- Preparation of human drug metabolites using fungal peroxygenases. [Journal Article]
- BPBiochem Pharmacol 2011 Oct 1; 82(7):789-96
- The synthesis of hydroxylated and O- or N-dealkylated human drug metabolites (HDMs) via selective monooxygenation remains a challenging task for synthetic organic chemists. Here we report that aromat...
The synthesis of hydroxylated and O- or N-dealkylated human drug metabolites (HDMs) via selective monooxygenation remains a challenging task for synthetic organic chemists. Here we report that aromatic peroxygenases (APOs; EC 220.127.116.11) secreted by the agaric fungi Agrocybe aegerita and Coprinellus radians catalyzed the H₂O₂-dependent selective monooxygenation of diverse drugs, including acetanilide, dextrorphan, ibuprofen, naproxen, phenacetin, sildenafil and tolbutamide. Reactions included the hydroxylation of aromatic rings and aliphatic side chains, as well as O- and N-dealkylations and exhibited different regioselectivities depending on the particular APO used. At best, desired HDMs were obtained in yields greater than 80% and with isomeric purities up to 99%. Oxidations of tolbutamide, acetanilide and carbamazepine in the presence of H₂¹⁸O₂ resulted in almost complete incorporation of ¹⁸O into the corresponding products, thus establishing that these reactions are peroxygenations. The deethylation of phenacetin-d₁ showed an observed intramolecular deuterium isotope effect [(k(H)/k(D))(obs)] of 3.1±0.2, which is consistent with the existence of a cytochrome P450-like intermediate in the reaction cycle of APOs. Our results indicate that fungal peroxygenases may be useful biocatalytic tools to prepare pharmacologically relevant drug metabolites.
- Functional characterization of CYP3A4.16: catalytic activities toward midazolam and carbamazepine. [Journal Article]
- XXenobiotica 2009; 39(2):140-7
- 1. To assess the substrate-dependent effects of the low-activity allele of human CYP3A4, CYP3A4*16 (Thr185Ser), a recombinant wild-type (CYP3A4.1) or variant (CYP3A4.16) protein was co-expressed with...
1. To assess the substrate-dependent effects of the low-activity allele of human CYP3A4, CYP3A4*16 (Thr185Ser), a recombinant wild-type (CYP3A4.1) or variant (CYP3A4.16) protein was co-expressed with human NADPH-P450 reductase in Sf21 insect cells using a baculovirus-insect cell system. 2. The holo-CYP3A4 protein level of CYP3A4.16 in insect microsomes was slightly higher than that of CYP3A4.1, while no difference in total (apo- and holo-) CYP3A4 protein levels was observed between them. 3. When midazolam was used as a substrate, K(m) and V(max) for 1'-hydroxylation in CYP3A4.16 were significantly higher and lower, respectively, than those in the wild-type, resulting in a 50% decrease in intrinsic clearance (V(max)/K(m)) of the variant. In contrast, intrinsic clearance for 4-hydroxylation of the variant was decreased by 30% due to a significant increase in K(m) without a difference in V(max). 4. Both the wild-type and variant exhibited sigmoidal kinetic profiles for carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide formation. When the modified two-site equation was applied for the analysis of kinetic parameters, K(m2) and V(max2) of CYP3A4.16 were approximately two times higher and lower than those of the wild-type, resulting in a 74% decrease in intrinsic clearance. 5. These results demonstrated that CYP3A4.16 shows the substrate-dependent altered kinetics compared with CYP3A4.1.
- Serum lipid profile in children receiving anti-epileptic drug monotherapy: is it atherogenic? [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2006; 19(9):1151-5
- The effect of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on serum lipid profile is controversial in children as well as in adults. We longitudinally studied serum lipid profile in 34 newly diagnosed epileptic child...
The effect of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on serum lipid profile is controversial in children as well as in adults. We longitudinally studied serum lipid profile in 34 newly diagnosed epileptic children receiving AED monotherapy with valproic acid (VPA), carbamazepine (CBZ) or phenobarbital (PB). Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), apolipoprotein Al (Apo A1) and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) were measured at baseline and after 2 years of AED monotherapy. Atherosclerotic indices of TC/ HDL-C and Apo A1/Apo B ratios were calculated. Although there were some alterations in serum lipid profile with AED without statistical significance, the atherosclerotic indices of TC/HDL-C and Apo A1/Apo B ratios did not change significantly after 2 years of monotherapy. Only serum TGs levels significantly decreased with VPA monotherapy. These data suggest that 2 years AED monotherapy with VPA, CBZ or PB did not cause a significant level of concern for an atherogenic effect in children with epilepsy.
