- Sympathetic nervous system mediates surgical trauma stress-induced splenocyte apoptosis in rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2007 Jun 22; 565(1-3):76-82
- Surgical trauma stress has been reported to induce immunosuppression. The mechanisms involved are still unclear. The present study was designed to assess the role of the sympathetic nervous system in...
Surgical trauma stress has been reported to induce immunosuppression. The mechanisms involved are still unclear. The present study was designed to assess the role of the sympathetic nervous system in regulating splenocyte apoptosis induced by surgical trauma stress. Our results showed that the rats that underwent surgical trauma stress exhibited a significant reduction in splenic cellularity, the loss of splenocytes was likely mediated by apoptosis, for a substantial increase in apoptosis was observed by using DNA gel electrophoresis and TUNEL assay. At the same time, an increase in Fas(CD95/Apo-1) protein expression in splenocytes was also observed. These effects were significantly abolished by either chemical sympathectomy or beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol. The data clearly revealed that the sympathetic nervous system especially beta-adrenergic receptors was involved in surgical trauma-induced immune alterations via a mechanism of apoptotic cell death.
- Apomorphine-induced myocardial protection is due to antioxidant and not adrenergic/dopaminergic effects. [Journal Article]
- FRFree Radic Biol Med 2006 May 15; 40(10):1713-20
- Apomorphine (Apo), a dopaminergic agonist used for treatment of Parkinson disease, is a potent antioxidant. In addition to its antioxidative effects, the dopaminergic and adrenergic effects of Apo we...
Apomorphine (Apo), a dopaminergic agonist used for treatment of Parkinson disease, is a potent antioxidant. In addition to its antioxidative effects, the dopaminergic and adrenergic effects of Apo were studied. Isolated perfused rat hearts were exposed to 25 min of no-flow global ischemia (37 degrees C) and 60 min of reperfusion (I/R, control). Drugs were introduced for the first 20 min of reperfusion. The LVDP of the control group recovered to 54.6 +/- 3.3%. Apo-treated hearts had significantly improved recovery (61.6 +/- 5%, p < 0.05). The recovery of the work index LVDP x HR was even bigger: 67.8 +/- 3.7% (Apo treatment) vs 41.7 +/- 4.6% (control, p < 0.001). Haloperidol, a dopaminergic antagonist, did not affect the recovery with Apo. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, initially inhibited the effect of Apo. However, the recovery of the combined group (Apo + propranolol) increased and reached significance (LVDP, p < 0.05 vs control group) after cessation of propranolol perfusion. At 60 min of reperfusion this group was superior to Apo-treated hearts (LVDP, p < 0.05). Propranolol (without Apo) did not improve the hemodynamic recovery. The same pattern of recovery applies also to the recovery of the +dP/dt during the reperfusion. L-DOPA was less effective than Apo. I/R caused significant increase in carbonylation of proteins. Apomorphine inhibited the increase in carbonylation. Haloperidol did not affect this beneficial effect of Apo. L-DOPA significantly decreased the carbonylation of proteins. We conclude that the antioxidative effect of Apo is its main mechanism of cardioprotection.
- Intravenous infusion of hexamethonium and atropine but not propranolol diminishes apolipoprotein A-IV gene expression in rat ileum. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nutr 2000; 130(3):637-41
- To clarify the role of neural factors in the regulation of apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV expression in the small intestine, we investigated the effect of neural blockers on mRNA levels of apo A-IV in rat...
