- An ex vivo fermentation screening platform to study drug metabolism by human gut microbiota. [Journal Article]
- DMDrug Metab Dispos 2018 Aug 29
- Colon microbiota-based drug metabolism has received little attention thus far in the process of drug development, whereas the role of gut microbiota in clinical safety and efficacy of drugs has becom...
Colon microbiota-based drug metabolism has received little attention thus far in the process of drug development, whereas the role of gut microbiota in clinical safety and efficacy of drugs has become more clear. Many of these studies have been performed using animal studies, but the translational value of these data with respect to drug pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety is largely unknown. To investigate human colon microbiota-mediated drug metabolism, we applied a recently developed ex vivo fermentation screening platform, in which human colonic microbiota conditions are simulated. A set of 12 drugs (omeprazole, simvastatin, metronidazole, risperidone, sulfinpyrazone, sulindac, levodopa, dapsone, nizatidine, and acetaminophen) was incubated with human colon microbiota under strictly anaerobic conditions and samples were analyzed using HPLC-UV--HRMS analysis. The human microbiota in the fermentation assay consisted of bacterial genera regularly encountered in human colon and fecal samples and could be reproducibly cultured in independent experiments over time. In addition, fully anaerobic culture conditions could be maintained for 24 hours of incubation. Five out of the twelve included drugs showed microbiota-based biotransformation after 24 hours of incubation in the ex vivo fermentation assay, which were sulfasalazine, sulfinpyrazone, sulindac, nizatidine, and risperidone. We demonstrated that drug metabolites formed by microbial metabolism can be detected in a qualitative manner and that the data are in accordance with earlier reported in vivo metabolism. In conclusion, we here present a research tool to investigate human colon microbiota-based drug metabolism that may be applied to enable translatability of microbiota-based drug metabolism.
- Thiamethoxam Resistance in Aphis gossypii Glover Relies on Multiple UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Physiol 2018; 9:322
- Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II enzymes that conjugate a variety of small lipophilic molecules with UDP sugars and alter them into more water-soluble metaboli...
Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II enzymes that conjugate a variety of small lipophilic molecules with UDP sugars and alter them into more water-soluble metabolites. Therefore, glucosidation plays a major role in the inactivation and excretion of a great variety of both endogenous and exogenous compounds. In this study, two inhibitors of UGT enzymes, sulfinpyrazone and 5-nitrouracil, significantly increased the toxicity of thiamethoxam against the resistant strain of Aphis gossypii, which indicates that UGTs are involved in thiamethoxam resistance in the cotton aphid. Based on transcriptome data, 31 A. gossypii UGTs belonging to 11 families (UGT329, UGT330, UGT341, UGT342, UGT343, UGT344, UGT345, UGT348, UGT349, UGT350, and UGT351) were identified. Compared with the thiamethoxam-susceptible strain, the transcripts of 23 UGTs were elevated, and the transcripts of 13 UGTs (UGT344J2, UGT348A2, UGT344D4, UGT341A4, UGT343B2, UGT342B2, UGT350C3, UGT344N2, UGT344A14, UGT344B4, UGT351A4, UGT344A11, and UGT349A2) were increased by approximately 2.0-fold in the resistant cotton aphid. The suppression of selected UGTs significantly increased the insensitivity of resistant aphids to thiamethoxam, suggesting that the up-regulated UGTs might be associated with thiamethoxam tolerance. This study provides an overall view of the possible metabolic factor UGTs that are relevant to the development of insecticide resistance. The results might facilitate further work to validate the roles of these UGTs in thiamethoxam resistance.
- Effects of Discontinuation of Urate-Lowering Therapy: A Systematic Review. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gen Intern Med 2018; 33(3):358-366
- CONCLUSIONS: Relapse of gout is common although delayed after discontinuation of ULT. Short-term prognosis after ULT discontinuation appears favorable if the serum urate level was low before ULT discontinuation. The results of this review are limited by the paucity of existing studies and their low quality. Further comparative studies should consider larger primary care populations and discontinuation of febuxostat.
- Vitamin C modulates glutamate transport and NMDA receptor function in the retina. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurochem 2018; 144(4):408-420
- Vitamin C (in the reduced form ascorbate or in the oxidized form dehydroascorbate) is implicated in signaling events throughout the central nervous system (CNS). In the retina, a high-affinity transp...
Vitamin C (in the reduced form ascorbate or in the oxidized form dehydroascorbate) is implicated in signaling events throughout the central nervous system (CNS). In the retina, a high-affinity transport system for ascorbate has been described and glutamatergic signaling has been reported to control ascorbate release. Here, we investigated the modulatory role played by vitamin C upon glutamate uptake and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in cultured retinal cells or in intact retinal tissue using biochemical and imaging techniques. We show that both forms of vitamin C, ascorbate or dehydroascorbate, promote an accumulation of extracellular glutamate by a mechanism involving the inhibition of glutamate uptake. This inhibition correlates with the finding that ascorbate promotes a decrease in cell surface levels of the neuronal glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 3 in retinal neuronal cultures. Interestingly, vitamin C is prone to increase the activity of NMDA receptors but also promotes a decrease in glutamate-stimulated [3 H] MK801 binding and decreases cell membrane content of NMDA receptor glutamate ionotropic receptor subunit 1 (GluN1) subunits. Both compounds were also able to increase cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in neuronal nuclei in a glutamate receptor and calcium/calmodulin kinase-dependent manner. Moreover, the effect of ascorbate is not blocked by sulfinpyrazone and then does not depend on its uptake by retinal cells. Overall, these data indicate a novel molecular and functional target for vitamin C impacting on glutamate signaling in retinal neurons.