- The effects on lipid and apolipoprotein serum levels of long-term carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenobarbital therapy in children with epilepsy. [Journal Article]
- EREpilepsy Res 2000; 41(1):1-7
- The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of long-term carbamazepine (CBZ), valproic acid (VPA) and phenobarbital (PB) treatment on serum lipids and apolipoproteins in epileptic children....
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of long-term carbamazepine (CBZ), valproic acid (VPA) and phenobarbital (PB) treatment on serum lipids and apolipoproteins in epileptic children. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs) were measured and the LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios were calculated in 320 children and adolescents (129 receiving CBZ, 127 receiving VPA and 64 receiving PB) suffering from various types of epilepsy. Additionally, in a subgroup of 181 children (68 CBZ; 78 VPA; 35 PB) apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein B (apoB), HDL2-C and HDL3-C were measured and apoA-I/apoB and HDL2-C/HDL3-C ratios were calculated. Results of the measurements were compared with those of 169 age-and sex-matched healthy controls. None of the variables considered was significantly correlated with time elapsed since start of treatment or with drug concentration in serum. TC and LDL-C serum levels were high in children receiving CBZ or PB and low in those treated with VPA. Serum LDL-C level exceeded 130 mg/dl in 27.9% of CBZ-group, 31.8% of the subjects receiving PB, but only in 7% of those receiving VPA and in 11.8% of control group subjects. CBZ-treated children also showed high HDL-C and HDL3-C values. In the group receiving VPA, HDL2-C, HDL2-C/HDL3-C ratio and apo B were significantly lower than in the control group. Mean apoA-I levels were low in all treated groups: by contrast, in neither group did TGs, VLDL-C levels and TC/HDL-C or LDL-C/HDL-C ratios differ significantly from the corresponding control group. Our results suggest that the effects of long-term AED therapy on lipid profile and, particularly, on apolipoprotein serum levels increase risk of atherosclerosis-related disease. Moreover, these results confirm our previously reported increased risk in CBZ and PB-treated patients.
- ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME DUE TO CARBAMAZEPINE. [Journal Article]
- MJMed J Armed Forces India 1999; 55(2):174-175
- The effects of long-term anticonvulsive treatment on serum lipid profile. [Journal Article]
- APActa Paediatr Jpn 1997; 39(3):342-5
- Serum lipids were determined in 10 untreated patients with recently diagnosed epilepsy, 21 patients treated with carbamazepine (CBZ), 10 patients treated with valproate (VPA) and in 15 healthy childr...
Serum lipids were determined in 10 untreated patients with recently diagnosed epilepsy, 21 patients treated with carbamazepine (CBZ), 10 patients treated with valproate (VPA) and in 15 healthy children. In relation to the controls, patients receiving CBZ showed increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), apolipoprotein A (Apo-A) and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B). Patients receiving VPA showed increased Apo-B levels. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) or very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc) between all groups. The changes in lipid metabolism may be associated with the induction of liver enzymes during anti-epileptic drug metabolism. The CBZ-induced change in serum lipid levels was considered to be a possible factor against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in epileptic patients.
- The effect of peroral lynestrenol on serum lipids and lipoproteins in therapeutic amenorrhea of mentally retarded women. [Journal Article]
- AOActa Obstet Gynecol Scand 1990; 69(1):35-40
- Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and triglyceride (TG) were measured and that of low dens...
Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and triglyceride (TG) were measured and that of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) calculated in blood samples obtained from mentally handicapped women undergoing therapeutic amenorrhea (TA) induced by 5-10 mg of peroral lynestrenol, some receiving, some not receiving simultaneous anticonvulsant therapy (phenytoin, carbamazepine or barbiturate, alone or in combination). In addition, these analyses were carried out in women receiving only anti-convulsants and in controls (mentally handicapped women not receiving any of the above-mentioned medications). Significantly lower HDL-C, Apo A1, TG and cholesterol concentrations were measured in TA patients receiving lynestrenol only, than in those receiving anticonvulsants only, or in controls (p less than 0.001). With regard to HDL-C and Apo A1, patients receiving both lynestrenol and anticonvulsants were intermediate between lynestrenol only patients and controls, but the HDL-C/LDL-C and Apo A1/Apo B ratios were similar to those observed in lynestrenol only patients. Addition of 8 or 12 mg of estriol succinate to the lynestrenol regimen was virtually without an effect. However, halving of the lynestrenol dose resulted in a significant increase in HDL-C and in the HDL-C/LDL-C and Apo A1/Apo B ratios (p less than 0.001 or p less than 0.01), respectively. The lynestrenol dose was thus the most important determinant of lipoprotein pattern and should be kept as small as possible in order to reduce cardiovascular risk.
- In vitro recovery of carbamazepine from ensure. [Journal Article]
- JJJPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1989 May-Jun; 13(3):272-6
- The in vitro recovery of three different dosage forms of carbamazepine (CBZ) when dispersed in gastric or intestinal fluids, in the presence or absence of Ensure was determined. An equivalent of 1 mg...
The in vitro recovery of three different dosage forms of carbamazepine (CBZ) when dispersed in gastric or intestinal fluids, in the presence or absence of Ensure was determined. An equivalent of 1 mg of pure CBZ from Tegretol 200 mg of conventional tablets, chewtablets of Tegretol 200-mg and Apo-carbamazepine (200-mg tablets) were dispersed in five dissolution mediums (0.5 ml of Ensure; 0.5 ml of Ensure and 1.0 ml of gastric fluid; 1.0 ml of gastric fluid; 0.5 ml of Ensure and 1.0 ml of intestinal fluid; and 1.0 ml intestinal fluid) and mixed for 1 hr and filtered. The filtrates were then assayed for CBZ using a UV spectrophotometer. The mean recoveries of CBZ for all dosage forms in the various dissolution mediums were: Ensure/gastric fluid, 85%; gastric fluid, 75%, Ensure/intestinal fluid, 59%; intestinal fluid, 79%; and Ensure, 58%. The differences in CBZ recovery from gastric or intestinal fluid, in the presence or absence of Ensure were found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.05). The difference in dosage forms were statistically not discernible. The significant differences observed in recoveries of CBZ due to Ensure warrants an in vivo study to realize the clinical implication of administering CBZ with Ensure.
- Microsomal enzyme induction, lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. [Review]
- PTPharmacol Toxicol 1988; 62(5):243-9
- The liver is the principal site for the synthesis and elimination of lipoproteins circulating in plasma, and alterations in hepatic function influence plasma lipoprotein levels. High HDL-C/T-C and ap...
The liver is the principal site for the synthesis and elimination of lipoproteins circulating in plasma, and alterations in hepatic function influence plasma lipoprotein levels. High HDL-C/T-C and apo A-I/apo B ratios, which are characteristic of a low coronary risk, have been typical of healthy subjects with high microsomal enzyme activity in the liver. Microsomal enzyme inducing drugs such as phenytoin, phenobarbital and carbamazepine, and also alcohol, influence serum lipid and apoprotein concentrations. The inducers increase the concentrations of hepatic microsomal enzyme and apo A-I mRNA, and also proteins and phospholipids. They similarly increase serum HDL-C and apo A-I levels and the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio, powerful protective factors against coronary heart disease. These parameters parallel hepatic protein and phospholipid concentrations, and microsomal enzyme activity as assessed by liver cytochrome P-450 or antipyrine kinetics. Serum LDL-C levels are inversely proportional to hepatic cytochrome P-450 concentrations. Experimental studies indicate that phenobarbital retards cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall and the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. A decreased mortality rate from coronary heart disease has been reported for subjects who take enzyme inducers, drugs or alcohol, whereas impairment of hepatic microsomal function may promote atherogenesis. In addition to drugs non-pharmacological factors such as dietary constituents and physical exercise may influence hepatic microsomal function and hence improve the serum lipoprotein profile. These observations, which connect microsomal inducers, liver lipids and proteins, serum lipids and apoproteins characteristic of a low risk of atherosclerotic disease and low incidence of coronary deaths, lead to the conclusion that the activation of liver microsomal function can prevent atherogenesis in man.