- A Review About Lycopene-Induced Nuclear Hormone Receptor Signalling in Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism via still Unknown Endogenous Apo-10´-Lycopenoids. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Vitam Nutr Res 2017 Oct 20; :1-9
- Lycopene is the red pigment in tomatoes and tomato products and is an important dietary carotenoid found in the human organism. Lycopene-isomers, oxidative lycopene metabolites and apo-lycopenoids ar...
Lycopene is the red pigment in tomatoes and tomato products and is an important dietary carotenoid found in the human organism. Lycopene-isomers, oxidative lycopene metabolites and apo-lycopenoids are found in the food matrix. Lycopene intake derived from tomato consumption is associated with alteration of lipid metabolism and a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Lycopene is mainly described as a potent antioxidant but novel studies are shifting towards its metabolites and their capacity to mediate nuclear receptor signalling. Di-/tetra-hydro-derivatives of apo-10´-lycopenoic acid and apo-15´-lycopenoic acids are potential novel endogenous mammalian lycopene metabolites which may act as ligands for nuclear hormone mediated activation and signalling. In this review, we postulate that complex lycopene metabolism results in various lycopene metabolites which have the ability to mediate transactivation of various nuclear hormone receptors like RARs, RXRs and PPARs. A new mechanistic explanation of how tomato consumption could positively modulate inflammation and lipid metabolism is discussed.
- Search for non-lactam inhibitors of mtb β-lactamase led to its open shape in apo state: new concept for antibiotic design. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 Jul 24; 7(1):6204
- Mtb β-lactamase (BlaC) is extremely efficient in hydrolyzing β-lactam antibiotics which renders/leads to protection and/or resistance to this bug. There is a compelling need to develop new non-lactam...
Mtb β-lactamase (BlaC) is extremely efficient in hydrolyzing β-lactam antibiotics which renders/leads to protection and/or resistance to this bug. There is a compelling need to develop new non-lactam inhibitors which can bind and inhibit BlaC, but cannot be hydrolyzed, thus neutralizing this survival mechanism of Mtb. Using the crystal structure of BlaC we screened 750000 purchasable compounds from ZINC Database for their theoretical affinity to the enzyme's active site. 32 of the best hits of the compounds having tetra-, tri- and thiadi-azole moiety were tested in vitro, and 4 efficiently inhibited the enzymatic activity of recombinant BlaC. Characterization of the shape of BlaC-/+ inhibitors by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) brought forth that BlaC adopts: (1) an open shape (radius of gyration of 2.3 nm compared to 1.9 nm of crystal structures) in solution; (2) closed shape similar to observed crystal structure(s) in presence of effective inhibitor; and (3) a closed shape which opens up when a hydrolysable inhibitor is present in solution. New BlaC inhibitors were: 1-(4-(pyridin-3-yl)-thiazol-2-ylamino)-2-(7,8,9-triaza-bicyclo[4.3.0]nona-1(6),2,4,8-tetraen-7-yl)-ethanone; 8-butyl-3-((5-(pyridin-2-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylamino)-formyl)-8-aza-bicyclo[4.3.0]nona-1(6),2,4-triene-7,9-dione; 1-(3-((5-(5-bromo-thiophen-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-methoxy)-phenyl)-1H-1,2,3,4-tetraazole; and 1-(2,3-dimethyl-phenylamino)-2-(2-(1-(2-methoxy-5-methyl-phenyl)-1H-1,2,3,4-tetraazol-5-ylsulfanyl)-acetylamino)-ethanone. The open-close shape of BlaC questions the physiological significance of the closed shape known for BlaC-/+ inhibitors and paves new path for structure aided design of novel inhibitors.
- A Comparative Study of the Quality of Apical Seal in Resilon/Epiphany SE Following Intra canal Irrigation With 17% EDTA, 10% Citric Acid, And MTAD as Final Irrigants - A Dye Leakage Study Under Vacuum. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Diagn Res 2017; 11(2):ZC20-ZC24
- CONCLUSIONS: 17% EDTA, 10% citric acid, and MTAD were equally effective in achieving the post-obturation apical seal with resilon/epiphany SE sealer when used as a final irrigant in combination with NaOCl.
- d-Cysteine Ligands Control Metal Geometries within De Novo Designed Three-Stranded Coiled Coils. [Journal Article]
- CChemistry 2017 Jun 16; 23(34):8232-8243
- Although metal ion binding to naturally occurring l-amino acid proteins is well documented, understanding the impact of the opposite chirality (d-)amino acids on the structure and stereochemistry of ...
