- Crystal structure and kinetic analyses of a hexameric form of (S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 2018 Nov 01; 74(Pt 11):733-740
- (S)-3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (HBD) has been gaining increased attention recently as it is a key enzyme in the enantiomeric formation of (S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA [(S)-3HB-CoA]. It converts a...
(S)-3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (HBD) has been gaining increased attention recently as it is a key enzyme in the enantiomeric formation of (S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA [(S)-3HB-CoA]. It converts acetoacetyl-CoA to (S)-3HB-CoA in the synthetic metabolic pathway. (S)-3HB-CoA is further modified to form (S)-3-hydroxybutyrate, which is a source of biodegradable polymers. During the course of a study to develop biodegradable polymers, attempts were made to determine the crystal structure of HBD from Clostridium acetobutylicum (CacHBD), and the crystal structures of both apo and NAD+-bound forms of CacHBD were determined. The crystals belonged to different space groups: P212121 and P21. However, both structures adopted a hexamer composed of three dimers in the asymmetric unit, and this oligomerization was additionally confirmed by gel-filtration column chromatography. Furthermore, to investigate the catalytic residues of CacHBD, the enzymatic activities of the wild type and of three single-amino-acid mutants were analyzed, in which the Ser, His and Asn residues that are conserved in the HBDs from C. acetobutylicum, C. butyricum and Ralstonia eutropha, as well as in the L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenases from Homo sapiens and Escherichia coli, were substituted by alanines. The S117A and N188A mutants abolished the activity, while the H138A mutant showed a slightly lower Km value and a significantly lower kcat value than the wild type. Therefore, in combination with the crystal structures, it was shown that His138 is involved in catalysis and that Ser117 and Asn188 may be important for substrate recognition to place the keto group of the substrate in the correct position for reaction.
- Crystal structure of yeast xylose reductase in complex with a novel NADP-DTT adduct provides insights into substrate recognition and catalysis. [Journal Article]
- FJFEBS J 2018 Sep 30
- Aldose reductases (ARs) belonging to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily catalyze the conversion of carbonyl substrates into their respective alcohols. Here we report the crystal structures of ...
Aldose reductases (ARs) belonging to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily catalyze the conversion of carbonyl substrates into their respective alcohols. Here we report the crystal structures of the yeast Debaryomyces nepalensis xylose reductase (DnXR, AKR2B10) in the apo form and as a ternary complex with a novel NADP-DTT adduct. Xylose reductase, a key enzyme in the conversion of xylose to xylitol, has several industrial applications. The enzyme displayed the highest catalytic efficiency for l-threose (138 ± 7 mm-1 ·s-1 ) followed by d-erythrose (30 ± 3 mm-1 ·s-1 ). The crystal structure of the complex reveals a covalent linkage between the C4N atom of the nicotinamide ring of the cosubstrate and the S1 sulfur atom of DTT and provides the first structural evidence for a protein mediated NADP-low-molecular-mass thiol adduct. We hypothesize that the formation of the adduct is facilitated by an in-crystallo Michael addition of the DTT thiolate to the specific conformation of bound NADPH in the active site of DnXR. The interactions between DTT, a four-carbon sugar alcohol analog, and the enzyme are representative of a near-cognate product ternary complex and provide significant insights into the structural basis of aldose binding and specificity and the catalytic mechanism of ARs.
- Identification, functional characterization, and crystal structure determination of bacterial levoglucosan dehydrogenase. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Chem 2018 Nov 09; 293(45):17375-17386
- Levoglucosan is the 1,6-anhydrosugar of d-glucose formed by pyrolysis of glucans and is found in the environment and industrial waste. Two types of microbial levoglucosan metabolic pathways are known...
