- Lipoprotein-X fifty years after its original discovery. [Review]
- NMNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2018 Sep 26
- CONCLUSIONS: Lp-X might be considered a defense mechanism against the toxic effect of free cholesterol in cholestasis. The frequency of cardiovascular events in patients affected by primary biliary cholangitis, in whom the Lp-X is present in high concentration, are not increased. Further studies could now clarify the remaining open questions on the role of Lp-X in the dyslipidemia of cholestasis.
- Screening and Identification of Pregnancy Zone Protein and Leucine-Rich Alpha-2-Glycoprotein as Potential Serum Biomarkers for Early-Onset Myocardial Infarction using Protein Profile Analysis. [Journal Article]
- PCProteomics Clin Appl 2018 Nov 08; :e1800079
- CONCLUSIONS: Five differential serum proteins are identified in early-onset MI using proteomic analysis. Lipoprotein-related biomarkers further demonstrate the close relationship between lipid metabolism and the disease. Inflammation-associated LRG and PZP may be novel biomarkers of the disease. In addition, changes in these proteins may partly reveal the possible mechanisms in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of early-onset MI.
- Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Novel Targets for Anti-atherosclerotic Therapy. [Review]
- KCKorean Circ J 2018; 48(12):1097-1119
- Although elevated serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is without any doubts accepted as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of elevated triglycerides (TG...
Although elevated serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is without any doubts accepted as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of elevated triglycerides (TGs)-rich lipoproteins as an independent risk factor has until recently been quite controversial. Recent data strongly suggest that elevated TG-rich lipoproteins are an independent risk factor for CVD and that therapeutic targeting of them could possibly provide further benefit in reducing CVD morbidity, events and mortality, apart from LDL-C lowering. Today elevated TGs are treated with lifestyle interventions, and with fibrates which could be combined with omega-3 fatty acids. There are also some new drugs. Volanesorsen, is an antisense oligonucleotid that inhibits the production of the Apo C-III which is crucial in regulating TGs metabolism because it inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase activity but also hepatic uptake of TGs-rich particles. Evinacumab is a monoclonal antibody against angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and it seems that it can substantially lower elevated TGs levels because ANGPTL3 also regulates TGs metabolism. Pemafibrate is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulator which also decreases TGs, and improves other lipid parameters. It seems that it also has some other possible antiatherogenic effects. Alipogene tiparvovec is a nonreplicating adeno-associated viral vector that delivers copies of the LPL gene to muscle tissue which accelerates the clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins thus decreasing extremely high TGs levels. Pradigastat is a novel diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 inhibitor which substantially reduces extremely high TGs levels and appears to be promising in treatment of the rare familial chylomicronemia syndrome.
- Severe hyperchylomicronemia in two infants with novel APOC2 gene mutation. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Nov 27; 31(11):1289-1293
- Background Familial apo C-II deficiency is a rare hereditary disorder frequently caused by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and APOC2 gene mutations. To date, less than 30 patients with familial apo C-II def...
Background Familial apo C-II deficiency is a rare hereditary disorder frequently caused by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and APOC2 gene mutations. To date, less than 30 patients with familial apo C-II deficiency with 24 different mutations have been identified in the literature. Here, we describe two familial chylomicronemia syndrome cases in infants with two novel mutations of the APOC2 gene. Case presentation Case 1, a 46-day-old female, was admitted to our hospital for evaluation due to the lipemic appearance of the blood sample. A clinical examination revealed hepatomegaly and lipemia retinalis. Triglyceride level of 6295 mg/dL was decreased with a strict low-fat diet, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil-rich formula and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Due to low adherence to the diet, TG elevation was detected and fresh frozen plasma (10 mL/kg/day) was administered for 2 days. A novel homozygous p.Q25X (c.73C>T) mutation in the APOC2 gene was detected. Case 2, a 10-month-old female patient, referred to our center for the differential diagnosis of hyperlipidemia as her blood sample could not be assessed due to its lipemic appearance. Laboratory examinations showed a TG level of 4520 mg/dL which was reduced with a low-fat diet, MCT oil-rich formula and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Hepatosteatosis and splenomegaly were determined using abdominal sonography. A novel homozygous IVS2+6T>G (c.55+6T>G) mutation in the APOC2 gene was identified. Conclusions We describe two novel homozygous mutations (p.Q25X [c.73C>T] and IVS2+6T>G [c.55+6T>G]) in the APOC2 gene in infants with hyperchylomicronemia. To the best of our knowledge, Case 1 is the youngest patient with familial apo C-II deficiency in the literature to date.
