- CONSENSUS STATEMENT BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY ON THE COMPREHENSIVE TYPE 2 DIABETES MANAGEMENT ALGORITHM - 2018 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. [Consensus Development Conference]
- EPEndocr Pract 2018; 24(1):91-120
- A1C = hemoglobin A1C; AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; ACCORD = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; ACCORD BP = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabet...
A1C = hemoglobin A1C; AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; ACCORD = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; ACCORD BP = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure; ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ADVANCE = Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation; AGI = alpha-glucosidase inhibitor; apo B = apolipoprotein B; ASCVD = atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; BAS = bile acid sequestrant; BCR-QR = bromocriptine quick release; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CCB = calcium channel blocker; CHD = coronary heart disease; CKD = chronic kidney disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; DASH = Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; DPP4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; ER = extended release; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide 1; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IMPROVE-IT = Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-P = low-density lipoprotein particle; Look AHEAD = Look Action for Health in Diabetes; NPH = neutral protamine Hagedorn; OSA = obstructive sleep apnea; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SU = sulfonylurea; SGLT2 = sodium glucose cotransporter-2; SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose; T2D = type 2 diabetes; TZD = thiazolidinedione; VADT = Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial.
- Bromocriptine tablet of self-microemulsifying system adsorbed onto porous carrier to stimulate lipoproteins secretion for brain cellular uptake. [Journal Article]
- CSColloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2015 Jul 1; 131:162-9
- Both low solubility and high hepatic metabolism cause low oral bioavailability of bromocriptine mesylate (BM) leading to very low drug amount in brain. Self-microemulsion (SME) tablets were developed...
Both low solubility and high hepatic metabolism cause low oral bioavailability of bromocriptine mesylate (BM) leading to very low drug amount in brain. Self-microemulsion (SME) tablets were developed to improve solubility, stimulate lipoprotein synthesis to promote lymphatic transport, avoid hepatic metabolism and target drug to brain. SME liquid containing castor oil, Tween(®) 80 and Cremophor(®) EL was prepared and then adsorbed onto solid carries, Aerosil(®)200, Aeroperl(®)300 or NeusilinUS2(®), yielding SME powders. The optimal ratios of SME liquid to carriers determined from flowability and scanning electron photomicrographs before tableting were 1.5:1, 2:1 and 2.5:1 for Aerosil(®)200, Aeroperl(®)300 and NeusilinUS2(®), respectively. Only Aeroperl(®)300 SME tablet had comparable dissolution to BM commercial tablet. From in vitro study in Caco-2 cells, fluorescein loaded SME tablet showed higher uptake than fluorescein loaded in either oil or surfactant. Although significantly lower amount of drug was permeated from SME tablet than from commercial tablet, higher drug uptake was obviously observed (P<0.05). In addition, higher lipoprotein synthesis expressing as content of apolipoprotein B (apo-B) found in secreted chylomicron resulted in higher drug uptake in co-culture of brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) and astrocytes (CTX TNA2) from drug loaded SME tablet when compared to commercial tablet (P<0.05) due to binding of apo-B to LDL receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells. Therefore, tablet of SME adsorbed onto porous carrier potentially delivered BM to brain via lymphatic transport by increasing the lipoprotein synthesis.
- Role of subunit interactions in P450 oligomers in the loss of homotropic cooperativity in the cytochrome P450 3A4 mutant L211F/D214E/F304W. [Journal Article]
- ABArch Biochem Biophys 2007 Apr 1; 460(1):129-40
- The contribution of conformational heterogeneity to cooperativity in cytochrome P450 3A4 was investigated using the mutant L211F/D214E/F304W. Initial spectral studies revealed a loss of cooperativity...
The contribution of conformational heterogeneity to cooperativity in cytochrome P450 3A4 was investigated using the mutant L211F/D214E/F304W. Initial spectral studies revealed a loss of cooperativity of the 1-pyrenebutanol (1-PB) induced spin shift (S(50)=5.4 microM, n=1.0) but retained cooperativity of alpha-naphthoflavone binding. Continuous variation (Job's titration) experiments showed the existence of two pools of enzyme with different 1-PB binding characteristics. Monitoring of 1-PB binding by fluorescence resonance energy transfer from the substrate to the heme confirmed that the high-affinity site (K(D)=0.3 microM) is retained in at least some fraction of the enzyme, although cooperativity is masked. Removal of apoprotein on a second column increased the high-spin content and restored cooperativity of 1-PB binding and of progesterone and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation. The loss of cooperativity in the mutant is, therefore, mediated by the interaction of holo- and apo-P450 in mixed oligomers.