Levoglucosan is the 1,6-anhydrosugar of d-glucose formed by pyrolysis of glucans and is found in the environment and industrial waste. Two types of microbial levoglucosan metabolic pathways are known. Although the eukaryotic pathway involving levoglucosan kinase has been well-studied, the bacterial pathway involving levoglucosan dehydrogenase (LGDH) has not been well-investigated. Here, we identified and cloned the lgdh gene from the bacterium Pseudarthrobacter phenanthrenivorans and characterized the recombinant protein. The enzyme exhibited high substrate specificity toward levoglucosan and NAD+ for the oxidative reaction and was confirmed to be LGDH. LGDH also showed weak activities (∼4%) toward l-sorbose and 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol. The reverse (reductive) reaction using 3-keto-levoglucosan and NADH exhibited significantly lower Km and higher kcat values than those of the forward reaction. The crystal structures of LGDH in the apo and complex forms with NADH, NADH + levoglucosan, and NADH + l-sorbose revealed that LGDH has a typical fold of Gfo/Idh/MocA family proteins, similar to those of scyllo-inositol dehydrogenase, aldose-aldose oxidoreductase, 1,5-anhydro-d-fructose reductase, and glucose-fructose oxidoreductase. The crystal structures also disclosed that the active site of LGDH is distinct from those of these enzymes. The LGDH active site extensively recognized the levoglucosan molecule with six hydrogen bonds, and the C3 atom of levoglucosan was closely located to the C4 atom of NADH nicotinamide. Our study is the first molecular characterization of LGDH, providing evidence for C3-specific oxidation and representing a starting point for future biotechnological use of LGDH and levoglucosan-metabolizing bacteria.
- Structures of Zymomonas 2-Keto-3-Deoxy-6-Phosphogluconate Aldolase with and without a Substrate Analog at the Phosphate-Binding Loop. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Aug 28; 28(8):1339-1345
- 2-Keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase, which catalyzes aldol cleavage and condensation reactions, has two distinct substrate-binding sites. The substrate-binding mode at the catalytic sit...
2-Keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase, which catalyzes aldol cleavage and condensation reactions, has two distinct substrate-binding sites. The substrate-binding mode at the catalytic site and Schiff-base formation have been well studied. However, structural information on the phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) is limited. Zymomonas mobilis KDPG aldolase is one of the aldolases with a wide substrate spectrum. Its structure in complex with the substrate-mimicking 3-phosphoglycerate (3PG) shows that the phosphate moiety of 3PG interacts with the P-loop and a nearby conserved serine residue. 3PG-binding to the P-loop replaces water molecules aligned from the P-loop to the catalytic site, as observed in the apo-structure. The extra electron density near the P-loop and comparison with other aldolases suggest the diversity and flexibility of the serine-containing loop among KDPG aldolases. These structural data may help to understand the substrate-binding mode and the broad substrate specificity of the Zymomonas KDPG aldolase.
- Structural, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Characterizations of Glyoxylate/Hydroxypyruvate Reductases Show Their Division into Two Distinct Subfamilies. [Journal Article]
- BBiochemistry 2018 02 13; 57(6):963-977
- The d-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (2HADH) family illustrates a complex evolutionary history with multiple lateral gene transfers and gene duplications and losses. As a result, the exact functional an...
The d-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (2HADH) family illustrates a complex evolutionary history with multiple lateral gene transfers and gene duplications and losses. As a result, the exact functional annotation of individual members can be extrapolated to a very limited extent. Here, we revise the previous simplified view on the classification of the 2HADH family; specifically, we show that the previously delineated glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GHPR) subfamily consists of two evolutionary separated GHRA and GHRB subfamilies. We compare two representatives of these subfamilies from Sinorhizobium meliloti (SmGhrA and SmGhrB), employing a combination of biochemical, structural, and bioinformatics approaches. Our kinetic results show that both enzymes reduce several 2-ketocarboxylic acids with overlapping, but not equivalent, substrate preferences. SmGhrA and SmGhrB show highest activity with glyoxylate and hydroxypyruvate, respectively; in addition, only SmGhrB reduces 2-keto-d-gluconate, and only SmGhrA reduces pyruvate (with low efficiency). We present nine crystal structures of both enzymes in apo forms and in complexes with cofactors and substrates/substrate analogues. In particular, we determined a crystal structure of SmGhrB with 2-keto-d-gluconate, which is the biggest substrate cocrystallized with a 2HADH member. The structures reveal significant differences between SmGhrA and SmGhrB, both in the overall structure and within the substrate-binding pocket, offering insight into the molecular basis for the observed substrate preferences and subfamily differences. In addition, we provide an overview of all GHRA and GHRB structures complexed with a ligand in the active site.
