- Comparison of thiocyanate and selenocyanate for potentiation of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biophotonics 2018 Jun 08; :e201800092
- We have previously shown that antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by different photosensitizers can be potentiated by a variety of inorganic salts. Potassium thiocyanate potentiated aP...
We have previously shown that antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by different photosensitizers can be potentiated by a variety of inorganic salts. Potassium thiocyanate potentiated aPDT mediated by methylene blue (MB), while potassium selenocyanate potentiated aPDT mediated by MB, Rose Bengal and the anionic porphyrin TPPS4. However, the mechanisms of action that were proposed were fundamentally different. In the present study we compare these two salts (KSCN and KSeCN) with different light-activated photosensitizers (PS) and different oxidative reactions for killing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall KSeCN was more powerful than KSCN, and worked with a wider range of PS, while KSCN only worked with phenothiazinium salts. KSeCN produced killing when cells were added after light suggesting production of a semi-stable species called selenocyanogen, (SeCN)2 . We tested three different oxidative reactions that can all potentially kill bacteria: lead tetraacetate; Fenton reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulfate); hydrogen peroxide and horseradish peroxidase (H2 O2 /HRP). In every case KSeCN was substantially more effective (several logs) than KSCN in potentiating the bacterial killing. We conclude that (SeCN)2 is the mediator for aPDT using KSeCN, while sulfur trioxide radical anion is the mediator for KSCN using phenothiaziums. For H2 O2 /HRP with KSCN, hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) is proposed to be the antibacterial agent in the literature, while hyposelenocyanite is said not to exist. Lead tetracetate is known to produce (SeCN)2 from KSeCN as well as the analogous (SCN)2 from KSCN. The mediators from Fenton reaction are unclear (pseudohalogen radical ions?) Both KSCN (which occurs naturally in the human body) and KSeCN may be clinically applicable. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Impact of Iron-Enriched Aspergillus oryzae on Iron Bioavailability, Safety, and Gut Microbiota in Rats. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2018 Jun 11
- Iron deficiency is a leading global nutritional problem. Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) is the most common iron source used for supplementation. Because of many side effects associated with its consumption,...
Iron deficiency is a leading global nutritional problem. Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) is the most common iron source used for supplementation. Because of many side effects associated with its consumption, it is important to identify new forms of iron. The objectives of this study were to assess the bioavailability of iron-enriched Aspergillus oryzae, Aspiron (ASP), evaluate the toxicity of high-dose iron supplementation with ASP, and determine the ASP impact on gut microbiota in rats. In this study, we investigated iron bioavailability using the hemoglobin repletion test. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels were determined to evaluate the effect on liver and kidney functions. Protein carbonyls were measured to assess oxidative damage to proteins. Fecal samples at the end of the 14 day repletion period were used for 16S rRNA sequencing for gut microbiota analysis. The slope ratio method using a common intercept linear regression model was used to compare the bioavailability of ASP to FeSO4. Iron repletion increased hemoglobin concentrations with both ASP and FeSO4 treatments compared to the control group, except in the lowest ASP group. The slope ratio indicated that relative iron bioavailability of ASP was 60% of that of FeSO4 when hemoglobin change was compared to iron in the diet. Similar results were obtained when absolute iron intake was compared on the basis of food consumption. In comparison to the control, protein carbonyl concentrations were significantly ( p < 0.05) higher in the FeSO4 group but not with the ASP group. Supplementation with both sources of iron reduced the Enterobacteriaceae population in the gut microbiota of the rats. A higher relative abundance of bacteria from the phylum Verrucomicrobia was also observed with the highest dose of ASP. Iron-enriched A. oryzae with 60% relative bioavailability of FeSO4 did not show any signs of adverse effects after 14 days of iron supplementation. Future human studies are needed to understand the ASP detailed effect on gut microbiota.
- Iron absorption from beans with different contents of iron, evaluated by stable isotopes. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Nutr ESPEN 2018; 25:121-125
- CONCLUSIONS: This study tested the iron absorption from a single bean meal in healthy volunteers or non anemics, In the present study the iron absorption ratio from common bean Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification and compared with common bean BRS Estilo was not significantly different. The iron concentration of the TBB, probably was not sufficient to improve higher bioavailability. It is recommended to evaluate the not only the absorption of iron in cultivars that present a higher difference in iron concentration but also in association with other components of the Brazilian diet, such as rice and beans.
- Influence of zeolite and superphosphate as additives on antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial communities during factory-scale chicken manure composting. [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2018 Apr 30; 263:393-401
- Factory-scale chicken manure composting added with zeolite (F), superphosphate (G), or zeolite and ferrous sulfate (FL) simultaneously, were evaluate for their effects on the behaviors of antibiotic ...
