- Fluphenazine·HCl and Epigallocatechin Gallate Modulate the Rate of Formation and Structural Properties of Apolipoprotein C-II Amyloid Fibrils. [Journal Article]
- BBiochemistry 2015 Jun 23; 54(24):3831-8
- Protein misfolding and aggregation, leading to amyloid fibril formation, are characteristic of many devastating and debilitating amyloid diseases. Accordingly, there is significant interest in the me...
Protein misfolding and aggregation, leading to amyloid fibril formation, are characteristic of many devastating and debilitating amyloid diseases. Accordingly, there is significant interest in the mechanisms underlying amyloid fibril formation and identification of possible intervention tools. Small molecule drug compounds approved for human use or for use in phase I-III clinical trials were investigated for their effects on amyloid formation by human apolipoprotein (apo) C-II. Several of these compounds modulated the rate of amyloid formation by apoC-II. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, was an effective inhibitor of apoC-II fibril formation, and the antipsychotic drug, fluphenazine·HCl, was a potent activator. Both EGCG and fluphenazine·HCl exerted concentration-dependent effects on the rate of fibril formation, bound to apoC-II fibrils with high affinity, and competitively reduced thioflavin T binding. EGCG significantly altered the size distribution of fibrils, most likely by promoting the lateral association of fibrils and subsequent formation of large aggregates. Fluphenazine·HCl did not significantly alter the size distribution of fibrils, but it may induce the formation of a small population of rod-like fibrils that differ from the characteristic ribbon-like fibrils normally observed for apoC-II. The findings of this study emphasize the effects of small molecule drugs on the kinetics of amyloid fibril formation and their roles in determining fibril structure and aggregate size.
- Altered spontaneous behavior and sensitivity to apomorphine in rats following pretreatment with S(+)-aporphines or fluphenazine. [Journal Article]
- PPsychopharmacology (Berl) 1993; 111(3):351-8
- Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with similarly effective doses of the typical neuroleptic fluphenazine (FPZ) or the experimental weak partial D2 agonists S(+)N-n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) and S(+)1...
Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with similarly effective doses of the typical neuroleptic fluphenazine (FPZ) or the experimental weak partial D2 agonists S(+)N-n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) and S(+)11-hydroxy-N-n-propylnoraporphine (11-OH-NPa). Spontaneous and dopamine (DA) agonist (apomorphine; APO) stimulated stereotyped behaviors or locomotion, and interactions with APO were evaluated over the following 2 weeks. While FPZ induced marked supersensitivity in APO stereotype, (+)NPA showed no significant change, and (+)11-OH-NPa produced only a small, transient increase in response; NPA also lacked a supersensitizing effect on locomotor arousal induced by APO. The time-course of stereotyped responses to APO following pretreatment with FLZ included a marked increase following FPZ that became maximal at day 5 and normalized by day 9; there was a parallel reduction of acute antisteotypy efficacy of FPZ. (+)11-OH-NPa had similar, but much lesser and shorter-lived effects. Spontaneous locomotion was markedly depressed following FPZ, recovered in 1 week, exceeded controls at day 9, and returned to baseline by day 11; (+)11-OH-NPa, again, had similar but smaller effects. Acute effects of FPZ to reduce spontaneous or APO-induced locomotion were greater after FPZ pretreatment and normalized within a week; (+)11-OH-NPa had a similar but smaller effect. Locomotor arousal by APO was altered inconsistently in the week after pretreatment with FPZ or (+)11-OH-NPa. Thus, FPZ appeared to induce tolerance and supersensitivity in central DA systems, most clearly seen following a several-day period to eliminate the drug.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Dopaminergic mechanisms in self-inflicting biting behavior. [Review]
- PBPsychopharmacol Bull 1989; 25(3):349-52
- Dopaminergic mechanisms involved in self-inflicting biting behavior (SBB) were investigated in two animal models: monkeys with unilateral ventromedial tegmental (VMT) lesions of the brainstem and rat...
Dopaminergic mechanisms involved in self-inflicting biting behavior (SBB) were investigated in two animal models: monkeys with unilateral ventromedial tegmental (VMT) lesions of the brainstem and rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons. The administration of mixed D1/D2 DA agonists to some monkeys with unilateral VMT lesions of the brainstem elicits SBB of the forelimb digits contralateral to the lesion and spasticity of the contralateral hindlimb. This behavior is prevented by pretreatment with the selective D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and with the D1/D2 antagonist fluphenazine. The combined administration of the D1 DA agonist SKF 38393 with the D2 DA agonist quinpirole produces SBB at doses that were ineffective when these drugs were administered individually. The intrastriatal (middle ventrolateral area [MVL]) microinjection of the D1/D2 DA agonist apomorphine (Apo) to rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions elicits SBB. This behavior is not prevented by systemic administration of SCH 23390 and partially prevented by the selective D2 antagonist raclopride. However, the combined administration of SCH 23390 and raclopride completely prevents the Apo-induced SBB. Thus, the pharmacological characteristics of the DA agonist-induced SBB in monkeys with unilateral VMT lesions of the brainstem seem to differ from those induced by intrastriatal (MVL area) administration of DA agonists into rats with 6-OHDA lesions of the nigrostriatal DA neurons. The role of DA neuronal systems in the expression of SBB in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and in some patients with mental retardation, as well as the link between hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency and abnormal dopaminergic function in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, is discussed.
- Dopamine agonist induced self-mutilative biting behavior in monkeys with unilateral ventromedial tegmental lesions of the brainstem: possible pharmacological model for Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. [Journal Article]
- BRBrain Res 1986 Mar 5; 367(1-2):114-20
- We have investigated the effects of various dopamine (DA) agonists on induction of abnormal involuntary movements (AIM) in a group of monkeys which had denervated nigro-striatal DA neurons for 10-14 ...
We have investigated the effects of various dopamine (DA) agonists on induction of abnormal involuntary movements (AIM) in a group of monkeys which had denervated nigro-striatal DA neurons for 10-14 years rendered by a unilateral surgical ventromedial tegmental (VMT) lesion of the brainstem. The surgical lesions were placed when the monkeys were 2-4 years old. The administration of mixed DA agonists, such as L-DOPA, apomorphine (Apo) and abeorphine 201-678, elicit a self-mutilative biting behavior (SMB) of the forelimb digits contralateral to the lesion, and spasticity of the contralateral hindlimb. These dysfunctions resemble, in some aspects, the neurological disturbances associated with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. The SMB behavior was elicited by mixed DA agonists which predominantly stimulate D1, but not D2 DA receptors, and was prevented or abolished by the D1 DA antagonist SCH 23390 or by the D1 and D2 DA antagonist fluphenazine (Flu), but not by the D2 antagonist (+/-)sulpiride. These results suggest that DA agonist-induced SMB behavior is mediated by D1 and/or by both D1 and D2 DA receptor pathways. To study the relationships between HPRT, the defective enzyme in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, and the DA neuronal systems, we have measured the effects of nigro-striatal DA degeneration and intrastriatal neuronal degeneration on HPRT activity. The unilateral 6-OHDA-induced nigro-striatal DA degeneration does not significantly alter the HPRT activity on the lesioned side of the striatum, while the quinolinic acid-induced intrastriatal neuronal degeneration significantly reduces the enzyme activity. These results suggest that HPRT is localized on intrastriatal neurons which are also known to contain DA receptors. It is postulated that HPRT deficiency in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome results in abnormal guanine nucleotide metabolism which may affect the regulation of DA receptors.