- Thermal degradation kinetics of all-trans and cis-carotenoids in a light-induced model system. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2018 Jan 15; 239:360-368
- Thermal degradation kinetics of lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene was studied at 25, 35, and 45°C in a model system. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of all-trans- and cis-caroteno...
Thermal degradation kinetics of lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene was studied at 25, 35, and 45°C in a model system. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of all-trans- and cis-carotenoids were conducted using HPLC-DAD-MS technologies. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated by non-linear regression. A total of 29 geometrical isomers and four oxidation products were detected, including all-trans-, keto compounds, mono-cis- and di-cis-isomers. Degradations of all-trans-lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene were described by a first-order kinetic model, with the order of rate constants as kβ-carotene>kβ-cryptoxanthin>klutein>kzeaxanthin. Activation energies of zeaxanthin, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene were 65.6, 38.9, 33.9, and 8.6kJ/moL, respectively. cis-carotenoids also followed with the first-order kinetic model, but they did not show a defined sequence of degradation rate constants and activation energies at different temperatures. A possible degradation pathway of four carotenoids was identified to better understand the mechanism of carotenoid degradation.
- Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage. [Journal Article]
- SPSaudi Pharm J 2017; 25(5):770-779
- Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects...
Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M) as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop sustained released matrix tablets. The formulated matrix tablets were evaluated in terms of physical appearance, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. The difference between the natural and synthetic polymers was investigated concurrently. Matrix tablets developed from each formulation passed all standard physical evaluation tests. The dissolution studies of formulated tablets revealed sustained drug release up to 24 h compared to the reference drug Apo Keto® SR tablets. The dissolution data later were fitted into kinetic models such as zero order equation, first order equation, Higuchi equation, Hixson Crowell equation and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to study the release of drugs from each formulation. The best formulations were selected based on the similarity factor (f2) value of 50% and more. Through the research, it is found that by increasing the polymers concentration, the rate of drug release decreased for both natural and synthetic polymers. The best formulation was found to be F3 which contained 40% Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage polymer and showed comparable dissolution profile to the reference drug with f2 value of 78.03%. The release kinetics of this formulation has shown to follow non-Fickian type which involved both diffusion and erosion mechanism. Additionally, the statistical results indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the F3 and reference drug in terms of MDT and T50% with p-values of 1.00 and 0.995 respectively.
- Structure and characterization of a NAD(P)H-dependent carbonyl reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. [Journal Article]
- FLFEBS Lett 2017; 591(12):1785-1797
- To investigate the function of the pa4079 gene from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, we determined its crystal structure and confirmed it to be a NAD(P)-dependent short-chain d...
To investigate the function of the pa4079 gene from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, we determined its crystal structure and confirmed it to be a NAD(P)-dependent short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase. Structural similarity and activity for a broad range of substrates indicate that PA4079 functions as a carbonyl reductase. Comparison of apo- and holo-PA4079 shows that NADP stabilizes the active site specificity loop, and small molecule binding induces rotation of the Tyr183 side chain by approximately 90° out of the active site. Quantitative real-time PCR results show that pa4079 maintains high expression levels during antibiotic exposure. This work provides a starting point for understanding substrate recognition and selectivity by PA4079, as well as its possible reduction of antimicrobial drugs.
- Structure-Based Engineering of an Artificially Generated NADP+-Dependent d-Amino Acid Dehydrogenase. [Journal Article]
- AEAppl Environ Microbiol 2017 Jun 01; 83(11)
- A stable NADP+-dependent d-amino acid dehydrogenase (DAADH) was recently created from Ureibacillus thermosphaericusmeso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase through site-directed mutagenesis. To produce a n...
