- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Hydrochlorothiazide doses of 50 mg daily or less are acceptable during lactation. Intense diuresis with large doses may decrease breastmilk production.
Hydrochlorothiazide doses of 50 mg daily or less are acceptable during lactation. Intense diuresis with large doses may decrease breastmilk production.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Because little information is available on the use of furosemide during breastfeeding and because intense diuresis might decrease lactation, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursi...
Because little information is available on the use of furosemide during breastfeeding and because intense diuresis might decrease lactation, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
- A Review About Lycopene-Induced Nuclear Hormone Receptor Signalling in Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism via still Unknown Endogenous Apo-10´-Lycopenoids. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Vitam Nutr Res 2017 Oct 20; :1-9
- Lycopene is the red pigment in tomatoes and tomato products and is an important dietary carotenoid found in the human organism. Lycopene-isomers, oxidative lycopene metabolites and apo-lycopenoids ar...
Lycopene is the red pigment in tomatoes and tomato products and is an important dietary carotenoid found in the human organism. Lycopene-isomers, oxidative lycopene metabolites and apo-lycopenoids are found in the food matrix. Lycopene intake derived from tomato consumption is associated with alteration of lipid metabolism and a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Lycopene is mainly described as a potent antioxidant but novel studies are shifting towards its metabolites and their capacity to mediate nuclear receptor signalling. Di-/tetra-hydro-derivatives of apo-10´-lycopenoic acid and apo-15´-lycopenoic acids are potential novel endogenous mammalian lycopene metabolites which may act as ligands for nuclear hormone mediated activation and signalling. In this review, we postulate that complex lycopene metabolism results in various lycopene metabolites which have the ability to mediate transactivation of various nuclear hormone receptors like RARs, RXRs and PPARs. A new mechanistic explanation of how tomato consumption could positively modulate inflammation and lipid metabolism is discussed.
- Insights into Substrate Modification by Dehydratases from Type I Polyketide Synthases. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mol Biol 2017 May 19; 429(10):1554-1569
- Dehydration reactions play a crucial role in the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids and a wide range of pharmacologically active polyketide natural products with strong emphasis on human medicine. T...
Dehydration reactions play a crucial role in the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids and a wide range of pharmacologically active polyketide natural products with strong emphasis on human medicine. The type I polyketide synthase PpsC from Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyzes key biosynthetic steps of lipid virulence factors phthiocerol dimycocerosates and phenolic glycolipids. Given the insolubility of the natural C28-C30 fatty acyl substrate of the PpsC dehydratase (DH) domain, we investigated its structure-function relationships in the presence of shorter surrogate substrates. Since most enzymes belonging to the (R)-specific enoyl hydratase/hydroxyacyl dehydratase family conduct the reverse hydration reaction in vitro, we have determined the X-ray structures of the PpsC DH domain, both unliganded (apo) and in complex with trans-but-2-enoyl-CoA or trans-dodec-2-enoyl-CoA derivatives. This study provides for the first time a snapshot of dehydratase-ligand interactions following a hydration reaction. Our structural analysis allowed us to identify residues essential for substrate binding and activity. The structural comparison of the two complexes also sheds light on the need for long acyl chains for this dehydratase to carry out its function, consistent with both its in vitro catalytic behavior and the physiological role of the PpsC enzyme.
- The Structure of LiuC, a 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaconyl CoA Dehydratase Involved in Isovaleryl-CoA Biosynthesis in Myxococcus xanthus, Reveals Insights into Specificity and Catalysis. [Journal Article]
- CChembiochem 2016 Sep 02; 17(17):1658-64
- Myxobacteria are able to produce the important metabolite isovaleryl coenzyme A by a route other than leucine degradation. The first step into this pathway is mediated by LiuC, a member of the 3-meth...
Myxobacteria are able to produce the important metabolite isovaleryl coenzyme A by a route other than leucine degradation. The first step into this pathway is mediated by LiuC, a member of the 3-methylglutaconyl CoA hydratases (MGCH). Here we present crystal structures refined to 2.05 and 1.1 Å of LiuC in the apo form and bound to coenzyme A, respectively. By using simulated annealing we modeled the enzyme substrate complex and identified residues potentially involved in substrate binding, specificity, and catalysis. The dehydration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaconyl CoA to 3-methylglutaconyl CoA catalyzed by LiuC involves Glu112 and Glu132 and likely employs the typical crotonase acid-base mechanism. In this, Tyr231 and Arg69 are key players in positioning the substrate to enable catalysis. Surprisingly, LiuC shows higher sequence and structural similarity to human MGCH than to bacterial forms, although they convert the same substrate. This study provides structural insights into the alternative isovaleryl coenzyme A biosynthesis pathway and might open a path for biofuel research, as isovaleryl-CoA is a source for isobutene, a precursor for renewable fuels and chemicals.
- Biochemistry and Crystal Structure of Ectoine Synthase: A Metal-Containing Member of the Cupin Superfamily. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(3):e0151285
- Ectoine is a compatible solute and chemical chaperone widely used by members of the Bacteria and a few Archaea to fend-off the detrimental effects of high external osmolarity on cellular physiology a...
