- Application of a nano-structured molecularly imprinted polymer as an efficient modifier for the design of captopril drug selective sensor: Mechanism study and quantitative determination. [Journal Article]
- MSMater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019 Jan 01; 94:879-885
- In the present study, electrochemical studies and potentiometric determination of captopril (CAP) drug were presented using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and carbon paste electrode (CPE), respectiv...
In the present study, electrochemical studies and potentiometric determination of captopril (CAP) drug were presented using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and carbon paste electrode (CPE), respectively; which is modified with a synthetic nano-structured molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). CAP-MIP sample with an average particle size of 95 nm was synthesized using a precipitation polymerization method. The electrochemical behavior of CAP was studied on a MIP modified GCE, in an aqueous solution at pH 3.0. The electron transfer coefficient (α) was determined for the CAP drug, using electrochemical approaches. The prepared CAP-MIP was also used as a modifier in a CPE to design a selective CAP sensor, before its potentiometric determination. The modified CPE exhibits a good electrochemical response with a Nernstian slope of 59.15 ± 1.5 mV per decade over a wide linearity in the concentration range of 3.0 × 10-9-1.0 × 10-1 mol L-1. The cyclic voltammetry results were in good agreement with the electrochemical studies for the 1H+/1e- process. The designed electrode indicates a reasonable selectivity for CAP over other studied drugs such as ibuprofen, paracetamol, acyclovir, pyrazinamide, dimenhydrinate, and naproxen as well as with an excellent applicability in some pharmaceutical products.
- The Neurophysiology and Treatment of Motion Sickness. [Journal Article]
- DADtsch Arztebl Int 2018 Oct 12; 115(41):687-696
- CONCLUSIONS: The various types of motion sickness can be treated with general measures to lessen the intersensory conflict, behavioral changes, and drugs.
- Interventions for treating nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a network meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials. [Review]
- ERExpert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2018; 11(11):1143-1150
- CONCLUSIONS: Present evidence is conclusive on the therapeutic benefits of ginger in treating NVP. Although favorable results were obtained for several other interventions, the strength of evidence is very low. The results of this network meta-analysis should be interpreted with extreme caution as it might change with the advent of data from future head-to-head clinical trials.
- A History of Drug Discovery for Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting and the Implications for Future Research. [Review]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:913
- The origins of the major classes of current anti-emetics are examined. Serendipity is a recurrent theme in discovery of their anti-emetic properties and repurposing from one indication to another is ...
The origins of the major classes of current anti-emetics are examined. Serendipity is a recurrent theme in discovery of their anti-emetic properties and repurposing from one indication to another is a continuing trend. Notably, the discoveries have occurred against a background of company mergers and changing anti-emetic requirements. Major drug classes include: (i) Muscarinic receptor antagonists-originated from historical accounts of plant extracts containing atropine and hyoscine with development stimulated by the need to prevent sea-sickness among soldiers during beach landings; (ii) Histamine receptor antagonists-searching for replacements for the anti-malaria drug quinine, in short supply because of wartime shipping blockade, facilitated the discovery of histamine (H1) antagonists (e.g., dimenhydrinate), followed by serendipitous discovery of anti-emetic activity against motion sickness in a patient undergoing treatment for urticaria; (iii) Phenothiazines and dopamine receptor antagonists-investigations of their pharmacology as "sedatives" (e.g., chlorpromazine) implicated dopamine receptors in emesis, leading to development of selective dopamine (D2) receptor antagonists (e.g., domperidone with poor ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier) as anti-emetics in chemotherapy and surgery; (iv) Metoclopramide and selective 5-hydroxytryptamine3(5-HT3) receptor antagonists-metoclopramide was initially assumed to act only via D2 receptor antagonism but subsequently its gastric motility stimulant effect (proposed to contribute to the anti-emetic action) was shown to be due to 5-hydroxytryptamine4 receptor agonism. Pre-clinical studies showed that anti-emetic efficacy against the newly-introduced, highly emetic, chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin was due to antagonism at 5-HT3 receptors. The latter led to identification of selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (e.g., granisetron), a major breakthrough in treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis; (v) Neurokinin1receptor antagonists-antagonists of the actions of substance P were developed as analgesics but pre-clinical studies identified broad-spectrum anti-emetic effects; clinical studies showed particular efficacy in the delayed phase of chemotherapy-induced emesis. Finally, the repurposing of different drugs for treatment of nausea and vomiting is examined, particularly during palliative care, and also the challenges in identifying novel anti-emetic drugs, particularly for treatment of nausea as compared to vomiting. We consider the lessons from the past for the future and ask why there has not been a major breakthrough in the last 20 years.
- Investigation of using pectin and chitosan as natural excipients in pellet formulation. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018; 120(Pt A):1208-1215
- This study aimed to evaluate the potential of applying pectin and chitosan polysaccharides in pellet formulation. These biopolymers have advantages such as biocompatibility, low toxicity, low price a...