To clarify the role of neural factors in the regulation of apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV expression in the small intestine, we investigated the effect of neural blockers on mRNA levels of apo A-IV in rat small intestine. Either ganglionic blocker (hexamethonium), cholinergic blocker (atropine) or beta-adrenergic blocker (propranolol) was infused intravenously to unrestrained conscious rats for 8 h, and then total RNA was isolated from the small intestine and analyzed using Northern hybridization. Apo A-IV mRNA levels in the ileum were significantly lower in hexamethonium- or atropine-infused rats than in saline- (control) or propranolol-infused rats. Immunoblot analysis showed no difference in plasma apo A-IV concentrations between hexamethonium- and saline-infused groups. The lower mRNA levels of apo A-IV in the ileum of hexamethonium-infused rats were observed even in bile-drained rats, indicating that the lower expression was not due to any changes in bile availability. The ileal apo A-IV mRNA levels were significantly higher in rats infused with lipid emulsion into the ileum than in rats infused with glucose-saline, and the concomitant infusion of intravenous hexamethonium did not affect the higher levels of apo A-IV mRNA. These results suggest that the basal expression of the ileal A-IV gene is at least partially regulated in a site-specific manner by cholinergic neurons.
- Domain swapping in G-protein coupled receptor dimers. [Journal Article]
- PEProtein Eng 1998; 11(12):1181-93
- Computer simulations were performed on models of the beta2-adrenergic receptor dimer, including 5,6-domain swapped dimers which have been proposed as the active, high affinity form (here the dimer in...
Computer simulations were performed on models of the beta2-adrenergic receptor dimer, including 5,6-domain swapped dimers which have been proposed as the active, high affinity form (here the dimer interface lies between helices 5 and 6). The calculations suggest that the domain swapped dimer is a high energy structure in both the apo dimer and in the presence of propranolol. In the presence of agonist the energy of the domain swapped dimer is significantly lowered. Analysis of the dimer structure suggests that the agonist-induced conformational change optimizes the helix-helix interactions at the 5-6 interface. An antagonist on the other hand has little effect on these interactions. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the agonist functions by shifting the equilibrium in favour of the domain swapped dimer. Indirect support for the domain swapping hypothesis was obtained from the correlated mutations amongst the external residues of the known beta2-adrenergic receptors. These occur mainly at the 5-6 interface at precisely the locations predicted by the simulations; site-directed mutagenesis data in support of a functional role for these lipid-facing correlated residues is presented. The article includes a review of the experimental evidence for G-protein coupled receptor dimerization. Many other aspects of G-protein coupled receptor activation are discussed in terms of this domain swapping hypothesis
- Defective regulation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipases C and D in a kindred with Tangier disease. Evidence for the involvement of phosphatidylcholine breakdown in HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- JCIJ Clin Invest 1996 Nov 15; 98(10):2315-23
- The negative correlation between coronary heart disease and plasma levels of HDL has been attributed to the ability of HDL to take up cellular cholesterol. The HDL3-induced removal of cellular choles...
The negative correlation between coronary heart disease and plasma levels of HDL has been attributed to the ability of HDL to take up cellular cholesterol. The HDL3-induced removal of cellular cholesterol was reported to be impaired in fibroblasts from patients with familial HDL deficiency (Tangier disease, TD). In addition, we have recently shown that HDL3 stimulates the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in cholesterol-loaded fibroblasts. To investigate whether this cell signaling pathway is involved in cholesterol efflux mechanisms, we compared the HDL3-induced PC hydrolysis in normal fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from a TD kindred, in whom the HDL3- and apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I)-induced mobilization of cellular cholesterol was found to be reduced by 50%. The HDL3-induced formation of phosphatidic acid (PA) via PC-specific phospholipase D (PC-PLD) was markedly reduced by 60-80% in these cells, whereas the formation of diacylglycerol (DG) via PC-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) was two- to threefold enhanced. Defective regulation of PC-PLC and PC-PLD was similarly observed in response to apo A-I and endothelin, but not in response to the receptor-independent stimulation of PC hydrolysis by PMA. A Tangier-like PA and DG formation pattern could be induced in normal cells after preincubation with pertussis toxin, suggesting the involvement of a G-protein. The impaired mobilization of radiolabeled cellular cholesterol in TD cells could completely be overcome by increasing the PA levels in the presence of the PA phosphohydrolase inhibitor propranolol. Conversely, the inhibition of PA formation in the presence of 0.3% butanol as well as the inhibition of DG formation in the presence of the PC-PLC inhibitor D 609 reduced the mobilization of cellular cholesterol both in normal and in TD cells. Our data indicate that the coordinate formation of PA and DG via PC-PLD and PC-PLC is essential for efficient cholesterol efflux. The molecular defect in this TD kindred appears to affect an upstream effector of protein kinase C responsible for the G-protein-dependent regulation of PC-specific phospholipases.