Although metal ion binding to naturally occurring l-amino acid proteins is well documented, understanding the impact of the opposite chirality (d-)amino acids on the structure and stereochemistry of metals is in its infancy. We examine the effect of a d-configuration cysteine within a designed l-amino acid three-stranded coiled coil in order to enforce a precise coordination number on a metal center. The d chirality does not alter the native fold, but the side-chain re-orientation modifies the sterics of the metal binding pocket. l-Cys side chains within the coiled-coil structure have previously been shown to rotate substantially from their preferred positions in the apo structure to create a binding site for a tetra-coordinate metal ion. However, here we show by X-ray crystallography that d-Cys side chains are preorganized within a suitable geometry to bind such a ligand. This is confirmed by comparison of the structure of ZnII Cl(CSL16D C)32- to the published structure of ZnII (H2 O)(GRAND-CSL12AL16L C)3- . Moreover, spectroscopic analysis indicates that the CdII geometry observed by using l-Cys ligands (a mixture of three- and four-coordinate CdII ) is altered to a single four-coordinate species when d-Cys is present. This work opens a new avenue for the control of the metal site environment in man-made proteins, by simply altering the binding ligand with its mirror-imaged d configuration. Thus, the use of non-coded amino acids in the coordination sphere of a metal promises to be a powerful tool for controlling the properties of future metalloproteins.
- Gut symbiotic bacteria stimulate insect growth and egg production by modulating hexamerin and vitellogenin gene expression. [Journal Article]
- DCDev Comp Immunol 2017; 69:12-22
- Recent studies have suggested that gut symbionts modulate insect development and reproduction. However, the mechanisms by which gut symbionts modulate host physiologies and the molecules involved in ...
Recent studies have suggested that gut symbionts modulate insect development and reproduction. However, the mechanisms by which gut symbionts modulate host physiologies and the molecules involved in these changes are unclear. To address these questions, we prepared three different groups of the insect Riptortus pedestris: Burkholderia gut symbiont-colonized (Sym) insects, Burkholderia-non-colonized (Apo) insects, and Burkholderia-depleted (Sym(Burk-)) insects, which were fed tetracycline. When the hemolymph proteins of three insects were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, the hexamerin-α, hexamerin-β and vitellogenin-1 proteins of Sym-adults were highly expressed compared to those of Apo- and Sym(Burk-)-insects. To investigate the expression patterns of these three genes during insect development, we measured the transcriptional levels of these genes. The hexamerin-β gene was specifically expressed at all nymphal stages, and its expression was detected 4-5 days earlier in Sym-insect nymphs than that in Apo- and Sym(Burk-)-insects. However, the hexamerin-α and vitellogenin-1 genes were only expressed in adult females, and they were also detected 6-7 days earlier and were 2-fold higher in Sym-adult females than those in the other insects. Depletion of hexamerin-β by RNA interference in 2nd instar Sym-nymphs delayed adult emergence, whereas hexamerin-α and vitellogenin-1 RNA interference in 5th instar nymphs caused loss of color of the eggs of Sym-insects. These results demonstrate that the Burkholderia gut symbiont modulates host development and egg production by regulating production of these three hemolymph storage proteins.
- More than 170 polyunsaturated tocopherol-related compounds in a vitamin E capsule: Countercurrent chromatographic enrichment, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and preliminary identification of the potential artefacts. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr A 2016 Dec 09; 1476:77-87
- Tocopherols and tocotrienols (usually summed up as vitamin E) are a class of structurally related natural antioxidants. Commonly, only some of the eight classic representatives (four tocopherols and ...
Tocopherols and tocotrienols (usually summed up as vitamin E) are a class of structurally related natural antioxidants. Commonly, only some of the eight classic representatives (four tocopherols and four tocotrienols) are found with varied composition in food. In this study we fractionated 230mg oil from commercial vitamin E supplement capsules by countercurrent chromatography (CCC) and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of silylated CCC fractions showed that these eight isomers represented only about 70% of total tocopherol compounds. Detailed analysis enabled the detection of 161T3 isomers (α-, γ- and δ-T3) along with 18 tetra- and several penta-unsaturated isomers (tocools), two tocomonoenol isomers, and several degradation products with shorter isoprenoid side chain (apo-tocools). Altogether, over 170 tocool compounds, most likely artefacts which originated from an inappropriate oil refining process were described in this study. Silver ion high performance liquid chromatography (Ag(+)-HPLC) was used to separate one fraction rich in γ-T3 into four peaks each consisting of at least five peaks according to GC/MS. About ten γ-T3 isomers were also detected in rice bran oils from one producer bought retail in Germany.
- Inhibiting androgen receptor nuclear entry in castration-resistant prostate cancer. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Chem Biol 2016; 12(10):795-801
- Clinical resistance to the second-generation antiandrogen enzalutamide in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), despite persistent androgen receptor (AR) activity in tumors, highlights an unme...
