- Structural, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Characterizations of Glyoxylate/Hydroxypyruvate Reductases Show Their Division into Two Distinct Subfamilies. [Journal Article]
- BBiochemistry 2018 Feb 13; 57(6):963-977
- The d-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (2HADH) family illustrates a complex evolutionary history with multiple lateral gene transfers and gene duplications and losses. As a result, the exact functional an...
The d-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (2HADH) family illustrates a complex evolutionary history with multiple lateral gene transfers and gene duplications and losses. As a result, the exact functional annotation of individual members can be extrapolated to a very limited extent. Here, we revise the previous simplified view on the classification of the 2HADH family; specifically, we show that the previously delineated glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GHPR) subfamily consists of two evolutionary separated GHRA and GHRB subfamilies. We compare two representatives of these subfamilies from Sinorhizobium meliloti (SmGhrA and SmGhrB), employing a combination of biochemical, structural, and bioinformatics approaches. Our kinetic results show that both enzymes reduce several 2-ketocarboxylic acids with overlapping, but not equivalent, substrate preferences. SmGhrA and SmGhrB show highest activity with glyoxylate and hydroxypyruvate, respectively; in addition, only SmGhrB reduces 2-keto-d-gluconate, and only SmGhrA reduces pyruvate (with low efficiency). We present nine crystal structures of both enzymes in apo forms and in complexes with cofactors and substrates/substrate analogues. In particular, we determined a crystal structure of SmGhrB with 2-keto-d-gluconate, which is the biggest substrate cocrystallized with a 2HADH member. The structures reveal significant differences between SmGhrA and SmGhrB, both in the overall structure and within the substrate-binding pocket, offering insight into the molecular basis for the observed substrate preferences and subfamily differences. In addition, we provide an overview of all GHRA and GHRB structures complexed with a ligand in the active site.
- Thermal degradation kinetics of all-trans and cis-carotenoids in a light-induced model system. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2018 Jan 15; 239:360-368
- Thermal degradation kinetics of lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene was studied at 25, 35, and 45°C in a model system. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of all-trans- and cis-caroteno...
Thermal degradation kinetics of lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene was studied at 25, 35, and 45°C in a model system. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of all-trans- and cis-carotenoids were conducted using HPLC-DAD-MS technologies. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated by non-linear regression. A total of 29 geometrical isomers and four oxidation products were detected, including all-trans-, keto compounds, mono-cis- and di-cis-isomers. Degradations of all-trans-lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene were described by a first-order kinetic model, with the order of rate constants as kβ-carotene>kβ-cryptoxanthin>klutein>kzeaxanthin. Activation energies of zeaxanthin, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene were 65.6, 38.9, 33.9, and 8.6kJ/moL, respectively. cis-carotenoids also followed with the first-order kinetic model, but they did not show a defined sequence of degradation rate constants and activation energies at different temperatures. A possible degradation pathway of four carotenoids was identified to better understand the mechanism of carotenoid degradation.
- Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage. [Journal Article]
- SPSaudi Pharm J 2017; 25(5):770-779
- Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects...
Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M) as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop sustained released matrix tablets. The formulated matrix tablets were evaluated in terms of physical appearance, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. The difference between the natural and synthetic polymers was investigated concurrently. Matrix tablets developed from each formulation passed all standard physical evaluation tests. The dissolution studies of formulated tablets revealed sustained drug release up to 24 h compared to the reference drug Apo Keto® SR tablets. The dissolution data later were fitted into kinetic models such as zero order equation, first order equation, Higuchi equation, Hixson Crowell equation and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to study the release of drugs from each formulation. The best formulations were selected based on the similarity factor (f2) value of 50% and more. Through the research, it is found that by increasing the polymers concentration, the rate of drug release decreased for both natural and synthetic polymers. The best formulation was found to be F3 which contained 40% Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage polymer and showed comparable dissolution profile to the reference drug with f2 value of 78.03%. The release kinetics of this formulation has shown to follow non-Fickian type which involved both diffusion and erosion mechanism. Additionally, the statistical results indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the F3 and reference drug in terms of MDT and T50% with p-values of 1.00 and 0.995 respectively.
