- Theophylline and Caffeine as Alternatives During an Aminophylline Shortage. [Journal Article]
- APAnn Pharmacother 2018 Oct 11; :1060028018806624
- The latest aminophylline shortage has prompted a need for alternative reversal agents for pharmacological stress testing. Cardiac stress testing is common for diagnosis and prognosis in patients with...
The latest aminophylline shortage has prompted a need for alternative reversal agents for pharmacological stress testing. Cardiac stress testing is common for diagnosis and prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease. Options for pharmacological stress test agents include adenosine, regadenoson, dipyridamole, and dobutamine, whereas aminophylline is the recommended reversal agent. Adenosine and dobutamine can be used as alternatives to regadenoson and dipyridamole to decrease or eliminate the use of aminophylline. Alternatives to aminophylline include theophylline and caffeine. It is important to efficiently identify alternatives during a drug shortage to maintain optimal patient outcomes.
- Prognostic value of dual imaging stress echocardiography following coronary bypass surgery. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Cardiol 2018 Sep 27
- CONCLUSIONS: Dual imaging stress echocardiography provides useful prognostic information following CABG. Inducible ischemia and abnormal CFVR are strong and independent prognostic indicators in patients with appropriate and rarely/maybe appropriate indications.
- The ecto-enzymes CD73 and adenosine deaminase modulate 5'-AMP-derived adenosine in myofibroblasts of the rat small intestine. [Journal Article]
- PSPurinergic Signal 2018 Sep 29
- Adenosine is a versatile signaling molecule recognized to physiologically influence gut motor functions. Both the duration and magnitude of adenosine signaling in enteric neuromuscular function depen...
Adenosine is a versatile signaling molecule recognized to physiologically influence gut motor functions. Both the duration and magnitude of adenosine signaling in enteric neuromuscular function depend on its availability, which is regulated by the ecto-enzymes ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and ecto-adenosine deaminase (ADA) and by dipyridamole-sensitive equilibrative transporters (ENTs). Our purpose was to assess the involvement of CD73, APs, ecto-ADA in the formation of AMP-derived adenosine in primary cultures of ileal myofibroblasts (IMFs). IMFs were isolated from rat ileum longitudinal muscle segments by means of primary explant technique and identified by immunofluorescence staining for vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin. IMFs confluent monolayers were exposed to exogenous 5'-AMP in the presence or absence of CD73, APs, ecto-ADA, or ENTs inhibitors. The formation of adenosine and its metabolites in the IMFs medium was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography. The distribution of CD73 and ADA in IMFs was detected by confocal immunocytochemistry and qRT-PCR. Exogenous 5'-AMP was rapidly cleared being almost undetectable after 60-min incubation, while adenosine levels significantly increased. Treatment of IMFs with CD73 inhibitors markedly reduced 5'-AMP clearance whereas ADA blockade or inhibition of both ADA and ENTs prevented adenosine catabolism. By contrast, inhibition of APs did not affect 5'-AMP metabolism. Immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of CD73 and ADA in IMFs. Overall, our data show that in IMFs an extracellular AMP-adenosine pathway is functionally active and among the different enzymatic pathways regulating extracellular adenosine levels, CD73 and ecto-ADA represent the critical catabolic pathway.
- Permeability Behavior of Nanocrystalline Solid Dispersion of Dipyridamole Generated Using NanoCrySP Technology. [Journal Article]
- PPharmaceutics 2018 Sep 17; 10(3)
- Nanocrystals research has been an area of significant interest lately, providing oral bioavailability benefits to solubility- and/or dissolution rate-limited drugs. Drug nanocrystals are generated us...