Ectoine is a compatible solute and chemical chaperone widely used by members of the Bacteria and a few Archaea to fend-off the detrimental effects of high external osmolarity on cellular physiology and growth. Ectoine synthase (EctC) catalyzes the last step in ectoine production and mediates the ring closure of the substrate N-gamma-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid through a water elimination reaction. However, the crystal structure of ectoine synthase is not known and a clear understanding of how its fold contributes to enzyme activity is thus lacking. Using the ectoine synthase from the cold-adapted marine bacterium Sphingopyxis alaskensis (Sa), we report here both a detailed biochemical characterization of the EctC enzyme and the high-resolution crystal structure of its apo-form. Structural analysis classified the (Sa)EctC protein as a member of the cupin superfamily. EctC forms a dimer with a head-to-tail arrangement, both in solution and in the crystal structure. The interface of the dimer assembly is shaped through backbone-contacts and weak hydrophobic interactions mediated by two beta-sheets within each monomer. We show for the first time that ectoine synthase harbors a catalytically important metal co-factor; metal depletion and reconstitution experiments suggest that EctC is probably an iron-dependent enzyme. We found that EctC not only effectively converts its natural substrate N-gamma-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid into ectoine through a cyclocondensation reaction, but that it can also use the isomer N-alpha-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid as its substrate, albeit with substantially reduced catalytic efficiency. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis experiments targeting amino acid residues that are evolutionarily highly conserved among the extended EctC protein family, including those forming the presumptive iron-binding site, were conducted to functionally analyze the properties of the resulting EctC variants. An assessment of enzyme activity and iron content of these mutants give important clues for understanding the architecture of the active site positioned within the core of the EctC cupin barrel.
- Terminalia arjuna bark extract improves diuresis and attenuates acute hypobaric hypoxia induced cerebral vascular leakage. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2016 Mar 02; 180:43-53
- CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study indicate towards diuretic potential of hydro-alcoholic extract of T. arjuna bark and provide evidence for its novel application as a prophylactic to attenuate acute hypobaric hypoxia induced cerebral vascular leakage through ANP mediated modulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
- Structure and functional characterization of a bile acid 7α dehydratase BaiE in secondary bile acid synthesis. [Journal Article]
- PProteins 2016; 84(3):316-31
- Conversion of the primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to the secondary bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) is performed by a few species of i...
Conversion of the primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to the secondary bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) is performed by a few species of intestinal bacteria in the genus Clostridium through a multistep biochemical pathway that removes a 7α-hydroxyl group. The rate-determining enzyme in this pathway is bile acid 7α-dehydratase (baiE). In this study, crystal structures of apo-BaiE and its putative product-bound [3-oxo-Δ(4,6) -lithocholyl-Coenzyme A (CoA)] complex are reported. BaiE is a trimer with a twisted α + β barrel fold with similarity to the Nuclear Transport Factor 2 (NTF2) superfamily. Tyr30, Asp35, and His83 form a catalytic triad that is conserved across this family. Site-directed mutagenesis of BaiE from Clostridium scindens VPI 12708 confirm that these residues are essential for catalysis and also the importance of other conserved residues, Tyr54 and Arg146, which are involved in substrate binding and affect catalytic turnover. Steady-state kinetic studies reveal that the BaiE homologs are able to turn over 3-oxo-Δ(4) -bile acid and CoA-conjugated 3-oxo-Δ(4) -bile acid substrates with comparable efficiency questioning the role of CoA-conjugation in the bile acid metabolism pathway.
- Crystal structure analysis of a fatty acid double-bond hydratase from Lactobacillus acidophilus. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 2013; 69(Pt 4):648-57
- Bacteria have evolved mechanisms for the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acid formation may be the first step in such a process; however, knowledge of the structural and mecha...
Bacteria have evolved mechanisms for the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acid formation may be the first step in such a process; however, knowledge of the structural and mechanistic aspects of this reaction is scarce. Recently, myosin cross-reactive antigen was shown to be a bacterial FAD-containing hydratase which acts on the 9Z and 12Z double bonds of C16 and C18 non-esterified fatty acids, with the formation of 10-hydroxy and 10,13-dihydroxy fatty acids. These fatty acid hydratases form a large protein family which is conserved across Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with no sequence similarity to any known protein apart from the FAD-binding motif. In order to shed light on the substrate recognition and the mechanism of the hydratase reaction, the crystal structure of the hydratase from Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAH) was determined by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion. Crystal structures of apo LAH and of LAH with bound linoleic acid were refined at resolutions of 2.3 and 1.8 Å, respectively. LAH is a homodimer; each protomer consists of four intricately connected domains. Three of them form the FAD-binding and substrate-binding sites and reveal structural similarity to three domains of several flavin-dependent enzymes, including amine oxidoreductases. The additional fourth domain of LAH is located at the C-terminus and consists of three α-helices. It covers the entrance to the hydrophobic substrate channel leading from the protein surface to the active site. In the presence of linoleic acid, the fourth domain of one protomer undergoes conformational changes and opens the entrance to the substrate-binding channel of the other protomer of the LAH homodimer. The linoleic acid molecule is bound at the entrance to the substrate channel, suggesting movement of the lid domain triggered by substrate recognition.
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- Crystal structure of type I 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase of Aquifex aeolicus suggests closing of active site flap is not essential for enzyme action. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2013 Mar 8; 432(2):350-4
- Structural analyses of enzymes involved in biosynthetic pathways that are present in micro-organisms, but absent from mammals (for example Shikimate pathway) are important in developing anti-microbia...
Structural analyses of enzymes involved in biosynthetic pathways that are present in micro-organisms, but absent from mammals (for example Shikimate pathway) are important in developing anti-microbial drugs. Crystal structure of the Shikimate pathway enzyme, type I 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase (3-DHQase) from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus was solved both as an apo form and in complex with a ligand. The complex structure revealed an interesting structural difference when compared to other ligand-bound type I 3-DHQases suggesting that closure of the active site loop is not essential for catalysis. This provides new insights into the catalytic mechanism of type I 3-DHQases.