- Occurrence, distribution, and sources of emerging organic contaminants in tropical coastal sediments of anthropogenically impacted Klang River estuary, Malaysia. [Journal Article]
- MPMar Pollut Bull 2018; 131(Pt A):284-293
- This baseline assessment reports on the occurrence, distribution, and sources of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in tropical coastal sediments of anthropogenically impacted Klang River estuary, ...
This baseline assessment reports on the occurrence, distribution, and sources of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in tropical coastal sediments of anthropogenically impacted Klang River estuary, Malaysia. Bisphenol A was the highest concentration detected at 16.84 ng g-1 dry weight, followed by diclofenac (13.88 ng g-1 dry weight) and E1 (12.47 ng g-1 dry weight). Five compounds, namely, amoxicillin, progesterone, diazinon, bisphenol A, and E1, were found in all sampling stations assessed, and other compounds such as primidone, diclofenac, testosterone, E2, and EE2 were ubiquitously present in sediment samples, with percentage of detection range from 89.04% to 98.38%. Organic carbon content and pH were the important factors controlling the fate of targeted compounds in the tropical estuarine sediment. On the basis of the literature from other studies, the sources of EOCs are thought to be from wastewater treatment plants, domestic/medical waste discharge, livestock activities, industrial waste discharge, and agricultural activities.
- Removal of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products in reclaimed water during simulated managed aquifer recharge. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Jun 02; 640-641:671-677
- This study investigated the removal of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in a simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) system. The PPCPs included antibiotic, antiepileptic, ...
This study investigated the removal of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in a simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) system. The PPCPs included antibiotic, antiepileptic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and antilipidemic drugs, contrast media, herbicides, and stimulants. We first monitored the occurrence and fate of 22 PPCPs at a water reclamation facility (WRF) in Korea, and found carbamazepine and primidone were not readily removed (below 25% removal in average) by the WRF. This reclaimed water passed through a laboratory-scale soil column set-up at 0.5 m/d over one year, simulating MAR system. Atenolol, propranolol, and trimethoprim exhibited higher removal rates (>80%) than other PPCPs through the simulated MAR, while atrazine, carbamazepine, lincomycin, primidone, and sulfamethazine were not readily removed, exhibiting removal rates below 20%. It can be efficient to monitor and manage these recalcitrant compounds at MAR systems to improve water quality.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthesia (thiopental). Some states administer barbitur...
Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthesia (thiopental). Some states administer barbiturates for physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia and use them for capital punishment by lethal injection. Their use in clinical practice has largely been replaced by benzodiazepines such as alprazolam, diazepam, and lorazepam due to the lower risk of overdose and available antidote to reverse toxicity. Barbiturates are used as a laboratory buffer and can be found in clinical and research laboratories. Barbiturates are controlled substances that pose a high risk for abuse given their psychoactive effects. Restrictions on access to barbiturates have caused the number of overdoses to decline. Common barbiturates include the following: Methohexital and thiopental are used as anesthetics. Phenobarbital and primidone are used in the treatment of seizures. Amobarbital is used as an investigative agent in the Wada test (neurological assessment of cerebral hemispheres) Butalbital, in combination with other medications, is used for headaches and muscle pain.
- Essential Tremor. [Review]
- NEJMN Engl J Med 2018 05 10; 378(19):1802-1810
- The fate of polar trace organic compounds in the hyporheic zone. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Res 2018 09 01; 140:158-166
- The hyporheic zone (HZ) is often considered to efficiently remove polar trace organic compounds (TrOCs) from lotic systems, mitigating potential adverse effects of TrOCs on ecosystem functioning and ...
The hyporheic zone (HZ) is often considered to efficiently remove polar trace organic compounds (TrOCs) from lotic systems, mitigating potential adverse effects of TrOCs on ecosystem functioning and drinking water production. Predicting the fate of TrOCs in the hyporheic zone (HZ) is difficult as the in-situ removal rate constants are not known and the biogeochemical factors as well as hydrological conditions controlling the removal efficiency are not fully understood. To determine the in-situ removal efficiency of the HZ for a variety of TrOCs as a function of the biogeochemical milieu, we conducted a field study in an urban river near Berlin, Germany. Subsurface flow was studied by time series of temperature depth profiles and the biogeochemical milieu of the HZ by concentration depth profiles. These results, in conjunction with a 1D advection-dispersion transport model, were used to calculate first-order removal rate constants of several polar TrOCs in the HZ. For the majority of TrOCs investigated, removal rate constants were strongly dependent on redox conditions, with significantly higher removal rates observed under predominantly suboxic (i.e. denitrifying) compared to anoxic (i.e. Fe and Mn reducing) conditions. Compared to previous studies on the fate of TrOCs in saturated sediments, half-lives within oxic/suboxic sections of the HZ were relatively low, attributable to the site-specific characteristics of the HZ in a stream dominated by wastewater treatment plant effluent. For nine out of thirteen investigated TrOCs, concentrations decreased significantly in the HZ with relative removal percentages ranging from 32% for primidone to 77% for gabapentin. For many TrOCs, removal efficiency decreased drastically as redox conditions became anoxic. For the majority of compounds investigated here, the HZ indeed acts as an efficient bioreactor that is capable of removing TrOCs along relatively short flow paths. Depending on the TrOC, removal capacity may be enhanced by either increasing the magnitude of groundwater-surface exchange fluxes, by increasing the total residence time in the HZ or the exposure time to suboxic zones, respectively.