Factory-scale chicken manure composting added with zeolite (F), superphosphate (G), or zeolite and ferrous sulfate (FL) simultaneously, were evaluate for their effects on the behaviors of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial communities. After composting, ARGs in manure decreased by 67.3% in the control, whereas the reductions were 86.5%, 68.6% and 72.2% in F, G and FL, respectively. ARGs encoding ribosomal protection proteins (tetO, tetB(P), and tetM) were reduced to a greater extent than tetG, tetL, sul1 and sul2. Bacteria pathogens were also effectively removed by composting. Network analysis showed that Firmicutes were the important potential host bacteria for ARGs. The bacterial communities and environmental factors, as well as the intI gene, contributed significantly to the variation of ARGs. The ARGs and integrons were reduced more when zeolite was added than when superphosphate was added; thus, it may be useful for reducing the risks of ARGs in chicken manure.
- Impact of Double-Fortified Salt with Iron and Iodine on Hemoglobin, Anemia, and Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. [Journal Article]
- ANAdv Nutr 2018 May 01; 9(3):207-218
- Double-fortified salt (DFS) containing iron and iodine has been proposed as a feasible and cost-effective alternative for iron fortification in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted ...
Double-fortified salt (DFS) containing iron and iodine has been proposed as a feasible and cost-effective alternative for iron fortification in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis from randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials to 1) assess the effect of DFS on biomarkers of iron status and the risk of anemia and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 2) evaluate differential effects of DFS by study type (efficacy or effectiveness), population subgroups, iron formulation (ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, and ferric pyrophosphate), iron concentration, duration of intervention, and study quality. A systematic search with the use of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and other sources identified 221 articles. Twelve efficacy and 2 effectiveness studies met prespecified inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in LMICs: 10 in India, 2 in Morocco, and 1 each in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. In efficacy studies, DFS increased hemoglobin concentrations [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.28; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.44; P < 0.001] and reduced the risk of anemia (RR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.77; P < 0.001) and IDA (RR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.54; P < 0.001). In effectiveness studies, the effect size for hemoglobin was smaller but significant (SMD: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05; P < 0.01). Stratified analyses of efficacy studies by population subgroups indicated positive effects of DFS among women and school-age children. For the latter, DFS increased hemoglobin concentrations (SMD: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.60; P < 0.05) and reduced the risk of anemia (SMD: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.67; P < 0.001) and IDA (SMD: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.54; P < 0.001). Hemoglobin concentrations, anemia prevalence and deworming at baseline, sample size, and study duration were not associated with effect sizes. The results indicate that DFS is efficacious in increasing hemoglobin concentrations and reducing the risk of anemia and IDA in LMIC populations. More effectiveness studies are needed.
- [Effects of nitrogen preserving agent on composting process and nitrogen loss of Eichhornia crassipes]. [Journal Article]
- YYYing Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2017 Apr 18; 28(4):1197-1203
- To study the effects of nitrogen preserving agent (NPA) on composting process and nitrogen loss of Eichhornia crassipes, an aerobic composting was conducted for 35 days using four treatments. The NPA...
To study the effects of nitrogen preserving agent (NPA) on composting process and nitrogen loss of Eichhornia crassipes, an aerobic composting was conducted for 35 days using four treatments. The NPA was prepared by mixing ferrous sulfate, humic acid sodium, and superphosphate (M:M:M=75:20:5). Four treatments were included with different mass ratios of NPA, including 0% (CK), 1% (PN1), 2% (PN2), and 3% (PN3). The physical and chemical properties, N fraction concentrations, ammonia volatilization, and N loss rates were measured and explored during composting process. The results showed that the pile temperature of NPA treatments were higher than that of CK in thermophillic period, however their water contents were significantly (P＜0.05) lower than that in CK in cooling period. At the end of composting, the concentrations of total nitrogen and organic nitrogen increased significantly in NPA treatments (P＜0.05), and their highest concentrations in the PN3 treatment were 16.3% and 13.2% higher than those in CK, respectively. The ammonia volatilization losses of PN1, PN2 and PN3 treatments were 25.9%, 31.5% and 42.4% lower than that of CK, respectively, however, their nitrogen fixation rates reached 31.3%, 40.7% and 72.2% respectively. Therefore, adding NPA could accelerate start-up speed, shorten composting time, and also could effectively reduce ammonia volatilizations and nitrogen loss in the composting process of E. crassipes. Therefore, PN3 showed the best effects of nitrogen preserving.
- Effect of microencapsulated ferrous sulfate particle size on Cheddar cheese composition and quality. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2018 May 02
- Iron-fortified Cheddar cheese was manufactured with large microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (LMFS; 700-1,000 µm in diameter) or small microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (SMFS; 220-422 µm in diameter)....
Iron-fortified Cheddar cheese was manufactured with large microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (LMFS; 700-1,000 µm in diameter) or small microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (SMFS; 220-422 µm in diameter). Cheeses were aged 90 d. Compositional, chemical, and sensory characteristics were compared with control cheeses, which had no ferrous sulfate added. Compositional analysis included fat, protein, ash, moisture, as well as divalent cations iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Thiobarbituric acid reactive species assay was conducted to determine lipid oxidation. A consumer panel consisting of 101 participants evaluated the cheeses for flavor, texture, appearance, and overall acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. Results showed 66.0% iron recovery for LMFS and 91.0% iron recovery for SMFS. Iron content was significantly increased from 0.030 mg of Fe/g in control cheeses to 0.134 mg of Fe/g of cheese for LMFS and 0.174 mg of Fe/g of cheese for SMFS. Fat, protein, ash, moisture, magnesium, zinc, and calcium contents were not significantly different when comparing iron-fortified cheeses with the control. Iron fortification did not increase lipid oxidation; however, iron fortification negatively affected Cheddar cheese sensory attributes, particularly the LMFS fortified cheese. Microencapsulation of ferrous sulfate failed to mask iron's distinct taste, color, and odor. Overall, SMFS showed better results compared with LMFS for iron retention and sensory evaluation in Cheddar cheese. Results of this study show that size of the microencapsulated particle is important in the retention of the iron in the cheese and its sensory attributes. This study provides new information on the importance of particle size with microencapsulated nutrients.