- Structure and characterization of a NAD(P)H-dependent carbonyl reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. [Journal Article]
- FLFEBS Lett 2017; 591(12):1785-1797
- To investigate the function of the pa4079 gene from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, we determined its crystal structure and confirmed it to be a NAD(P)-dependent short-chain d...
To investigate the function of the pa4079 gene from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, we determined its crystal structure and confirmed it to be a NAD(P)-dependent short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase. Structural similarity and activity for a broad range of substrates indicate that PA4079 functions as a carbonyl reductase. Comparison of apo- and holo-PA4079 shows that NADP stabilizes the active site specificity loop, and small molecule binding induces rotation of the Tyr183 side chain by approximately 90° out of the active site. Quantitative real-time PCR results show that pa4079 maintains high expression levels during antibiotic exposure. This work provides a starting point for understanding substrate recognition and selectivity by PA4079, as well as its possible reduction of antimicrobial drugs.
- Structure-Based Engineering of an Artificially Generated NADP+-Dependent d-Amino Acid Dehydrogenase. [Journal Article]
- AEAppl Environ Microbiol 2017 Jun 01; 83(11)
- A stable NADP+-dependent d-amino acid dehydrogenase (DAADH) was recently created from Ureibacillus thermosphaericusmeso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase through site-directed mutagenesis. To produce a n...
A stable NADP+-dependent d-amino acid dehydrogenase (DAADH) was recently created from Ureibacillus thermosphaericusmeso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase through site-directed mutagenesis. To produce a novel DAADH mutant with different substrate specificity, the crystal structure of apo-DAADH was determined at a resolution of 1.78 Å, and the amino acid residues responsible for the substrate specificity were evaluated using additional site-directed mutagenesis. By introducing a single D94A mutation, the enzyme's substrate specificity was dramatically altered; the mutant utilized d-phenylalanine as the most preferable substrate for oxidative deamination and had a specific activity of 5.33 μmol/min/mg at 50°C, which was 54-fold higher than that of the parent DAADH. In addition, the specific activities of the mutant toward d-leucine, d-norleucine, d-methionine, d-isoleucine, and d-tryptophan were much higher (6 to 25 times) than those of the parent enzyme. For reductive amination, the D94A mutant exhibited extremely high specific activity with phenylpyruvate (16.1 μmol/min/mg at 50°C). The structures of the D94A-Y224F double mutant in complex with NADP+ and in complex with both NADPH and 2-keto-6-aminocapronic acid (lysine oxo-analogue) were then determined at resolutions of 1.59 Å and 1.74 Å, respectively. The phenylpyruvate-binding model suggests that the D94A mutation prevents the substrate phenyl group from sterically clashing with the side chain of Asp94. A structural comparison suggests that both the enlarged substrate-binding pocket and enhanced hydrophobicity of the pocket are mainly responsible for the high reactivity of the D94A mutant toward the hydrophobic d-amino acids with bulky side chains.IMPORTANCE In recent years, the potential uses for d-amino acids as source materials for the industrial production of medicines, seasonings, and agrochemicals have been growing. To date, several methods have been used for the production of d-amino acids, but all include tedious steps. The use of NAD(P)+-dependent d-amino acid dehydrogenase (DAADH) makes single-step production of d-amino acids from oxo-acid analogs and ammonia possible. We recently succeeded in creating a stable DAADH and demonstrated that it is applicable for one-step synthesis of d-amino acids, such as d-leucine and d-isoleucine. As the next step, the creation of an enzyme exhibiting different substrate specificity and higher catalytic efficiency is a key to the further development of d-amino acid production. In this study, we succeeded in creating a novel mutant exhibiting extremely high catalytic activity for phenylpyruvate amination. Structural insight into the mutant will be useful for further improvement of DAADHs.