- High-dose thiamine and essential tremor. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Mar 30; 2018
- Essential tremor is a common neurological disease. The medical treatment of this affection currently involves the use of propranolol, primidone and other drugs. These drugs, however, are often not ef...
Essential tremor is a common neurological disease. The medical treatment of this affection currently involves the use of propranolol, primidone and other drugs. These drugs, however, are often not effective in reducing tremor and cause side effects in a large share of the patients treated. The treatment with intramuscular high-dose thiamine has led to a rapid, remarkable and persistent improvement of the symptoms in two patients with essential tremor. This result suggests the possibility that high doses of intramuscular thiamine may be an affordable alternative, highly effective and long-lasting medical treatment that has shown no relevant side effect.
- Potential drug-drug interactions with direct oral anticoagulants in elderly hospitalized patients. [Journal Article]
- TATher Adv Drug Saf 2017; 8(10):319-328
- To determine the prevalence and nature of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in elderly hospitalized patients.
To determine the prevalence and nature of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in elderly hospitalized patients.
- UV/H2O2 process stability and pilot-scale validation for trace organic chemical removal from wastewater treatment plant effluents. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Res 2018 06 01; 136:169-179
- This study investigated the removal of 15 trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) occurring at ambient concentrations from municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent by advanced oxidation using UV/H2O2 at...
This study investigated the removal of 15 trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) occurring at ambient concentrations from municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent by advanced oxidation using UV/H2O2 at pilot-scale. Pseudo first-order rate constants (kobs) for photolytic as well as combined oxidative and photolytic degradation observed at pilot-scale were validated with results from a bench-scale collimated beam device. No significant difference was determined between pilot- and lab-scale performance. During continuous pilot-scale operation at constant UV fluence of 800 mJ/cm2 and H2O2 dosage of 10 mg/L, the removal of various TOrCs was investigated. The average observed removal for photo-susceptible (kUV>10-3 cm2/mJ; like diclofenac, iopromide and sulfamethoxazole), moderately photo-susceptible (10-4<kUV<10-3 cm2/mJ; like climbazole, tramadol, sotalol, citalopram, benzotriazole, venlafaxine and metoprolol), and most photo-resistant (kUV<10-4 cm2/mJ; like primidone, carbamazepine and gabapentin) compounds was 90%, 49% and 37% including outliers, respectively. The poorly reactive compound TCEP was not significantly eliminated during pilot-scale experiments. Additionally, based on removal kinetics of photo-resistant TOrCs, continuous pilot-scale operation revealed high variations of OH-radical exposure determined from removal kinetics of photo-resistant TOrCs, primarily due to nitrite concentration fluctuations in the feed water. Furthermore, a correlation between OH-radical exposure and scavenging capacity could be determined and verified by mechanistic modeling using UV fluence, H2O2 dosage, and standard water quality parameters (i.e., DOC, NO3-, NO2- and HCO3-) as model input data. This correlation revealed the possibility of OH-radical exposure prediction by water matrix parameters and proved its applicability for pilot-scale operations.
- [Use of antiepileptic drugs during breastfeeding : What do we tell the mother?] [Journal Article]
- NNervenarzt 2018 Feb 27
- CONCLUSIONS: Phenobarbital, primidone, carbamazepine, valproate and levetiracetam are probably compatible with breastfeeding. Treatment with phenytoin, ethosuximide, clonazepam, oxcarbazepine, vigabatrin, topiramate, gabapentin, pregabalin, lamotrigine and zonisamide can be authorized during breastfeeding, provided breastfed infants are carefully monitored for side effects. Since data on the use of mesuximide, clobazam, rufinamide, felbamate, lacosamide, sultiame, perampanel and retigabine are insufficient to adequately assess the risk for breastfed infants, use in breastfeeding women is in principle not recommended and should be carefully evaluated on a case by case basis. In practice, a risk-benefit analysis should be performed for each mother under antiepileptic treatment wishing to breastfeed her child, so that individual risk factors can adequately be taken into account when counseling the patient.
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- A descriptive systematic review of salivary therapeutic drug monitoring in neonates and infants. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Clin Pharmacol 2018; 84(6):1089-1108
- CONCLUSIONS: There is significant potential for infantile saliva testing and in particular for neutral and weakly acidic compounds. Of the properties investigated, pKa was the most influential with both logP and protein binding having little effect on this correlation. To conclude, any compound with a pKa within physiological range (pH 6-8) should be considered with extra care, with the extraction and analysis method examined and optimized on a case-by-case basis.