- Serum Proteomic Profiling to Identify Biomarkers of Premature Carotid Atherosclerosis. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jun 15; 8(1):9209
- To evaluate the presence of serum protein biomarkers associated with the early phases of formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, label-free quantitative proteomics analyses were made for serum ...
To evaluate the presence of serum protein biomarkers associated with the early phases of formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, label-free quantitative proteomics analyses were made for serum samples collected as part of The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Samples from subjects who had an asymptomatic carotid artery plaque detected by ultrasound examination (N = 43, Age = 30-45 years) were compared with plaque free controls (N = 43) (matched for age, sex, body weight and systolic blood pressure). Seven proteins (p < 0.05) that have been previously linked with atherosclerotic phenotypes were differentially abundant. Fibulin 1 proteoform C (FBLN1C), Beta-ala-his-dipeptidase (CNDP1), Cadherin-13 (CDH13), Gelsolin (GSN) and 72 kDa type IV collagenase (MMP2) were less abundant in cases, whereas Apolipoproteins C-III (APOC3) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) were more abundant. Using machine learning analysis, a biomarker panel of FBLN1C, APOE and CDH13 was identified, which classified cases from controls with an area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) value of 0.79. Furthermore, using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) the decreased abundance of FBLN1C was verified. In relation to previous associations of FBLN1C with atherosclerotic lesions, the observation could reflect its involvement in the initiation of the plaque formation, or represent a particular risk phenotype.
- Identification of candidate biomarkers of the exposure to PCBs in contaminated cattle: A gene expression- and proteomic-based approach. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 May 28; 640-641:22-30
- Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread and persistent contaminants. Through a combined gene expression/proteomic-based approach, candidate biomarkers of the exposure to such envi...
Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread and persistent contaminants. Through a combined gene expression/proteomic-based approach, candidate biomarkers of the exposure to such environmental pollutants in cattle subjected to a real eco-contamination event were identified. Animals were removed from the polluted area and fed a standard ration for 6 months. The decontamination was monitored by evaluating dioxin and PCB levels in pericaudal fat two weeks after the removal from the contaminated area (day 0) and then bimonthly for six months (days 59, 125 and 188). Gene expression measurements demonstrated that CYP1B1 expression was significantly higher in blood lymphocytes collected in contaminated animals (day 0), and decreased over time during decontamination. mRNA levels of interleukin 2 showed an opposite quantitative trend. MALDI-TOF-MS polypeptide profiling of serum samples ascertained a progressive decrease (from day 0 to 188) of serum levels of fibrinogen β-chain and serpin A3-7-like fragments, apolipoprotein (APO) C-II and serum amyloid A-4 protein, along with an augmented representation of transthyretin isoforms, as well as APOC-III and APOA-II proteins during decontamination. When differentially represented species were combined with serum antioxidant, acute phase and proinflammatory protein levels already ascertained in the same animals (Cigliano et al., 2016), bioinformatics unveiled an interaction network linking together almost all components. This suggests the occurrence of a complex PCB-responsive mechanism associated with animal contamination/decontamination, including a cohort of protein/polypeptide species involved in blood redox homeostasis, inflammation and lipid transport. All together, these results suggest the use in combination of such biomarkers for identifying PCB-contaminated animals, and for monitoring the restoring of their healthy condition following a decontamination process.
- Polymorphism in disease-related apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils: a structural model for rod-like fibrils. [Journal Article]
- FJFEBS J 2018 May 23
- Human apolipoprotein (apo) C-II is one of several plasma apolipoproteins that form amyloid deposits in vivo and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lipid-free apoC-II readily se...