- Mechanism of action of intracisternal apolipoprotein A-IV in inhibiting gastric acid secretion in rats. [Journal Article]
- GGastroenterology 1995; 109(5):1583-8
- CONCLUSIONS: Intracisternal apo A-IV inhibits gastric acid secretion through alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. The vagal pathway and the prostaglandin system are not involved in apo A-IV--induced acid inhibition.
- Mildly oxidized LDL induces platelet aggregation through activation of phospholipase A2. [Journal Article]
- ATArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995; 15(8):1131-8
- Native LDL and LDL oxidized under various conditions were compared in terms of their ability to activate platelets. Native LDL did not induce platelet shape change or aggregation, even at high concen...
Native LDL and LDL oxidized under various conditions were compared in terms of their ability to activate platelets. Native LDL did not induce platelet shape change or aggregation, even at high concentrations (2 mg protein/mL). LDL was mildly oxidized with either CuSO4 (mox-LDL) or 3-(N-morpholino)sydnonimine (SIN-1-LDL). Analysis of mox-LDL and SIN-1-LDL showed a small increase of dienes (E234nm from 0.28 +/- 0.04 to 0.55 +/- 0.09, mean +/- SD) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (from 0 to 10.6 +/- 1.5 nmol/mg, mean +/- SEM), no change in apo B electrophoretic mobility, and a minor (12% to 30%) decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Interestingly, this small oxidative modification of LDL dramatically changed its effect on platelets. Irreversible aggregation and secretion were induced by a threshold concentration of 0.4 mg protein/mL. In contrast, LDL thoroughly oxidized with CuSO4 (ox-LDL) did not aggregate platelets. Although mox-LDL was depleted in antioxidants (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, alpha- and beta-carotene, and other carotenoids), incubation of mox-LDL with exogenous alpha-tocopherol did not reverse its ability to induce platelet aggregation and secretion. Preincubation of platelets with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor aspirin or the phospholipase A2 inhibitors trifluoperazine, quinacrine, 4-bromophenacyl bromide, and propranolol completely prevented platelet aggregation and secretion caused by mox-LDL or SIN-1-LDL. These results indicate that mildly oxidized LDL activates platelets through a phospholipase A2/cyclooxygenase-dependent pathway. The complete inhibition of mox-LDL-induced platelet aggregation by aspirin could contribute to its beneficial effect in cardiovascular disease.
- Thyroid hormone (fT4) reduces lipoprotein(a) plasma levels. [Journal Article]
- AAtherosclerosis 1995; 115(1):65-71
- To study the influence of thyroid hormone on Lp(a) plasma concentration we measured Lp(a), total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides and fT4 levels and determined apo(a) phenotypes in 26 patient...
To study the influence of thyroid hormone on Lp(a) plasma concentration we measured Lp(a), total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides and fT4 levels and determined apo(a) phenotypes in 26 patients with hyperthyroidism in a follow-up study before and after thyreostatic treatment. The pretreatment values of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, and Lp(a) were significantly reduced as compared with those of healthy controls. The reduced mean Lp(a) concentrations could not be explained by a difference of apo(a) 'size allele' frequencies between patients and controls. During thyreostatic treatment mean concentrations of TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C increased significantly. The mean Lp(a) value was not changed after 4 weeks of treatment. The individual changes of Lp(a), however, correlated significantly with those of LDL-C levels (R = 0.40, P = 0.04). Eighty-one per cent of the patients showed an increase of Lp(a) or no change of the Lp(a) level and 19% reacted with a decrease upon thyreostatic treatment. The observed lipid and lipoprotein changes were not different in patients with Graves disease or multifocal toxic goiter. The results indicate that Lp(a) plasma levels are decreased in the hyperthyroid state irrespective of the pathogenic mechanism.