Nanocrystals research has been an area of significant interest lately, providing oral bioavailability benefits to solubility- and/or dissolution rate-limited drugs. Drug nanocrystals are generated using top-down or bottom-up technologies. Combination technologies (Nanoedge, Nanopure XP and SmartCrystal) have been recently developed to generate nanocrystals of improved properties. Our lab has also contributed in this field by providing a 'novel' platform technology, NanoCrySP, for the generation of nanocrystals. NanoCrySP-generated nanocrystals have improved the oral bioavailability of various molecules. In this study, we aim to assess the permeability behavior of nanocrystals generated by NanoCrySP. Three samples of Dipyridamole (DPM) drug were used in this study: (1) DPM (micron-sized powder), (2) nanocrystals of DPM (NS), generated by media milling (as control) and, (3) nanocrystalline solid dispersion containing DPM (NSD) in the matrix of mannitol (MAN), generated using NanoCrySP technology. In vitro (Caco-2 cell lines) and ex vivo (everted gut sac) studies were conducted in this work. Cellular permeability (Papp) from apical-to-basolateral side in Caco-2 cell monolayer was found to be in the order NS > NSD > DPM, which was the same as their apparent solubility values. Higher Papp from a basolateral-to-apical side suggested a significant contribution of the P-gp efflux transport for DPM, while NS exhibited much higher inhibition of the efflux mechanism than NSD. Both NS and NSD showed higher permeation from the jejunum region in the ex vivo everted gut sac study. Interestingly, Papp of NSD was similar to NS in ex vivo everted gut sac model, however, NSD showed higher mucoadhesion than NS and DPM in this study.
- Use of Antiplatelet Agents in the Neurosurgical Patient. [Review]
- NCNeurosurg Clin N Am 2018; 29(4):517-527
- Antiplatelet agents used to treat neurovascular disease include aspirin; P2Y12 receptor antagonists clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor; ADP antagonist ticlopidine; phosphodiesterase inhibitor dip...
Antiplatelet agents used to treat neurovascular disease include aspirin; P2Y12 receptor antagonists clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor; ADP antagonist ticlopidine; phosphodiesterase inhibitor dipyridamole; and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirofiban. Numerous studies have been performed evaluating their efficacy in stroke, extracranial carotid artery disease and dissection, intracranial atherosclerotic disease, and moyamoya disease. The rapid technological advancements in endovascular neurosurgical devices have also made antiplatelet therapy a necessary part of treating intracranial aneurysms. This article presents the relevant data supporting the use of antiplatelet agents in vascular neurosurgery and recommendations based on the described studies.
- Mechanistic study on hydrodynamics in the mini-scale biphasic dissolution model and its influence on in vitro dissolution and partitioning. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharm Sci 2018 Nov 01; 124:328-338
- Biphasic dissolution models were proposed to provide good predictive power for in vivo absorption kinetics. However, up to date the impact of hydrodynamics in mini-scale models are not well understoo...
Biphasic dissolution models were proposed to provide good predictive power for in vivo absorption kinetics. However, up to date the impact of hydrodynamics in mini-scale models are not well understood. Consequently, the aim of this work was to investigate different setups of a previously published mini-scale biphasic dissolution model (miBIdi-pH-II) to better understand the relevance of hydrodynamics for evaluating kinetic parameters and to simultaneously increase the robustness of the experimental model. As a first step, the hydrodynamics within the aqueous phase were characterized by in silico simulations of the flow patterns. Different settings, such as higher rotation speeds of the paddles, the implementation of a second propeller into the aqueous phase, and different shapes of aqueous stirrers were investigated. Second, to evaluate the results of the in silico simulations, in vitro experiments with glitter were carried out. Last, the same settings were applied in the miBIdi-pH-II using dipyridamole (DPD) as model compound to estimate kinetic parameters by applying a compartment-based modelling approach. Both in vitro experiments with glitter or DPD demonstrated the adequateness of the previous in silico hydrodynamic simulations. The use of higher rotation speeds and a second aqueous propeller resulted in more homogeneous mixing of the aqueous phase. This resulted in faster distribution of dissolved active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) into the octanol phase. A kinetic model was successfully applied to quantify the influence of hydrodynamics on the partitioning rate of the API into the octanol phase. In conclusion, the combination of in silico and in vitro methods was demonstrated to be powerful for investigating the flow patterns within the miBIdi-pH-II. A comprehensive understanding of the hydrodynamics and the respective influence on the dissolution and apparent partitioning into the octanol phase in the biphasic dissolution model was obtained and completed by using a compartmental kinetic model. This model allowed successful quantification of how the hydrodynamics influence the partitioning of API into the octanol phase.