- Dopamine and nitric oxide interaction on the modulation of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response in the Wistar rat. [Journal Article]
- PPsychopharmacology (Berl) 2006; 185(2):133-41
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that L-NOARG interacted with Amph, an indirect DA agonist, but not with the direct DA agonists on PPI, suggesting that NO is involved on the dopaminergic modulation of sensorimotor gating, probably by a presynaptic mechanism.
- The pivotal role of iron in NF-kappa B activation and nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Prospects for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease with iron chelators. [Journal Article]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 1999; 890:7-25
- R-Apomorphine (APO) the catechol-derived dopamine D1-D2 receptor agonist has been shown to be highly potent iron chelator and radical scavenger and inhibitor of membrane lipid peroxidation in vitro, ...
R-Apomorphine (APO) the catechol-derived dopamine D1-D2 receptor agonist has been shown to be highly potent iron chelator and radical scavenger and inhibitor of membrane lipid peroxidation in vitro, in vivo and in cell culture employing PC12 cells. Its potency has been compared to the prototype iron chelator desferrioxamine (desferal), dopamine, nifedipine and dopamine D2 receptor agonists, bromocriptine, lisuride, pergolide and pramipexole. APO also inhibits brain and mitochondrial protein oxidation. In vivo APO protects against MPTP (N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)- induced striatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in C57 black mice with as low as 5 mg/kg. APO is a reversible competitive inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B with IC50 values of 93 and 214 uM, respectively. The iron chelating and radical scavenging actions of desferal and APO explains their ability to inhibit iron and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurodegeneration and activation of redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-kappa B and the subsequent transactivation of promoters of genes involved in inflammatory cytokines. Iron is thought to play a pivotal role in neurodegeneration, and APO may be an ideal drug to investigate neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease where iron and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of nigrostriatal dopamine neuron degeneration.
- Possible sites of dopaminergic inhibition of gonadotropin release from the pituitary of a teleost fish, tilapia. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Endocrinol 1995; 109(1):87-95
- The present study is an attempt to find sites of dopaminergic inhibition along the transduction cascades culminating in gonadotropin (GtH) release in a teleost fish, tilapia. Experiments were carried...
The present study is an attempt to find sites of dopaminergic inhibition along the transduction cascades culminating in gonadotropin (GtH) release in a teleost fish, tilapia. Experiments were carried out on perifused pituitary fragments and in primary culture of trypsinized pituitary cells. Salmon GnRH, chicken GnRH I and II stimulated GtH release in culture with estimated ED50 values of 15.56 pM, 2.55 nM and 8.65 pM, respectively. Apomorphine (APO; 1 microM) totally abolished this stimulation. Dopamine (DA; 1 microM) reduced both basal and GnRHa-stimulated GtH release from perifused pituitary fragments but did not alter the formation of cAMP. In a similar perifusion experiment DA abolished GtH release in response to forskolin (10 microM) with no reduction in cAMP formation. This indicates that one site of the dopaminergic inhibition is distal to cAMP formation, an indication not compatible with the classic characteristic of DA D2 type mode of action. The inhibition of GtH release in culture, caused by 1 microM APO, the specific DA D2 agonists LY 171555 (LY) or bromocryptine (BRCR) could not be reversed by activating protein kinase C (PKC) by DiC8 or the phorbol ester TPA. This would indicate a site for DA action distal to PKC. However, the stimulatory effect of arachidonic acid (AA; 50 microM) in perifusion was not reduced by DA (1 microM) or by APO, LY or BRCR in culture, which suggests a site for DA action proximal to AA formation. APO, LY and BRCR reduced GtH release in response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, however, their inhibitory effect was reversed by 10 microM ionomycin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Effect of BCH 325 (Pro-D-Phe-Pro-Gly) on central dopaminergic functions. [Journal Article]
- PPeptides 1995; 16(4):635-40
- Three behavioral models were used to characterize the pharmacological action of BCH 325 on central dopaminergic transmission. The effect of acute SC treatment with BCH 325 upon dopaminergic mechanism...