- A comparative structural analysis reveals distinctive features of co-factor binding and substrate specificity in plant aldo-keto reductases. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 Jun 10; 474(4):696-701
- Plant aldo-keto reductases of the AKR4C subfamily play key roles during stress and are attractive targets for developing stress-tolerant crops. However, these AKR4Cs show little to no activity with p...
Plant aldo-keto reductases of the AKR4C subfamily play key roles during stress and are attractive targets for developing stress-tolerant crops. However, these AKR4Cs show little to no activity with previously-envisioned sugar substrates. We hypothesized a structural basis for the distinctive cofactor binding and substrate specificity of these plant enzymes. To test this, we solved the crystal structure of a novel AKR4C subfamily member, the AKR4C7 from maize, in the apo form and in complex with NADP(+). The binary complex revealed an intermediate state of cofactor binding that preceded closure of Loop B, and also indicated that conformational changes upon substrate binding are required to induce a catalytically-favorable conformation of the active-site pocket. Comparative structural analyses of homologues (AKR1B1, AKR4C8 and AKR4C9) showed that evolutionary redesign of plant AKR4Cs weakened interactions that stabilize the closed conformation of Loop B. This in turn decreased cofactor affinity and altered configuration of the substrate-binding site. We propose that these structural modifications contribute to impairment of sugar reductase activity in favor of other substrates in the plant AKR4C subgroup, and that catalysis involves a three-step process relevant to other AKRs.
- Crystal Structures of Apo and Liganded 4-Oxalocrotonate Decarboxylase Uncover a Structural Basis for the Metal-Assisted Decarboxylation of a Vinylogous β-Keto Acid. [Journal Article]
- BBiochemistry 2016 May 10; 55(18):2632-45
- The enzymes in the catechol meta-fission pathway have been studied for more than 50 years in several species of bacteria capable of degrading a number of aromatic compounds. In a related pathway, nap...
The enzymes in the catechol meta-fission pathway have been studied for more than 50 years in several species of bacteria capable of degrading a number of aromatic compounds. In a related pathway, naphthalene, a toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is fully degraded to intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle by the soil bacteria Pseudomonas putida G7. In this organism, the 83 kb NAH7 plasmid carries several genes involved in this biotransformation process. One enzyme in this route, NahK, a 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase (4-OD), converts 2-oxo-3-hexenedioate to 2-hydroxy-2,4-pentadienoate using Mg(2+) as a cofactor. Efforts to study how 4-OD catalyzes this decarboxylation have been hampered because 4-OD is present in a complex with vinylpyruvate hydratase (VPH), which is the next enzyme in the same pathway. For the first time, a monomeric, stable, and active 4-OD has been expressed and purified in the absence of VPH. Crystal structures for NahK in the apo form and bonded with five substrate analogues were obtained using two distinct crystallization conditions. Analysis of the crystal structures implicates a lid domain in substrate binding and suggests roles for specific residues in a proposed reaction mechanism. In addition, we assign a possible function for the NahK N-terminal domain, which differs from most of the other members of the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase superfamily. Although the structural basis for metal-dependent β-keto acid decarboxylases has been reported, this is the first structural report for that of a vinylogous β-keto acid decarboxylase and the first crystal structure of a 4-OD.
- B-factor Analysis and Conformational Rearrangement of Aldose Reductase. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Proteomics 2014; 11(3):151-160
- The NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose reaction that is catalyzed by Aldose Reductase (AR) follows a sequential ordered kinetic mechanism in which the co-factor NADPH binds to the enzyme prior to t...
The NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose reaction that is catalyzed by Aldose Reductase (AR) follows a sequential ordered kinetic mechanism in which the co-factor NADPH binds to the enzyme prior to the aldehyde substrate. The kinetic/structural experiments have found a conformational change involving a hinge-like movement of a surface loop (residues 213-224) which is anticipated to take place upon the binding of the diphosphate moiety of NADPH. The reorientation of this loop, expected to permit the release of NADP+, represents the rate-limiting step of the catalytic mechanism. This study reveals: 1) The Translation/Libration/Screw (TLS) analysis of absolute B-factors of apo AR crystal structures indicates that the 212-224 loop might move as a rigid group. 2) Residues that make the flexible loop slide in the AR binary and ternary complexes. 3) The normalized B-factors separate this segment into three different clusters with fewer residues.
