- Effect of omega-3 supplements on plasma apolipoprotein C-III concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. [Journal Article]
- AMAnn Med 2018 Aug 13; :1-28
- CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis has shown that omega-3 PUFAs might decrease apo C-III.
- Plasma Proteome Profiles of Stable CAD Patients Stratified According to Total Apo C-III Levels. [Journal Article]
- PCProteomics Clin Appl 2018 Jul 10; :e1800023
- CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, the differential expression of plasma proteins related to different concentrations of Apo C-III is defined, suggesting possible new players involved in the Apo C-III-associated process of arterial damage. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005973.
- Serum Proteomic Profiling to Identify Biomarkers of Premature Carotid Atherosclerosis. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jun 15; 8(1):9209
- To evaluate the presence of serum protein biomarkers associated with the early phases of formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, label-free quantitative proteomics analyses were made for serum ...
To evaluate the presence of serum protein biomarkers associated with the early phases of formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, label-free quantitative proteomics analyses were made for serum samples collected as part of The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Samples from subjects who had an asymptomatic carotid artery plaque detected by ultrasound examination (N = 43, Age = 30-45 years) were compared with plaque free controls (N = 43) (matched for age, sex, body weight and systolic blood pressure). Seven proteins (p < 0.05) that have been previously linked with atherosclerotic phenotypes were differentially abundant. Fibulin 1 proteoform C (FBLN1C), Beta-ala-his-dipeptidase (CNDP1), Cadherin-13 (CDH13), Gelsolin (GSN) and 72 kDa type IV collagenase (MMP2) were less abundant in cases, whereas Apolipoproteins C-III (APOC3) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) were more abundant. Using machine learning analysis, a biomarker panel of FBLN1C, APOE and CDH13 was identified, which classified cases from controls with an area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) value of 0.79. Furthermore, using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) the decreased abundance of FBLN1C was verified. In relation to previous associations of FBLN1C with atherosclerotic lesions, the observation could reflect its involvement in the initiation of the plaque formation, or represent a particular risk phenotype.
- Identification of candidate biomarkers of the exposure to PCBs in contaminated cattle: A gene expression- and proteomic-based approach. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Nov 01; 640-641:22-30
- Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread and persistent contaminants. Through a combined gene expression/proteomic-based approach, candidate biomarkers of the exposure to such envi...
Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread and persistent contaminants. Through a combined gene expression/proteomic-based approach, candidate biomarkers of the exposure to such environmental pollutants in cattle subjected to a real eco-contamination event were identified. Animals were removed from the polluted area and fed a standard ration for 6 months. The decontamination was monitored by evaluating dioxin and PCB levels in pericaudal fat two weeks after the removal from the contaminated area (day 0) and then bimonthly for six months (days 59, 125 and 188). Gene expression measurements demonstrated that CYP1B1 expression was significantly higher in blood lymphocytes collected in contaminated animals (day 0), and decreased over time during decontamination. mRNA levels of interleukin 2 showed an opposite quantitative trend. MALDI-TOF-MS polypeptide profiling of serum samples ascertained a progressive decrease (from day 0 to 188) of serum levels of fibrinogen β-chain and serpin A3-7-like fragments, apolipoprotein (APO) C-II and serum amyloid A-4 protein, along with an augmented representation of transthyretin isoforms, as well as APOC-III and APOA-II proteins during decontamination. When differentially represented species were combined with serum antioxidant, acute phase and proinflammatory protein levels already ascertained in the same animals (Cigliano et al., 2016), bioinformatics unveiled an interaction network linking together almost all components. This suggests the occurrence of a complex PCB-responsive mechanism associated with animal contamination/decontamination, including a cohort of protein/polypeptide species involved in blood redox homeostasis, inflammation and lipid transport. All together, these results suggest the use in combination of such biomarkers for identifying PCB-contaminated animals, and for monitoring the restoring of their healthy condition following a decontamination process.
- Pharmacological treatment options for severe hypertriglyceridemia and familial chylomicronemia syndrome. [Review]
- ERExpert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2018; 11(6):589-598
- A spectrum of disorders, ranging from rare severe cases of homozygous null lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD)-familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) to heterozygous missense LPLD or polygenic caus...