Human apolipoprotein (apo) C-II is one of several plasma apolipoproteins that form amyloid deposits in vivo and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lipid-free apoC-II readily self-assembles into twisted-ribbon amyloid fibrils but forms straight, rod-like amyloid fibrils in the presence of low concentrations of micellar phospholipids. Charge mutations exerted significantly different effects on rod-like fibril formation compared to their effects on twisted-ribbon fibril formation. For instance, the double mutant, K30D-D69K apoC-II, readily formed twisted-ribbon fibrils, while the rate of rod-like fibril formation in the presence of micellar phospholipid was negligible. Structural analysis of rod-like apoC-II fibrils, using hydrogen-deuterium exchange and NMR analysis showed exchange protection consistent with a core cross-β structure comprising the C-terminal 58-76 region. Molecular dynamics simulations of fibril arrangements for this region favoured a parallel cross-β structure. X-ray fibre diffraction data for aligned rod-like fibrils showed a major meridional spacing at 4.6 Å and equatorial spacings at 9.7, 23.8 and 46.6 Å. The latter two equatorial spacings are not observed for aligned twisted-ribbon fibrils and are predicted for a model involving two cross-β fibrils in an off-set antiparallel structure with four apoC-II units per rise of the β-sheet. This model is consistent with the mutational effects on rod-like apoC-II fibril formation. The lipid-dependent polymorphisms exhibited by apoC-II fibrils could determine the properties of apoC-II in renal amyloid deposits and their potential role in the development of cardiovascular disease.
- A novel index including SNPs for the screening of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among elder Chinese: A population-based study. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(13):e0272
- Presently noninvasive methods were employed to the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), product of fasting triglyce...
Presently noninvasive methods were employed to the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), product of fasting triglyceride and glucose levels (TyG), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), whereas the accuracy of those indexes need to be improved. Our study aimed to investigate the feasibility of a new index comprehensive index (CI), consisting of 6 serum biomarkers and anthropometric parameters through multivariate logistic regression analysis, to the earlier detection of NAFLD, and the diagnostic value of 5 SNPs (S1: rs2854116 of apolipoprotein C3 [APOC3], S2: rs4149267 of ATP-binding cassette transporter [ABCA1], S3: rs13702 of lipoprotein lipase [LPL], S4: rs738409 of protein 3 [patatin-like phospholipase domain containing protein 3 (PNPLA3)], S5: rs780094 of glucokinase regulatory protein gene [GCKR]) for NAFLD were also explored. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) and Youden index (YI) were calculated to assess the diagnostic value. The AUROC of CI was higher than FLI, HSI, and TyG (CI: 0.897, FLI: 0.873, HSI: 0.855, TyG: 0.793). Therefore, CI might be a better index for the diagnosis of NAFLD. Although there had no statistical significance (P = .123), the AUROC and YI were increased when CI combined with rs2854116 (S1) (AUROC = 0.902, YI = 0.6844). The combination of CI with S1 showed even better diagnostic accuracy than CI, which suggests the potential value of rs2854116 for the diagnosis of NAFLD.
- Apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses, serum apolipoproteins, and carotid intima-media thickness in T1D. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Lipid Res 2018; 59(5):872-883
- Circulating apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses (ADLS) and apolipoproteins predict vascular events in the general and type 2 diabetes populations, but data in T1D are limited. We examined a...
Circulating apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses (ADLS) and apolipoproteins predict vascular events in the general and type 2 diabetes populations, but data in T1D are limited. We examined associations of ADLS, serum apolipoproteins, and conventional lipids with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) measured contemporaneously and 6 years later in 417 T1D participants [men: n = 269, age 42 ± 6 y (mean ± SD); women: n = 148, age 39 ± 8 y] in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study, the follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Date were analyzed by multiple linear regression stratified by sex, and adjusted for time-averaged hemoglobin A1C, diabetes duration, hypertension, BMI, albuminuria, DCCT randomization, smoking, statin treatment, and ultrasound devices. In cross-sectional analyses, lipoprotein B (Lp-B), Lp-B:C, Lp-B:E+Lp-B:C:E, Apo-A-II, Apo-B, Apo-C-III-HP (heparin precipitate; i.e., Apo-C-III in Apo-B-containing lipoproteins), and Apo-E were positively associated with common and/or internal carotid IMT in men, but only Apo-C-III (total) was (positively) associated with internal carotid IMT in women. In prospective analyses, Lp-B, Apo-B, and Apo-C-III-HP were positively associated with common and/or internal carotid IMT in men, while Lp-A1:AII and Apo-A1 were inversely associated with internal carotid IMT in women. The only significant prospective association between conventional lipids and IMT was between triacylglycerols and internal carotid IMT in men. ADLS and apolipoprotein concentrations may provide sex-specific biomarkers and suggest mechanisms for IMT in people with T1D.
