- Inhibition of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I gene expression by histamine. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2018 Mar 15; 823:49-57
- In a recent high throughput analysis to identify drugs that alter hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) expression, histamine receptor one (H1) antagonists emerged as potential apo A-1 inducing drugs....
In a recent high throughput analysis to identify drugs that alter hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) expression, histamine receptor one (H1) antagonists emerged as potential apo A-1 inducing drugs. Thus the present study was undertaken to identify some of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the effect of antihistaminic drugs on apo AI production. Apo A-I levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay and Western blots. Apo A-I mRNA levels were measured by reverse transcription real-time PCR using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA as the internal control. The effects of histamine and antihistamines on apo A-I gene were determined by transient transfection of plasmids containing the apo A-I gene promoter. Histamine repressed while (H1) receptor antagonist azelastine increased apo A-I protein and mRNA levels within 48 h in a dose-dependent manner. Azelastine and histamine increased and suppressed, respectively, apo A-I gene promoter activity through a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α response element. Treatment of HepG2 cells with other H1receptor antagonists including fexofenadine, cetirizine, and diphenhydramine increased apo A-I levels in a dose-dependent manner while treatment with H2receptor antagonists including cimetidine, famotidine, and ranitidine had no effect. We conclude that H1receptor signaling is a novel pathway of apo A1 gene expression and therefore could be an important therapeutic target for enhancing de-novo apo A-1 synthesis.
- Pollutant particles enhanced H2O2 production from NAD(P)H oxidase and mitochondria in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Cell Physiol 2006; 291(2):C357-65
- Particulate matter (PM) induces oxidative stress and cardiovascular adverse health effects, but the mechanistic link between the two is unclear. We hypothesized that PM enhanced oxidative stress in v...
Particulate matter (PM) induces oxidative stress and cardiovascular adverse health effects, but the mechanistic link between the two is unclear. We hypothesized that PM enhanced oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells and investigated the enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species and their effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and vasoconstriction. We measured the production of extracellular H2O2, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPKs in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) treated with urban particles (UP; SRM1648), and assessed the effects of H2O2 on vasoconstriction in pulmonary artery ring and isolated perfused lung. Within minutes after UP treatment, HPAEC increased H2O2 production that could be inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), apocynin (APO), and sodium azide (NaN3). The water-soluble fraction of UP as well as its two transition metal components, Cu and V, also stimulated H2O2 production. NaN3 inhibited H2O2 production stimulated by Cu and V, whereas DPI and APO inhibited only Cu-stimulated H2O2 production. Inhibitors of other H2O2-producing enzymes, including Nomega-methyl-L-argnine, indomethacin, allopurinol, cimetidine, rotenone, and antimycin, had no effects. DPI but not NaN3 attenuated UP-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs. Knockdown of p47phox gene expression by small interfering RNA attenuated UP-induced H2O2 production and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs. Intravascular administration of H2O2 generated by glucose oxidase increased pulmonary artery pressure. We conclude that UP induce oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells by activating NAD(P)H oxidase and the mitochondria. The endothelial oxidative stress may be an important mechanism for PM-induced acute cardiovascular health effects.