- Characterization of apolipoprotein C1 in hepatitis C virus infection and morphogenesis. [Journal Article]
- VVirology 2018; 524:1-9
- Previous studies have shown that apolipoprotein C1 (apoC1)-specific antibodies precipitated hepatitis C virus (HCV) and neutralized HCV infectivity, suggesting that apoC1 is a HCV component. However,...
Previous studies have shown that apolipoprotein C1 (apoC1)-specific antibodies precipitated hepatitis C virus (HCV) and neutralized HCV infectivity, suggesting that apoC1 is a HCV component. However, the importance of apoC1 in the HCV life cycle has not been experimentally examined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of apoC1 in the HCV infection and morphogenesis by knocking out the apoC1 gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Strikingly, apoC1 gene knockout markedly enhanced apoE expression. As a result, apoC1 gene knockout per se didn't significantly affect HCV infection or morphogenesis, probably ascribing to its redundant functions with apoE. However, knockout of apoC1 gene potentiated the impairment of HCV infection and/or morphogenesis by apoE-specific small interfering RNAs. Additionally, a recombinant apoC1 protein efficiently blocked HCV infection. Collectively, these findings suggest that apoC1 and apoE have redundant functions in the HCV infection and morphogenesis.
- Effect of omega-3 supplements on plasma apolipoprotein C-III concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. [Journal Article]
- AMAnn Med 2018 Sep 29; :1-11
- CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis has shown that omega-3 PUFAs might significantly decrease apo C-III. Key messages Omega-3 PUFA supplements significantly reduce apo C-III plasma levels, particularly in hypertriglyceridemic patients when applied in appropriate dose (more than 2 g/day) Triglyceride (TG)-lowering effect is achieved via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α Further studies should address the effect of omega-3 PUFAs alone or with other lipid-lowering drugs in order to provide a final answer whether apo C-III could be an important target for prevention of cardiovascular disease New apo C-III antisense oligonucleotide drug (Volanesorsen) showed to be promising in decreasing elevated TGs by reducing levels of apo C-III mRNA.
- Association of plasma apolipoprotein CIII, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α contributes to the clinical features of coronary heart disease in Li and Han ethnic groups in China. [Journal Article]
- LHLipids Health Dis 2018 Jul 27; 17(1):176
- CONCLUSIONS: Association among plasma apoCIII, hs-CRP and TNF-α interacts with unfavorable lipid profiles to contribute to the clinical features of CHD with stable angina, unstable angina, and AMI in the Li and Han ethnic groups in China.
- Apolipoprotein CIII may mediate the impacts of angiopoietin-like protein 8 on triglyceride metabolism. [Journal Article]
- LHLipids Health Dis 2018 Jul 18; 17(1):160
- CONCLUSIONS: ApoCIII may mediate the effects of ANGPTL8 on triglyceride metabolism.
- Plasma Proteome Profiles of Stable CAD Patients Stratified According to Total Apo C-III Levels. [Journal Article]
- PCProteomics Clin Appl 2018 Jul 10; :e1800023
- CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, the differential expression of plasma proteins related to different concentrations of Apo C-III is defined, suggesting possible new players involved in the Apo C-III-associated process of arterial damage. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005973.
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- Serum Proteomic Profiling to Identify Biomarkers of Premature Carotid Atherosclerosis. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jun 15; 8(1):9209
- To evaluate the presence of serum protein biomarkers associated with the early phases of formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, label-free quantitative proteomics analyses were made for serum ...
To evaluate the presence of serum protein biomarkers associated with the early phases of formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, label-free quantitative proteomics analyses were made for serum samples collected as part of The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Samples from subjects who had an asymptomatic carotid artery plaque detected by ultrasound examination (N = 43, Age = 30-45 years) were compared with plaque free controls (N = 43) (matched for age, sex, body weight and systolic blood pressure). Seven proteins (p < 0.05) that have been previously linked with atherosclerotic phenotypes were differentially abundant. Fibulin 1 proteoform C (FBLN1C), Beta-ala-his-dipeptidase (CNDP1), Cadherin-13 (CDH13), Gelsolin (GSN) and 72 kDa type IV collagenase (MMP2) were less abundant in cases, whereas Apolipoproteins C-III (APOC3) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) were more abundant. Using machine learning analysis, a biomarker panel of FBLN1C, APOE and CDH13 was identified, which classified cases from controls with an area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) value of 0.79. Furthermore, using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) the decreased abundance of FBLN1C was verified. In relation to previous associations of FBLN1C with atherosclerotic lesions, the observation could reflect its involvement in the initiation of the plaque formation, or represent a particular risk phenotype.