- Apolipoprotein C-III in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. [Journal Article]
- COCurr Opin Lipidol 2018; 29(3):171-179
- CONCLUSIONS: Novel in vivo models and APOC3 missense variants revealed unique mechanisms by which apoC-III inhibits TRL catabolism. Clinical trials with Volanesorsen, an APOC3 antisense oligonucleotide, report very promising lipid-lowering outcomes. However, future studies will need to address if acute apoC-III lowering will have the same clinical benefits as a life-long reduction.
- Apolipoproteins C-II and C-III as nutritional markers unaffected by inflammation. [Journal Article]
- CCClin Chim Acta 2018; 481:225-230
- CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ApoC-II and ApoC-III are appropriate nutritional biomarkers unaffected by inflammation.
- Roundtable discussion: Familial chylomicronemia syndrome: Diagnosis and management. [Review]
- JCJ Clin Lipidol 2018 Mar - Apr; 12(2):254-263
- Plasma triglyceride concentrations are normally below 150 mg/dL in the fasting state. However, these lipids can reach values of several thousand mg/dL. Elevations in this range are due to a massive r...
Plasma triglyceride concentrations are normally below 150 mg/dL in the fasting state. However, these lipids can reach values of several thousand mg/dL. Elevations in this range are due to a massive retention of chylomicrons and usually result from multiple genetic variants with superimposed influences such as diabetes and immune disorders. Less commonly, major gene defects in lipoprotein metabolism can be the cause. These may present soon after birth with strong evidence of familial penetrance. The causes of this syndrome have been discussed in a Roundtable published in the most recent issue of this Journal. The polygenic etiology may also have a familial presentation with similar clinical import. The diagnosis and management of these disorders is of importance since they can lead to critical clinical syndromes including death from acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis. The chronic management requires a dedicated medical team and a patient committed to an effective regimen. We are joined in this discussion by Dr P. Barton Duell, University of Oregon Health Sciences Center, and Dr Daniel Gaudet of the Université de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec. All have had extensive personal experience in the diagnosis and management of patients with familial chylomicronemia. This Roundtable was recorded on November 11, 2017, during a meeting of the National Lipid Association in New Orleans, Louisiana.
- High density lipoprotein with apolipoprotein C-III is associated with carotid intima-media thickness among generally healthy individuals. [Journal Article]
- AAtherosclerosis 2018; 269:92-99
- CONCLUSIONS: HDL apoC-III is a promising target for atherosclerosis prevention and treatment.
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- Cloning and spatiotemporal expression of Xenopus laevis Apolipoprotein CI. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(1):e0191470
- Apolipoprotein CI (ApoCI) belongs to the Apolipoprotein superfamily, members of which are involved in lipid transport, uptake and homeostasis. Excessive ApoCI has been implicated in atherosclerosis a...
Apolipoprotein CI (ApoCI) belongs to the Apolipoprotein superfamily, members of which are involved in lipid transport, uptake and homeostasis. Excessive ApoCI has been implicated in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease in humans. In this study we report the isolation of Xenopus laevis apoCI and describe the expression pattern of this gene during early development, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and whole mount in situ hybridization. Xenopus apoCI is enriched in the dorsal ectoderm during gastrulation, and is subsequently expressed in sensory placodes, neural tube and cranial neural crest. These data suggest as yet uncharacterized roles for ApoCI during early vertebrate embryogenesis.