A spectrum of disorders, ranging from rare severe cases of homozygous null lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD)-familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) to heterozygous missense LPLD or polygenic causes, result in hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. The effects of mutations are exacerbated by environmental factors such as diet, pregnancy, and insulin resistance. Areas covered: In this review, authors discuss chronic treatment of FCS by ultra-low fat diets allied with the use of fibrates, omega-3 fatty acids, niacin, statins, and insulin-sensitizing therapies depending on the extent of residual lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity; novel therapies in development target triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein particle clearance. Previously, a gene therapy approach to LPL-alipogene tiparvovec showed that direct targeting of LPL function reduced pancreatitis events. An antisense oligonucleotide to apolipoprotein-C3, volanesorsen has been shown to decrease TGs by 70-80% and possibly to reduce rates of pancreatitis admissions. Studies are underway to validate its long-term efficacy and safety. Other approaches investigating the role of LPL modulating proteins such as angiopoietin-like petide-3 (ANGPTL3) are under consideration. Expert opinion: Current therapeutic options are not sufficient for management of many cases of FCS. The availability of antisense anti-apoC3 therapies and, in the future, ANGPTL3 therapies may remedy this.
- Polymorphism in disease-related apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils: a structural model for rod-like fibrils. [Journal Article]
- FJFEBS J 2018; 285(15):2799-2812
- Human apolipoprotein (apo) C-II is one of several plasma apolipoproteins that form amyloid deposits in vivo and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lipid-free apoC-II readily se...
Human apolipoprotein (apo) C-II is one of several plasma apolipoproteins that form amyloid deposits in vivo and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lipid-free apoC-II readily self-assembles into twisted-ribbon amyloid fibrils but forms straight, rod-like amyloid fibrils in the presence of low concentrations of micellar phospholipids. Charge mutations exerted significantly different effects on rod-like fibril formation compared to their effects on twisted-ribbon fibril formation. For instance, the double mutant, K30D-D69K apoC-II, readily formed twisted-ribbon fibrils, while the rate of rod-like fibril formation in the presence of micellar phospholipid was negligible. Structural analysis of rod-like apoC-II fibrils, using hydrogen-deuterium exchange and NMR analysis showed exchange protection consistent with a core cross-β structure comprising the C-terminal 58-76 region. Molecular dynamics simulations of fibril arrangements for this region favoured a parallel cross-β structure. X-ray fibre diffraction data for aligned rod-like fibrils showed a major meridional spacing at 4.6 Å and equatorial spacings at 9.7, 23.8 and 46.6 Å. The latter two equatorial spacings are not observed for aligned twisted-ribbon fibrils and are predicted for a model involving two cross-β fibrils in an off-set antiparallel structure with four apoC-II units per rise of the β-sheet. This model is consistent with the mutational effects on rod-like apoC-II fibril formation. The lipid-dependent polymorphisms exhibited by apoC-II fibrils could determine the properties of apoC-II in renal amyloid deposits and their potential role in the development of cardiovascular disease.
- Effects of apoC1 genotypes on the hormonal levels, metabolic profile and PAF-AH activity in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. [Journal Article]
- LHLipids Health Dis 2018 Apr 10; 17(1):77
- CONCLUSIONS: The apoC1 rs4420638A/G and -317H1/H2 gene variants might be involved in endocrine abnormalities of reproductive axis, metabolic abnormalities and chronic inflammation in PCOS, although no association was observed between the apoC1 genetic variants and the risk of PCOS in Chinese women.
- A novel index including SNPs for the screening of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among elder Chinese: A population-based study. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(13):e0272
- Presently noninvasive methods were employed to the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), product of fasting triglyce...