- Food and nutrition insecurity indicators associated with iron deficiency anemia in Brazilian children: a systematic review. [Journal Article]
- CSCien Saude Colet 2018; 23(4):1159-1167
- This study aimed to review food and nutrition insecurity indicators associated with iron deficiency anemia in Brazilian children below 5 years. We searched in electronic databases (SciELO, Lilacs, an...
This study aimed to review food and nutrition insecurity indicators associated with iron deficiency anemia in Brazilian children below 5 years. We searched in electronic databases (SciELO, Lilacs, and Medline) and selected studies by titles, abstracts and full-text reading. Of the 1,023 studies analyzed, 11 fit the inclusion criteria. The results of the studies evidenced that iron deficiency anemia in Brazilian children was associated with sociodemographic and health indicators (male, age below 24 months, children of adolescent mothers, respiratory infections, diarrhea, low maternal schooling, parents' working conditions, nursery time, lack of basic sanitation, maternal anemia, lack of ferrous sulfate use by the mother and/or child and late onset of prenatal care), nutritional indicators (low birth weight, diet characteristics, such as the habit of milk consumption close to meals, low exclusive and full breastfeeding time) and economic indicators (low per capita income). The food and nutrition insecurity analyzed in this study from the perspective of different indicators is associated with iron deficiency anemia in children under 5 years in Brazil.
- Ferric citrate and ferric EDTA but not ferrous sulfate drive amphiregulin-mediated activation of the MAP kinase ERK in gut epithelial cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2018 Mar 30; 9(24):17066-17077
- Ferric chelates may be used as oral iron supplements or phosphate binders but both ferric citrate and ferric EDTA have been shown to promote tumor burden in murine models of colon cancer. Here we stu...
Ferric chelates may be used as oral iron supplements or phosphate binders but both ferric citrate and ferric EDTA have been shown to promote tumor burden in murine models of colon cancer. Here we studied their effects on cancer cell growth, at typical supplemental iron levels encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (0.01-0.2 mM). Caco-2 and/or Hutu-80 cells were exposed to these forms of chelated iron or to ferrous sulfate and outcomes were assessed using cell proliferation assays, proteome profiler arrays, western blot, and ELISA. Ferric EDTA and ferric citrate increased cellular levels of the onco-protein amphiregulin and its receptor (EGFr) which in turn stimulated the activation of the MAP kinase ERK. Simultaneously, the expression of the negative Wnt regulator, DKK-1, increased suggesting that cell proliferation through the Wnt pathway may be less pronounced in the presence of ferric EDTA and ferric citrate, unlike for ferrous sulfate. Moreover, ferrous sulfate did not increase levels of cellular amphiregulin or EGFr. We conclude that specific iron compounds affect cell signaling differently and some may increase the risk of colon cancer advancement in an amphiregulin-dependent fashion. Further scrutiny of safe oral iron use is merited.
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- Effects of iron supplementation versus dietary iron on the nutritional iron status: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. [Journal Article]
- CRCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018 Apr 03; :1-9
- This meta-analysis compared the effects of dietary intervention versus iron supplementation on biochemical parameters related to the iron nutritional status in humans. The PubMed, CENTRAL, LILACS, SC...
This meta-analysis compared the effects of dietary intervention versus iron supplementation on biochemical parameters related to the iron nutritional status in humans. The PubMed, CENTRAL, LILACS, SCIELO, OPENGREY.EU and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for randomized clinical trials that assigned individuals to a dietary intervention or to an iron supplementation regimen, for 12 weeks or more. The primary outcome was the hemoglobin concentration, and secondary outcomes were ferritin, RDW, mean corpuscular volume, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, serum iron, and transferrin saturation. From the 6095 records identified, twelve studies were included, six with children, five with adolescents/adults, and one with pregnant women. In the subgroup of studies that included anemic/iron deficient children, supplementation significantly increased the hemoglobin concentration (weighted mean difference (WMD): 3.19 g/L [95% CI: 1.31, 5.07]) and induced a significantly greater reduction of the soluble transferrin receptor (WMD: -0.46 mg/L [95% CI: -0.70, -0, 21]), when compared to dietary intervention. It also induced a greater reduction of the total binding capacity of iron in adolescents/adults (WMD: -6.96 μmol/L [95% CI: -12.70, -1.21]). Supplementation showed a better effect on hemoglobin recovery in anemic/iron deficient children, while no differences were observed between supplementation and dietary intervention in treating adolescents/adults.