This study aimed to evaluate the potential of applying pectin and chitosan polysaccharides in pellet formulation. These biopolymers have advantages such as biocompatibility, low toxicity, low price and easy processing which make them interesting candidates for drug delivery purposes. Careful control of pellet porosity is essential to achieve an appropriate drug release profile. Replacing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with polysaccharides, especially pectin, leads to increased pellet porosity. Theophylline, dimenhydrinate and ibuprofen were chosen as model drugs. Investigation of possible ionic interactions between drugs and excipients is crucial to optimize the formulation of pellets with acceptable drug release. Differential scanning calorimetry of chitosan showed an endothermic peak; however, this peak was not observed in thermograms of the pectin, implying the lack of interaction between polysaccharides. Fourier transform infrared analysis did not indicate any interaction between drugs and polymers. Incorporation of MCC into the pellet formulation significantly increased the mean dissolution time while substitution of MCC with polysaccharides led to a faster release for each of the three drugs - that were different in their net charges - in both acidic and buffer media. These results highlight the potential value of polysaccharides in improving drug delivery characteristics of pharmaceutical pellets.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Small, occasional doses of dimenhydrinate would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Larger doses or more prolonged use may cause effects in the infant or decrease the m...
Small, occasional doses of dimenhydrinate would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Larger doses or more prolonged use may cause effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established. Single bedtime doses after the last feeding of the day may be adequate for many women and will minimize any effects of the drug.
- Development and validation of RP- HPLC method with UV detection to determine and quantify dimenhydrinate in human plasma. [Journal Article]
- PJPak J Pharm Sci 2018; 31(3(Supplementary)):979-984
- A simple, sensitive and rigorous method for estimation of dimenhydrinate in human plasma was searched and its validation was carried out. LLE (Liquid-Liquid extraction) of analyte with mixture of Hex...
A simple, sensitive and rigorous method for estimation of dimenhydrinate in human plasma was searched and its validation was carried out. LLE (Liquid-Liquid extraction) of analyte with mixture of Hexane and ethyl acetate (1:1 v/v) was carried out for the preparation of Plasma Samples, Chromatographic elution of dimenhydrinate was conducted in human plasma and mobile phase with C-18 bonda Pack column (10μm; 250 × 4.6), using a mobile phase consisting a solution of ammonium bicarbonate in water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.5ml/minute with UV detection at 229 nm. The resolution of dimenhydrinate was well performed from plasma components. This method was validated and exhibited linearity with concentration range of 6 to 380ng/ml of dimenhydrinate in plasma. The Intra day precision was 89.2 to 96.89% and Inter day precision was 88.6% to 93.26%, the average recovery of dimenhydrinate was 97.02%. The efficacy of extraction was proved by above mentioned results. 2ng/ml and 6ng/ml, were appraised as the LOD and LOQ of dimenhydrinate, stability studies disclosed that dimenhydrinate exhibited stability in Plasma after Freeze & thaw cycles and upon -20°C storage, the method was developed well.
- Analysis of human microcirculation in weightlessness: Study protocol and pre-study experiments. [Journal Article]
- CHClin Hemorheol Microcirc 2018; 70(1):119-127
- CONCLUSIONS: As the application of motion sickness therapy did not alter microcirculation, it will be applied during the parabolic flight maneuvers of the campaign. Our results might deepen the understanding of microcirculation on space missions and on earth.
- Migraine Related Vertigo. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017; 69(4):563-567
- Migraine related vertigo (MRV) is largely accepted in the vestibular community and probably represents the second most common cause of vertigo after benign positional vertigo by far exceeding Meniere...
Migraine related vertigo (MRV) is largely accepted in the vestibular community and probably represents the second most common cause of vertigo after benign positional vertigo by far exceeding Meniere's disease. The data on vestibular migraine management is still relatively poor, despite its enormous importance in daily practice. A 55-year old male presented with history of giddiness, imbalance, sweating and sensation of nausea with severe pulsating headache of one day duration. Ear, Nose and Throat examination was normal. Neurological tests were negative. Audiogram and Electronystagmography were within normal limits. Nystagmus was positive on turning his head to left side. By reviewing the available literature on MRV, the report aims to outline a protocol for future management. The patient and caretakers were thoroughly counseled and educated, started on Flunarizine 10 mg and Dimenhydrinate 50 mg; advice healthy life style, necessary precautions, compliance to treatment. Patient was reportedly followed up and was symptom free over a period of 9 years. There is a call for proper diagnosis to address the complaint and manage of symptoms in acute attack and prophylaxis. In addition, this case highlight the ongoing need for proper systematic evaluation, therapeutic management, follow up by ensuring compliance to medication, necessary precautions and life style modification.
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- Comparison of Dexamethasone-Dimenhydrinate and Dexamethasone-Ondansetron in Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting in Postoperative Patients. [Letter]
- APAesthetic Plast Surg 2018; 42(1):333