Clinical resistance to the second-generation antiandrogen enzalutamide in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), despite persistent androgen receptor (AR) activity in tumors, highlights an unmet medical need for next-generation antagonists. We have identified and characterized tetra-aryl cyclobutanes (CBs) as a new class of competitive AR antagonists that exhibit a unique mechanism of action. These CBs are structurally distinct from current antiandrogens (hydroxyflutamide, bicalutamide, and enzalutamide) and inhibit AR-mediated gene expression, cell proliferation, and tumor growth in several models of CRPC. Conformational profiling revealed that CBs stabilize an AR conformation resembling an unliganded receptor. Using a variety of techniques, it was determined that the AR-CB complex was not recruited to AR-regulated promoters and, like apo AR, remains sequestered in the cytoplasm, bound to heat shock proteins. Thus, we have identified third-generation AR antagonists whose unique mechanism of action suggests that they may have therapeutic potential in CRPC.
- A comparative analysis of root surface biomodification with ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid and tetracycline hydrochloride: An in vitro scanning electron microscopic study. [Journal Article]
- MJMed J Armed Forces India 2016; 72(2):145-51
- CONCLUSIONS: The EDTA produced better effects than tetracycline by providing more demineralized area and collagen exposure at a neutral pH.
- A comparative study on the interactions of human copper chaperone Cox17 with anticancer organoruthenium(II) complexes and cisplatin by mass spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Inorg Biochem 2016; 161:99-106
- Herein we report investigation of the interactions between anticancer organoruthenium complexes, [(η(6)-arene)Ru(en)(Cl)]PF6 (en=ethylenediamine, arene=p-cymene (1) or biphenyl (2)), and the human co...
Herein we report investigation of the interactions between anticancer organoruthenium complexes, [(η(6)-arene)Ru(en)(Cl)]PF6 (en=ethylenediamine, arene=p-cymene (1) or biphenyl (2)), and the human copper chaperone protein Cox17 by mass spectrometry with cisplatin as a reference. The electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) results indicate much weaker binding of the ruthenium complexes than that of cisplatin to apo-Cox172s-s, the functional state of Cox17. Up to tetra-platinated Cox17 adducts were identified while only mono-ruthenated and a little amount of di-ruthenated Cox17 adducts were detected even for the reactions with 10-fold excess of the Ru complexes. However, ESI-MS analysis coupled with liquid chromatography of tryptic digests of metalated proteins identified only three platination sites as Met4, Cys27 and His47 residues, possibly due to the lower abundance or facile dissociation of Pt bindings at other sites. Complexes 1 and 2 were found to bind to the same three residues with Met4 as the major site. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry results revealed that ~7mol Pt binding to 1mol apo-Cox172s-s molecules, compared to only 0.17 (1) and 0.10 (2) mol Ru to 1mol apo-Cox172s-s. This is in line with the circular dichroism results that much larger unfolding extent of α-helix of apo-Cox172s-s was observed upon cisplatin binding than that upon organoruthenium bindings. These results collectively indicate that Cox17 might not participate in the action of these anticancer organoruthenium complexes, and further verify the distinct anticancer mechanism of the organoruthenium(II) complexes from cisplatin.
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- Evidence of Allopolyploidy in Urochloa humidicola Based on Cytological Analysis and Genetic Linkage Mapping. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(4):e0153764
- The African species Urochloa humidicola (Rendle) Morrone & Zuloaga (syn. Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick.) is an important perennial forage grass found throughout the tropics. This species is...
The African species Urochloa humidicola (Rendle) Morrone & Zuloaga (syn. Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick.) is an important perennial forage grass found throughout the tropics. This species is polyploid, ranging from tetra to nonaploid, and apomictic, which makes genetic studies challenging; therefore, the number of currently available genetic resources is limited. The genomic architecture and evolution of U. humidicola and the molecular markers linked to apomixis were investigated in a full-sib F1 population obtained by crossing the sexual accession H031 and the apomictic cultivar U. humidicola cv. BRS Tupi, both of which are hexaploid. A simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based linkage map was constructed for the species from 102 polymorphic and specific SSR markers based on simplex and double-simplex markers. The map consisted of 49 linkage groups (LGs) and had a total length of 1702.82 cM, with 89 microsatellite loci and an average map density of 10.6 cM. Eight homology groups (HGs) were formed, comprising 22 LGs, and the other LGs remained ungrouped. The locus that controls apospory (apo-locus) was mapped in LG02 and was located 19.4 cM from the locus Bh027.c.D2. In the cytological analyses of some hybrids, bi- to hexavalents at diakinesis were observed, as well as two nucleoli in some meiocytes, smaller chromosomes with preferential allocation within the first metaphase plate and asynchronous chromosome migration to the poles during anaphase. The linkage map and the meiocyte analyses confirm previous reports of hybridization and suggest an allopolyploid origin of the hexaploid U. humidicola. This is the first linkage map of an Urochloa species, and it will be useful for future quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis after saturation of the map and for genome assembly and evolutionary studies in Urochloa spp. Moreover, the results of the apomixis mapping are consistent with previous reports and confirm the need for additional studies to search for a co-segregating marker.