction in intracranial pressure noted with acetazolamide, furosemide, amiloride or octreotide at any dose. Oral administration of topiramate significantly lowered intracranial pressure by 22% ( p = 0.018), compared to 5% reduction with acetazolamide ( p = >0.999). Conclusion Our in vivo studies demonstrated that both subcutaneous and oral administration of topiramate significantly lowers intracranial pressure. Other drugs tested, including acetazolamide, did not significantly reduce intracranial pressure. Future clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and side effects of topiramate in idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients would be of interest.
- Editor's Choice-Diuretic resistance in acute heart failure. [Journal Article]
- EHEur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2018; 7(4):379-389
- Diuretic resistance is a powerful predictor of adverse outcome in acute heart failure (AHF), irrespectively of underlying glomerular filtration rate. Metrics of diuretic efficacy such as natriuresis,...
Diuretic resistance is a powerful predictor of adverse outcome in acute heart failure (AHF), irrespectively of underlying glomerular filtration rate. Metrics of diuretic efficacy such as natriuresis, urine output, weight loss, net fluid balance, or fractional sodium excretion, differ in their risk for measurement error, convenience, and biological plausibility, which should be taken into account when interpreting their results. Loop diuretic resistance in AHF has multiple causes including altered drug pharmacokinetics, impaired renal perfusion and effective circulatory volume, neurohumoral activation, post-diuretic sodium retention, the braking phenomenon and functional as well as structural adaptations in the nephron. Ideally, these mechanisms should guide specific treatment decisions with the goal of achieving complete decongestion. Therefore, volume overload needs to be identified correctly to avoid poor diuretic response due to electrolyte depletion or dehydration. Next, renal perfusion should be optimised if possible and loop diuretics should be prescribed above their threshold dose. Addition of thiazide-type diuretics should be considered when a progressive decrease in loop diuretic efficacy is observed with prolonged use (i.e., the braking phenomenon). Furthermore, thiazide-type diuretics are a useful addition in patients with low glomerular filtration rate. However, they limit free water excretion and are relatively contraindicated in cases of hypotonic hyponatremia, where acetazolamide is the better option. Finally, ultrafiltration should be considered in patients with refractory diuretic resistance as persistent volume overload after decongestive treatment is associated with worse outcomes. Whether more upfront use of any of these individually tailored decongestion strategies is superior to monotherapy with loop diuretics remains to be shown by adequately powered randomised clinical trials.
- Raised intracranial pressure with bilateral anterior uveitis. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 10; 2018
- We report the rare case of a 5-year-old boy with an infective cause of papilloedema and bilateral uveitis secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae The patient presented with generalised headache and malais...
We report the rare case of a 5-year-old boy with an infective cause of papilloedema and bilateral uveitis secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae The patient presented with generalised headache and malaise. MRI showed signs of raised intracranial pressure and lumbar puncture opening pressure was 43 cmH2O.Lumbar puncture did not reveal any infective organisms. Blood tests showed raised inflammatory markers. The patient was started on prednisolone, acetazolamide and intravenous cefotaxime. Following an improvement, the patient was discharged.However, the patient re-presented 2 weeks later with bilateral anterior uveitis. With the combination of papilloedema and bilateral uveitis, M. pneumoniae infection was suspected. Tests confirmed recent mycoplasma infection. Topical dexamethasone and oral azithromycin were given and symptoms improved.Vision remained normal throughout. At 1-year follow-up, the patient remains well. The authors would like to highlight a rare infectious cause of papilloedema in young children.
- Drug treatment. [Journal Article]
- HCHandb Clin Neurol 2018; 155:371-377
- There are no approved disease-modifying therapies for any of the inherited cerebellar ataxias. Drug treatment in childhood ataxia is still very limited. Effective treatments are available for only a ...
There are no approved disease-modifying therapies for any of the inherited cerebellar ataxias. Drug treatment in childhood ataxia is still very limited. Effective treatments are available for only a few rare metabolic hereditary disorders. Symptomatic management of associated tremor, spasticity, dystonia, or chorea can follow the medication recommendations in general usage. The foundation of management of cerebellar ataxia in adults or children remains rehabilitation.
- Acetazolamide-Induced Sickle Cell Crisis. [Journal Article]
- APAnn Pharmacother 2018 Jun 01; :1060028018782479
- Estimation of severity of Moyamoya Disease in H215O-PET compared to MRI and angiography. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2018 Jun 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Reliable evaluation of the cerebral blood flow might not be possible with angiography and basic MR imaging alone. We strongly recommend additional functional imaging (such as H215O-PET with AZA challenge) to precisely evaluate the indication for cerebral revascularization.
- Carbonic anhydrase inhibition selectively prevents amyloid β neurovascular mitochondrial toxicity. [Journal Article]
- ACAging Cell 2018 Jun 05; :e12787
- Mounting evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a causal role in the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently showed that the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CA...
Mounting evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a causal role in the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently showed that the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) methazolamide (MTZ) prevents amyloid β (Aβ)-mediated onset of apoptosis in the mouse brain. In this study, we used MTZ and, for the first time, the analog CAI acetazolamide (ATZ) in neuronal and cerebral vascular cells challenged with Aβ, to clarify their protective effects and mitochondrial molecular mechanism of action. The CAIs selectively inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction pathways induced by Aβ, without affecting metabolic function. ATZ was effective at concentrations 10 times lower than MTZ. Both MTZ and ATZ prevented mitochondrial membrane depolarization and H2 O2 generation, with no effects on intracellular pH or ATP production. Importantly, the drugs did not primarily affect calcium homeostasis. This work suggests a new role for carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in the Aβ-induced mitochondrial toxicity associated with AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and paves the way to AD clinical trials for CAIs, FDA-approved drugs with a well-known profile of brain delivery.
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- Venous sinus stenting lowers the intracranial pressure in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurointerv Surg 2018 Jun 05
- CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that there is a significant decrease in CSF-OP in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension 3 months after VSS, independent of acetazolamide usage or weight loss.