Three behavioral models were used to characterize the pharmacological action of BCH 325 on central dopaminergic transmission. The effect of acute SC treatment with BCH 325 upon dopaminergic mechanisms affecting motor activity was studied on the climbing behavior of mice. It was shown that the beta-casomorphin analogue evoked a dose-dependent increase in apomorphine (APO)-induced hypoactivity that was reversed by sulpiride (SULP). In in vitro studies on slices of nucleus accumbens of mice it could be demonstrated that 10(-6) M APO caused a reduction of K(+)-stimulated [14C]dopamine (DA) release that was potentiated following simultaneous incubation with 10(-6) M BCH 325. To prove a postsynaptic influence in D1 receptor-mediated behavior pattern, the action of BCH 325 was studied on bromocriptine (BROMO)-evoked yawning behavior of rats after pretreatment with reserpine (RES) or saline. The peptide could not influence the BROMO yawning after saline administration, but it was able to normalize the number of yawns, which were reduced after RES. To investigate the effect of BCH 325 on postsynaptic D2 receptors, jerking behavior on RES-pretreated rats after a high dose of BROMO was used. Following RES pretreatment only, the number of BROMO-induced jerks was decreased by treatment of rats with 0.5 mumol/kg BCH 325. In contrast, the jerking behavior was enhanced by 0.5 mumol/kg BCH 325 in rats that were additionally treated with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (MPT). In biochemical studies on slices of the nucleus accumbens of mice, the in vivo pretreatment with RES caused a reduction of K(+)-stimulated [14C]DA release that was blocked by the SC administration of 0.5 mumol/kg BCH 325.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Ethanol acutely reduces LH and prolactin secretion: possible involvement by dopamine. [Journal Article]
- AAlcohol 1994 Mar-Apr; 11(2):105-12
- Ethanol (ETOH) administered acutely to castrate male rats caused a decline in pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion. This was associated with an elevation in hypothalamic a...
Ethanol (ETOH) administered acutely to castrate male rats caused a decline in pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion. This was associated with an elevation in hypothalamic and median eminence stores of dopamine (DA) that was related to the dose of alcohol given. Pituitary stalk transection (PST) resulted in a significant rise in plasma PRL levels compared to sham control animals, which suggests that DA in the hypophysial portal blood exerted an inhibitory influence on pituitary PRL secretion. The DA agonist bromocriptine failed to alter mean plasma LH levels in stalk-transected rats. The ETOH-treated castrated rats showed a significant rise in circulating PRL after injection of the DA receptor antagonist haloperidol metabolite II (HAL), but the administration of the DA receptor agonist R(-)-apomorphine HCL (APO) caused plasma PRL to decline to near undetectable levels. Plasma LH levels remained unchanged in the HAL- and APO-treated rats and were similar to those of sham controls. These results suggest that lactotroph DA receptors were still functional. Thus our previous finding of ETOH-induced reduction on LH secretion may be attributable to an inhibitory effect by DA on the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) peptidergic neurons rather than a direct inhibition by DA on the pituitary gonadotroph.
- Different effects of direct and indirect dopamine receptor agonists on immobility time in reserpine-treated mice. [Journal Article]
- GPGen Pharmacol 1991; 22(6):1017-21
- 1. The effects of dopamine agonists on the immobility time in mice were examined. 2. Apomorphine (APO), bupropion (BUP), bromocriptine (BRC) and quinpirole but not SKF 38393 elicited anti-immobility ...
1. The effects of dopamine agonists on the immobility time in mice were examined. 2. Apomorphine (APO), bupropion (BUP), bromocriptine (BRC) and quinpirole but not SKF 38393 elicited anti-immobility effect. The effect of the agonists was decreased by the D-2 antagonist sulpiride but not by the D-1 antagonist SCH 23390. 3. In animals pretreated with reserpine, the anti-immobility effects of APO and quinpirole were potentiated, while the response of BPU was decreased and that of BRC was not changed. 4. It is concluded that D-2 dopamine receptors are involved in the anti-immobility effects of dopaminergic agents, D-2 dopamine receptors may become hypersensitive by reserpine and BUP exerts its response through indirect dopaminergic if mechanism.
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- Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides and sleep in the rat. Part 2--Aminergic regulatory processes. [Journal Article]
- NNeuropeptides 1990; 15(2):75-88
- Apomorphine (Apo), a D1/D2 Dopamine (DA) agonist, at high doses (500 micrograms/kg) induces a short-lasting insomnia, antagonized by a secondary injection of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe pept...
Apomorphine (Apo), a D1/D2 Dopamine (DA) agonist, at high doses (500 micrograms/kg) induces a short-lasting insomnia, antagonized by a secondary injection of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP, 10 ng); these effects are also observed with hypophysectomized (hypoX) rats. The administration of the serotonin (5-HT) agonist 8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino-tetralin (8-OHDPAT, 0.3 mg/kg) induces also an insomnia which, unlike Apo, is followed by a significant PS rebound. CLIP, again, antagonizes the 8-OHDPAT-induced insomnia. Finally, Bromocriptine (5 mg/kg), an agonist for both DA and 5-HT, induces first an insomnia (antagonized by CLIP), followed by a PS rebound; these effects persist in hypoX rats.