- Induced-fit motion of a lid loop involved in catalysis in alginate lyase A1-III. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 2012; 68(Pt 9):1207-16
- The structures of two mutants (H192A and Y246F) of a mannuronate-specific alginate lyase, A1-III, from Sphingomonas species A1 complexed with a tetrasaccharide substrate [4-deoxy-L-erythro-hex-4-ene-...
The structures of two mutants (H192A and Y246F) of a mannuronate-specific alginate lyase, A1-III, from Sphingomonas species A1 complexed with a tetrasaccharide substrate [4-deoxy-L-erythro-hex-4-ene-pyranosyluronate-(mannuronate)(2)-mannuronic acid] were determined by X-ray crystallography at around 2.2 Å resolution together with the apo form of the H192A mutant. The final models of the complex forms, which comprised two monomers (of 353 amino-acid residues each), 268-287 water molecules and two tetrasaccharide substrates, had R factors of around 0.17. A large conformational change occurred in the position of the lid loop (residues 64-85) in holo H192A and Y246F compared with that in apo H192A. The lid loop migrated about 14 Å from an open form to a closed form to interact with the bound tetrasaccharide and a catalytic residue. The tetrasaccharide was bound in the active cleft at subsites -3 to +1 as a substrate form in which the glycosidic linkage to be cleaved existed between subsites -1 and +1. In particular, the O(η) atom of Tyr68 in the closed lid loop forms a hydrogen bond to the side chain of a presumed catalytic residue, O(η) of Tyr246, which acts both as an acid and a base catalyst in a syn mechanism.
- Structural basis for specific lipid recognition by CERT responsible for nonvesicular trafficking of ceramide. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008 Jan 15; 105(2):488-93
- In mammalian cells, ceramide is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to the Golgi apparatus for conversion to sphingomyelin. Ceramide transport occurs in a nonvesicular manner and...
In mammalian cells, ceramide is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to the Golgi apparatus for conversion to sphingomyelin. Ceramide transport occurs in a nonvesicular manner and is mediated by CERT, a cytosolic 68-kDa protein with a C-terminal steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer (START) domain. The CERT START domain efficiently transfers natural D-erythro-C16-ceramide, but not lipids with longer (C20) amide-acyl chains. The molecular mechanisms of ceramide specificity, both stereo-specific recognition and length limit, are not well understood. Here we report the crystal structures of the CERT START domain in its apo-form and in complex with ceramides having different acyl chain lengths. In these complex structures, one ceramide molecule is buried in a long amphiphilic cavity. At the far end of the cavity, the amide and hydroxyl groups of ceramide form a hydrogen bond network with specific amino acid residues that play key roles in stereo-specific ceramide recognition. At the head of the ceramide molecule, there is no extra space to accommodate additional bulky groups. The two aliphatic chains of ceramide are surrounded by the hydrophobic wall of the cavity, whose size and shape dictate the length limit for cognate ceramides. Furthermore, local high-crystallographic B-factors suggest that the alpha-3 and the Omega1 loop might work as a gate to incorporate the ceramide into the cavity. Thus, the structures demonstrate the structural basis for the mechanism by which CERT can distinguish ceramide from other lipid types yet still recognize multiple species of ceramides.
- Crystal structure of alginate lyase A1-III complexed with trisaccharide product at 2.0 A resolution. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mol Biol 2001 Mar 16; 307(1):9-16
- The structure of A1-III from a Sphingomonas species A1 complexed with a trisaccharide product (4-deoxy-l-erythro-hex-4-enepyranosyluronate-mannuronate-mannuronic acid) was determined by X-ray crystal...
The structure of A1-III from a Sphingomonas species A1 complexed with a trisaccharide product (4-deoxy-l-erythro-hex-4-enepyranosyluronate-mannuronate-mannuronic acid) was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.0 A with an R-factor of 0.16. The final model of the complex form comprising 351 amino acid residues, 245 water molecules, one sulfate ion and one trisaccharide product exhibited a C(alpha) r.m.s.d. value of 0.154 A with the reported apo form of the enzyme. The trisaccharide was bound in the active cleft at subsites -3 approximately -1 from the non-reducing end by forming several hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions with protein atoms. The catalytic residue was estimated to be Tyr246, which existed between subsites -1 and +1 based on a mannuronic acid model oriented at subsite +1.