- Oral Dipyridamole-Associated Circulatory Collapse. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Sep 02
- Extended-release dipyridamole plus aspirin is widely used for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, although the molecular pharmacodynamics of dipyridamole are not completely determined. Adverse e...
Extended-release dipyridamole plus aspirin is widely used for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, although the molecular pharmacodynamics of dipyridamole are not completely determined. Adverse effects of fixed-dose combination of aspirin and dipyridamole include headache, bleeding, and gastrointestinal events. Previously, intravenous infusion of dipyridamole in cardiac stress testing has been associated with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema. Herein, we report a case study of a 72-year-old man, presented with a transient ischemic attack who suffered a circulatory collapse after an oral dose of 200 mg extended-release dipyridamole. The possible molecular mechanisms of dipyridamole on the cardiovascular system are reviewed. This is the first case report of a circulatory collapse induced by an oral intake of dipyridamole.
- Triple versus guideline antiplatelet therapy to prevent recurrence after acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack: the TARDIS RCT. [Clinical Trial]
- HTHealth Technol Assess 2018; 22(48):1-76
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients and investigators were not blinded to treatment. The comparator group comprised two guideline strategies because of changes in national guidelines during the trial. The trial was stopped early, thereby reducing its statistical power.The use of three antiplatelet agents is associated with increased bleeding without any significant reduction in recurrence of stroke or TIA.
- The clinical usefulness of phase analysis in detecting coronary artery disease using dipyridamole thallium-201-gated myocardial perfusion imaging with a cadmium-zinc-telluride camera. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nucl Cardiol 2018 Aug 31
- CONCLUSIONS: The addition of phase analysis to help diagnose CAD in Tl-201-gated SPECT with dipyridamole stress may have limited value in patients with CAD with ≥ 50% stenosis.
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- Antithrombotic therapy management of adult and pediatric cardiac surgery patients. [Review]
- JTJ Thromb Haemost 2018 Aug 28
- Despite the development of catheter-based interventions for ischemic and valvular heart disease, hundreds of thousands of people undergo open heart surgery annually for coronary artery bypass graft (...
Despite the development of catheter-based interventions for ischemic and valvular heart disease, hundreds of thousands of people undergo open heart surgery annually for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), valve replacement or cardiac assist device implantation. Cardiac surgery patients are unique because therapeutic anticoagulation is required during cardiopulmonary bypass. Developmental hemostasis and altered drug metabolism affect management in children. This narrative review summarizes the current evidence-based and consensus guidelines regarding perioperative, intraoperative and postoperative antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Anticoagulation preoperatively is required in the setting of cardiac arrhythmias, prior valve replacement or history of venous thromboembolism. In patients with ischemic heart disease, aspirin is continued in the perioperative period, whereas oral P2Y12 antagonists are withheld for 5-7 days to reduce the risk of perioperative bleeding. Intraoperative management of cardiopulmonary bypass in adults and children includes anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin. Variability in dose-response to heparin and influence of other medical conditions on dosing and reversal of heparin make intraoperative anticoagulation challenging. Vitamin K antagonist therapy is the standard anticoagulant after mechanical heart valve or left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Longer duration of dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended after CABG if patients undergo surgery because of acute coronary syndrome. Antiplatelet therapy after LVAD implantation includes aspirin, dipyridamole and/or clopidogrel in children and aspirin in adults. A coordinated approach between hematology, cardiology, anesthesiology, critical care and cardiothoracic surgery can assist to balance the risk of thrombosis and bleeding in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.