- Effects of serotonergic agents on apomorphine-induced locomotor activity. [Journal Article]
- PPsychopharmacology (Berl) 1993; 110(1-2):97-102
- The interactions of serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT1C/2 and 5-HT3 receptor subtypes with apomorphine-induced locomotor activity (AILA) were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The 5-HT3 antagonists ondansetr...
The interactions of serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT1C/2 and 5-HT3 receptor subtypes with apomorphine-induced locomotor activity (AILA) were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The 5-HT3 antagonists ondansetron and ICS 205-930 had no significant effects on AILA. The 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) produced an increase in locomotor activity that was independent of DA neurotransmission. The locomotor activity induced by co-administration of apomorphine (APO; 0.25 mg/kg) and 8-OH-DPAT (0.25-1.0 mg/kg) was not significantly higher than those induced by APO alone during the peak period of APO stimulation of locomotor activity, nor were they higher than activity induced by 8-OH-DPAT alone during the same time intervals. The 5-HT1 antagonist (1)-propranolol had a depressant effect on AILA, but only at high doses. Coadministration of (1)-propranolol (5 mg/kg) and 8-OH-DPAT (1.0 mg/kg) elevated spontaneous locomotor activity for the first 10 min of the session when compared to 8-OH-DPAT (1.0 mg/kg) alone. The 5-HT2 antagonist ketanserin along with moderate and high doses of mesulergine depressed AILA, effects which may be mediated by the 5-HT2 antagonist properties of these drugs, by nonspecific sedation or by direct effects of these compounds on DA D2 receptors. In contrast to the high-dose mesulergine depression of AILA, a low dose (0.1 mg/kg) of mesulergine elevated AILA, an effect which was blocked by the 5-HT1C/2 agonist 1-(2,-5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl) -2-aminopropane (DOI; 1 mg/kg). Neither of these compounds at the doses tested had significant effects on spontaneous locomotor activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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- Differentiation of beta-blocker effects on serum lipids and apolipoproteins in hypertensive patients with normolipidaemic or dyslipidaemic profiles. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- EHEur Heart J 1992; 13(11):1506-13
- To evaluate the differential effects of beta-blockers on serum lipids and apolipoproteins in normolipidaemic and dyslipidaemic hypertensives, 330 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension...
To evaluate the differential effects of beta-blockers on serum lipids and apolipoproteins in normolipidaemic and dyslipidaemic hypertensives, 330 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were studied 1 month after placebo therapy and 6 months after monotherapy with propranolol (n = 53), atenolol (n = 66), metoprolol (n = 58), pindolol (n = 53), or celiprolol (n = 100). Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoproteins (Apo) A1 and B were measured at baseline and study end. A total of 136 (41.2%) patients were considered normolipidaemic (pretreatment LDL-C < 160 mg.dl-1) and 194 (58.8%) were considered dyslipidaemic (LDL-C > 160 mg.dl-1). Changes in total cholesterol differed between normolipidaemics and dyslipidaemics with propranolol (+13% in normolipidaemics vs -0.5% in dyslipidaemics, P < 0.001), atenolol (+7% vs -2%, P = 0.01), metoprolol (+9% vs -4%, P0.0006), pindolol (+8% vs -9%, P < 0.001), and celiprolol (-1% vs -13%, P = 0.002). HDL-C differed less, with propranolol (-18% vs -13%), atenolol (-6% vs -2%), metoprolol (-2% vs -6%), pindolol (+4% vs +1%), and celiprolol (+9% vs +4%); none of these changes between normolipidaemic and dyslipidaemic patients were statistically significant. LDL-C changes differed the most, with propranolol (+35% vs -1%, P < 0.0001), atenolol (+15% vs -4%, P = 0.001), metoprolol (+12% vs -6%, P = 0.004), pindolol (+12% vs -13%, P < 0.0001), and celiprolol (+3% vs -16%, P = 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)