Presently noninvasive methods were employed to the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), product of fasting triglyceride and glucose levels (TyG), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), whereas the accuracy of those indexes need to be improved. Our study aimed to investigate the feasibility of a new index comprehensive index (CI), consisting of 6 serum biomarkers and anthropometric parameters through multivariate logistic regression analysis, to the earlier detection of NAFLD, and the diagnostic value of 5 SNPs (S1: rs2854116 of apolipoprotein C3 [APOC3], S2: rs4149267 of ATP-binding cassette transporter [ABCA1], S3: rs13702 of lipoprotein lipase [LPL], S4: rs738409 of protein 3 [patatin-like phospholipase domain containing protein 3 (PNPLA3)], S5: rs780094 of glucokinase regulatory protein gene [GCKR]) for NAFLD were also explored. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) and Youden index (YI) were calculated to assess the diagnostic value. The AUROC of CI was higher than FLI, HSI, and TyG (CI: 0.897, FLI: 0.873, HSI: 0.855, TyG: 0.793). Therefore, CI might be a better index for the diagnosis of NAFLD. Although there had no statistical significance (P = .123), the AUROC and YI were increased when CI combined with rs2854116 (S1) (AUROC = 0.902, YI = 0.6844). The combination of CI with S1 showed even better diagnostic accuracy than CI, which suggests the potential value of rs2854116 for the diagnosis of NAFLD.
- Apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses, serum apolipoproteins, and carotid intima-media thickness in T1D. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Lipid Res 2018; 59(5):872-883
- Circulating apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses (ADLS) and apolipoproteins predict vascular events in the general and type 2 diabetes populations, but data in T1D are limited. We examined a...
Circulating apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses (ADLS) and apolipoproteins predict vascular events in the general and type 2 diabetes populations, but data in T1D are limited. We examined associations of ADLS, serum apolipoproteins, and conventional lipids with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) measured contemporaneously and 6 years later in 417 T1D participants [men: n = 269, age 42 ± 6 y (mean ± SD); women: n = 148, age 39 ± 8 y] in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study, the follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Date were analyzed by multiple linear regression stratified by sex, and adjusted for time-averaged hemoglobin A1C, diabetes duration, hypertension, BMI, albuminuria, DCCT randomization, smoking, statin treatment, and ultrasound devices. In cross-sectional analyses, lipoprotein B (Lp-B), Lp-B:C, Lp-B:E+Lp-B:C:E, Apo-A-II, Apo-B, Apo-C-III-HP (heparin precipitate; i.e., Apo-C-III in Apo-B-containing lipoproteins), and Apo-E were positively associated with common and/or internal carotid IMT in men, but only Apo-C-III (total) was (positively) associated with internal carotid IMT in women. In prospective analyses, Lp-B, Apo-B, and Apo-C-III-HP were positively associated with common and/or internal carotid IMT in men, while Lp-A1:AII and Apo-A1 were inversely associated with internal carotid IMT in women. The only significant prospective association between conventional lipids and IMT was between triacylglycerols and internal carotid IMT in men. ADLS and apolipoprotein concentrations may provide sex-specific biomarkers and suggest mechanisms for IMT in people with T1D.
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- Alantolactone suppresses APOC3 expression and alters lipid homeostasis in L02 liver cells. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2018 Jun 05; 828:60-66
- A high level of APOC3 expression is an independent risk factor for some lipid metabolism-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atheroscl...
A high level of APOC3 expression is an independent risk factor for some lipid metabolism-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis (AS). This suggests that down-regulating APOC3 expression is a potential way of regulating lipid levels. In this study, we used luciferase reporter screening to identify a natural compound, alantolactone (ALA), that can inhibit the promoter activity of APOC3. ALA decreased APOC3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Then we pretreated L02 liver cells with oxLDL to investigate the function of ALA in lipid homeostasis. Intriguingly, ALA attenuated oxLDL-induced foam cell formation by reducing total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents. Furthermore, these results could be reversed by overexpressing APOC3 protein. ALA inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr705pho) of STAT3 to down-regulate APOC3 expression. Intriguingly, overexpression of a wild-type STAT3 or a constitutively active form of STAT3 (STAT3-C) up-regulated APOC3 expression and partly reversed the effect of ALA in oxLDL-induced L02 cells. Overexpression of wild-type STAT3 also increased TC but not TG contents in L02 cells. However, overexpression of STAT3-C significantly increased TC and TG contents, and the effect of ALA was partly attenuated by STAT3-C, although this was not statistically significant. These results suggest that ALA attenuates lipid accumulation through down-regulation of APOC3 expression, at least in part by inhibiting STAT3 signaling.