- Discovery and characterization of verinurad, a potent and specific inhibitor of URAT1 for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 04 06; 7(1):665
- Gout is caused by elevated serum urate levels, which can be treated using inhibitors of the uric acid transporter, URAT1. Here, we characterize verinurad (RDEA3170), which is currently under evaluati...
Gout is caused by elevated serum urate levels, which can be treated using inhibitors of the uric acid transporter, URAT1. Here, we characterize verinurad (RDEA3170), which is currently under evaluation for gout therapy. Verinurad specifically inhibits URAT1 with a potency of 25 nM. High affinity inhibition of uric acid transport requires URAT1 residues Cys-32, Ser-35, Phe-365 and Ile-481. Unlike other available uricosuric agents, the requirement for Cys-32 is unique to verinurad. Two of these residues, Ser-35 and Phe-365, are also important for urate transport kinetics. A URAT1 binding assay using radiolabeled verinurad revealed that distinct URAT1 inhibitors benzbromarone, sulfinpyrazone and probenecid all inhibit verinurad binding via a competitive mechanism. However, mutations made within the predicted transporter substrate channel differentially altered the potency for individual URAT1 inhibitors. Overall, our results suggest that URAT1 inhibitors bind to a common site in the core of the transporter and sterically hinder the transit of uric acid through the substrate channel, albeit with vastly different potencies and with differential interactions with specific URAT1 amino acids.
- The rising prevalence and incidence of gout in British Columbia, Canada: Population-based trends from 2000 to 2012. [Journal Article]
- SASemin Arthritis Rheum 2017; 46(4):451-456
- CONCLUSIONS: The burden of gout in BC, Canada, is substantial, and both the prevalence and incidence have increased over the past decade, while prescription of ULT remains low. These data support the need to improve gout prevention and care.
- Over-expression of UDP-glycosyltransferase gene UGT2B17 is involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.). [Journal Article]
- PMPest Manag Sci 2017; 73(7):1402-1409
- CONCLUSIONS: UGT2B17 is involved in the detoxification of chlorantraniliprole, and its over-expression may play an important role in chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. These results shed some light upon and further our understanding of the mechanisms of diamide insecticide resistance in insects. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
- Medical Adjuvant Treatment to Improve the Patency of Arteriovenous Fistulae and Grafts: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. [Review]
- EJEur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2016; 52(2):243-52
- CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review has not demonstrated a beneficial effect for any adjuvant treatment to increase the patency of AVF or grafts in the short term, except ticlopidine which has been taken off the market.
- Vitamin C Facilitates Demethylation of the Foxp3 Enhancer in a Tet-Dependent Manner. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Immunol 2016 Mar 01; 196(5):2119-31
- Demethylation of CpG motifs in the Foxp3 intronic element, conserved noncoding sequence 2 (CNS2), is indispensable for the stable expression of Foxp3 in regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this study, we ...
Demethylation of CpG motifs in the Foxp3 intronic element, conserved noncoding sequence 2 (CNS2), is indispensable for the stable expression of Foxp3 in regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this study, we found that vitamin C induces CNS2 demethylation in Tregs in a ten-eleven-translocation 2 (Tet2)-dependent manner. The CpG motifs of CNS2 in Tregs generated in vitro by TGF-β (iTregs), which were methylated originally, became demethylated after vitamin C treatment. The conversion of 5-methylcytosin into 5-hydroxymethylcytosin was more efficient, and the methyl group from the CpG motifs of Foxp3 CNS2 was erased rapidly in iTregs treated with vitamin C. The effect of vitamin C disappeared in Tet2(-/-) iTregs. Furthermore, CNS2 in peripheral Tregs in vivo, which were demethylated originally, became methylated after treatment with a sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter inhibitor, sulfinpyrazone. Finally, CNS2 demethylation in thymic Tregs was also impaired in Tet2(-/-) mice, but not in wild type mice, when they were treated with sulfinpyrazone. Collectively, vitamin C was required for the CNS2 demethylation mediated by Tet proteins, which was essential for Foxp3 expression. Our findings indicate that environmental factors, such as nutrients, could bring about changes in immune homeostasis through epigenetic mechanisms.
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- Triclinic and monoclinic polymorphs of meso-(E,E)-1,1'-[1,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane-1,2-diyl]bis(phenyldiazene): the high-yield synthesis of an unexpected product, concomitant polymorphism and configurational disorder. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Crystallogr C Struct Chem 2016; 72(Pt 1):57-62
- Pyrazolidine-3,5-diones and their derivatives exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Seeking to explore the effect of combining a hydrocarbyl ring substituent, as present in sulfinpyrazone (u...
Pyrazolidine-3,5-diones and their derivatives exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Seeking to explore the effect of combining a hydrocarbyl ring substituent, as present in sulfinpyrazone (used to treat gout), with a chlorinated aryl ring, as present in muzolimine (a diuretic), we explored the reaction between 1-phenylpyrazolidine-3,5-dione and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde under mildly basic conditions in the expectation of producing the simple condensation product 4-(4-chlorobenzylidene)-1-phenylpyrazolidine-3,5-dione. However, the reaction product proved to be meso-(E,E)-1,1'-[1,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane-1,2-diyl]bis(phenyldiazene), C26H20Cl2N4, and a tentative mechanism is proposed. Crystallization from ethanol produces two concomitant polymorphs, i.e. a triclinic form, (I), in the space group P-1, and a monoclinic form, (II), in the space group C2/c. In both polymorphs, the molecules lie across centres of inversion, but in (II), the molecules are subject to whole-molecule disorder equivalent to configurational disorder with occupancies of 0.6021 (19) and 0.3979 (19). There are no hydrogen bonds in the crystal structure of polymorph (I), but the molecules of polymorph (II) are linked by C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bonds into complex chains, which are further linked into sheets by C-H...N interactions.