A stable NADP+-dependent d-amino acid dehydrogenase (DAADH) was recently created from Ureibacillus thermosphaericusmeso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase through site-directed mutagenesis. To produce a novel DAADH mutant with different substrate specificity, the crystal structure of apo-DAADH was determined at a resolution of 1.78 Å, and the amino acid residues responsible for the substrate specificity were evaluated using additional site-directed mutagenesis. By introducing a single D94A mutation, the enzyme's substrate specificity was dramatically altered; the mutant utilized d-phenylalanine as the most preferable substrate for oxidative deamination and had a specific activity of 5.33 μmol/min/mg at 50°C, which was 54-fold higher than that of the parent DAADH. In addition, the specific activities of the mutant toward d-leucine, d-norleucine, d-methionine, d-isoleucine, and d-tryptophan were much higher (6 to 25 times) than those of the parent enzyme. For reductive amination, the D94A mutant exhibited extremely high specific activity with phenylpyruvate (16.1 μmol/min/mg at 50°C). The structures of the D94A-Y224F double mutant in complex with NADP+ and in complex with both NADPH and 2-keto-6-aminocapronic acid (lysine oxo-analogue) were then determined at resolutions of 1.59 Å and 1.74 Å, respectively. The phenylpyruvate-binding model suggests that the D94A mutation prevents the substrate phenyl group from sterically clashing with the side chain of Asp94. A structural comparison suggests that both the enlarged substrate-binding pocket and enhanced hydrophobicity of the pocket are mainly responsible for the high reactivity of the D94A mutant toward the hydrophobic d-amino acids with bulky side chains.IMPORTANCE In recent years, the potential uses for d-amino acids as source materials for the industrial production of medicines, seasonings, and agrochemicals have been growing. To date, several methods have been used for the production of d-amino acids, but all include tedious steps. The use of NAD(P)+-dependent d-amino acid dehydrogenase (DAADH) makes single-step production of d-amino acids from oxo-acid analogs and ammonia possible. We recently succeeded in creating a stable DAADH and demonstrated that it is applicable for one-step synthesis of d-amino acids, such as d-leucine and d-isoleucine. As the next step, the creation of an enzyme exhibiting different substrate specificity and higher catalytic efficiency is a key to the further development of d-amino acid production. In this study, we succeeded in creating a novel mutant exhibiting extremely high catalytic activity for phenylpyruvate amination. Structural insight into the mutant will be useful for further improvement of DAADHs.
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- A comparative structural analysis reveals distinctive features of co-factor binding and substrate specificity in plant aldo-keto reductases. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 Jun 10; 474(4):696-701
- Plant aldo-keto reductases of the AKR4C subfamily play key roles during stress and are attractive targets for developing stress-tolerant crops. However, these AKR4Cs show little to no activity with p...
Plant aldo-keto reductases of the AKR4C subfamily play key roles during stress and are attractive targets for developing stress-tolerant crops. However, these AKR4Cs show little to no activity with previously-envisioned sugar substrates. We hypothesized a structural basis for the distinctive cofactor binding and substrate specificity of these plant enzymes. To test this, we solved the crystal structure of a novel AKR4C subfamily member, the AKR4C7 from maize, in the apo form and in complex with NADP(+). The binary complex revealed an intermediate state of cofactor binding that preceded closure of Loop B, and also indicated that conformational changes upon substrate binding are required to induce a catalytically-favorable conformation of the active-site pocket. Comparative structural analyses of homologues (AKR1B1, AKR4C8 and AKR4C9) showed that evolutionary redesign of plant AKR4Cs weakened interactions that stabilize the closed conformation of Loop B. This in turn decreased cofactor affinity and altered configuration of the substrate-binding site. We propose that these structural modifications contribute to impairment of sugar reductase activity in favor of other substrates in the plant AKR4C subgroup, and that catalysis involves a three-step process relevant to other AKRs.