- High-resolution structures of mutants of residues that affect access to the ligand-binding cavity of human lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 2014; 70(Pt 8):2125-38
- Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) catalyzes the isomerization of the 9,11-endoperoxide group of PGH2 (prostaglandin H2) to produce PGD2 (prostaglandin D2) with 9-hydroxy and 11-keto gr...
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) catalyzes the isomerization of the 9,11-endoperoxide group of PGH2 (prostaglandin H2) to produce PGD2 (prostaglandin D2) with 9-hydroxy and 11-keto groups. The product of the reaction, PGD2, is the precursor of several metabolites involved in many regulatory events. L-PGDS, the first member of the important lipocalin family to be recognized as an enzyme, is also able to bind and transport small hydrophobic molecules and was formerly known as β-trace protein, the second most abundant protein in human cerebrospinal fluid. Previous structural work on the mouse and human proteins has focused on the identification of the amino acids responsible and the proposal of a mechanism for catalysis. In this paper, the X-ray structures of the apo and holo forms (bound to PEG) of the C65A mutant of human L-PGDS at 1.40 Å resolution and of the double mutant C65A/K59A at 1.60 Å resolution are reported. The apo forms of the double mutants C65A/W54F and C65A/W112F and the triple mutant C65A/W54F/W112F have also been studied. Mutation of the lysine residue does not seem to affect the binding of PEG to the ligand-binding cavity, and mutation of a single or both tryptophans appears to have the same effect on the position of these two aromatic residues at the entrance to the cavity. A solvent molecule has also been identified in an invariant position in the cavity of virtually all of the molecules present in the nine asymmetric units of the crystals that have been examined. Taken together, these observations indicate that the residues that have been mutated indeed appear to play a role in the entrance-exit process of the substrate and/or other ligands into/out of the binding cavity of the lipocalin.
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- The first crystal structure of NAD-dependent 3-dehydro-2-deoxy-D-gluconate dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus HB8. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 2014; 70(Pt 4):994-1004
- 2-Keto-3-deoxygluconate (KDG) is one of the important intermediates in pectin metabolism. An enzyme involved in this pathway, 3-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate 5-dehydrogenase (DDGDH), has been identifie...
2-Keto-3-deoxygluconate (KDG) is one of the important intermediates in pectin metabolism. An enzyme involved in this pathway, 3-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate 5-dehydrogenase (DDGDH), has been identified which converts 2,5-diketo-3-deoxygluconate to KDG. The enzyme is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase (SDR) family. To gain insight into the function of this enzyme at the molecular level, the first crystal structure of DDGDH from Thermus thermophilus HB8 has been determined in the apo form, as well as in complexes with the cofactor and with citrate, by X-ray diffraction methods. The crystal structures reveal a tight tetrameric oligomerization. The secondary-structural elements and catalytically important residues of the enzyme were highly conserved amongst the proteins of the NAD(P)-dependent SDR family. The DDGDH protomer contains a dinucleotide-binding fold which binds the coenzyme NAD(+) in an intersubunit cleft; hence, the observed oligomeric state might be important for the catalytic function. This enzyme prefers NAD(H) rather than NADP(H) as the physiological cofactor. A structural comparison of DDGDH with mouse lung carbonyl reductase suggests that a significant difference in the α-loop-α region of this enzyme is associated with the coenzyme specificity. The structural data allow a detailed understanding of the functional role of the conserved catalytic triad (Ser129-Tyr144-Lys148) in cofactor and substrate recognition, thus providing substantial insights into DDGDH catalysis. From analysis of the three-dimensional structure, intersubunit hydrophobic interactions were found to be important for enzyme oligomerization and thermostability.