- Analysis of Lanthionine Ketimine Ethyl Ester in Mouse Serum, Whole Blood and Tissues using UHPLC-MS/MS. [Journal Article]
- RCRapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2018 Aug 16
- CONCLUSIONS: A rapid quantitative method to measure LKE in mouse serum, whole blood and brain tissues using UHPLC-MS/MS was developed and validated following FDA guidelines. This method is suitable for bioavailability and pharmacokinetic studies.
- Effects of rolapitant administered orally on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), tolbutamide (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), efavirenz (CYP2B6), and repaglinide (CYP2C8) in healthy subjects. [Journal Article]
- SCSupport Care Cancer 2018 Aug 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of dextromethorphan by a single oral dose of rolapitant 180 mg is clinically significant and can last at least 7 days. No clinically significant interaction was observed between rolapitant and substrates of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2B6, or CYP2C8. CYP2D6 substrate drugs with a narrow therapeutic index may require monitoring for adverse reactions if given concomitantly with rolapitant.
- Effects of Baoyuan decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on the activities and mRNA expression of seven CYP isozymes in rats. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 Oct 28; 225:327-335
- CONCLUSIONS: BYD exhibited inhibitory effects on CYP2C9, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4. Moreover, BYD had induction effects on CYP1A2, and CYP2D6 activities. However, no significant change in CYP2C19 activity was observed. It would be useful for the safe and effective usage of BYD in clinic.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- This class of medications represents a group of anti-hyperglycemic agents mainly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sulfonylureas, commonly divided into first and second generations, ...
This class of medications represents a group of anti-hyperglycemic agents mainly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sulfonylureas, commonly divided into first and second generations, can be utilized as adjuvant therapy with metformin in patients not at target hemoglobin A1c after 3 months on biguanides. If a patient’s hemoglobin A1c initially is greater than 9.0%, providers can consider combination therapy with metformin and a sulfonylurea or other anti-hyperglycemic agent. Additionally, sulfonylurea monotherapy can be considered in patients intolerant to metformin or in those who have a contraindication to this medication. Sulfonylureas can be used in combination with any other class of oral diabetic medications besides meglitinides. Infants with permanent neonatal diabetes also tend to respond well to sulfonylurea treatment. Examples of first-generation sulfonylureas include chlorpropamide, tolazamide, and tolbutamide, while second-generation sulfonylureas include glipizide, gliclazide, and glyburide. Glimepiride occasionally is referred to as a third-generation medication, though it commonly is classified as second-generation. Furthermore, chlorpropamide, glyburide, and glimepiride have a prolonged duration of action when compared to short-acting medications such as gliclazide and tolbutamide. Due to their low cost, wide availability, and effectiveness, sulfonylureas have remained a frequently prescribed medication despite potential hypoglycemic risks.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Tolbutamide is excreted into breastmilk in small amounts that should cause no harm to the breastfed infant. Monitoring of the breastfed infant's blood glucose is advisable during maternal therapy wit...
Tolbutamide is excreted into breastmilk in small amounts that should cause no harm to the breastfed infant. Monitoring of the breastfed infant's blood glucose is advisable during maternal therapy with hypoglycemic agents.
- Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes by thymoquinone in human liver microsomes. [Journal Article]
- SPSaudi Pharm J 2018; 26(5):673-677
- The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of thymoquinone (TQ) on the metabolic activity of four major drug metabolizing enzymes in human liver microsomes, namely cytochrom...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of thymoquinone (TQ) on the metabolic activity of four major drug metabolizing enzymes in human liver microsomes, namely cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. The inhibition of CYP enzymatic activities by TQ was evaluated by incubating typical substrates (phenacetin for CYP1A2, tolbutamide for CYP2C9, dextromethorphan for CYP2D6, and testosterone for CYP3A4) with human liver microsomes and NADPH in the absence or presence of TQ (1, 10 and 100 µM). The respective metabolite of the substrate that was formed was measured by HPLC. Results of the presented study presented that the metabolic activities of all the investigated CYP enzymes, viz. CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, were inhibited by TQ. At 1 µM TQ, CYP2C9 enzyme activity was maximally inhibited by 46.35%, followed by CYP2D6 (20.26%) > CYP1A2 (13.52%) > CYP3A4 (12.82%). However, at 10 µM TQ, CYP2C9 enzyme activity was maximally inhibited by 69.69%, followed by CYP3A4 (23.59%) > CYP1A2 (23.51%) > CYP2D6 (11.42%). At 100 µM TQ, CYP1A2 enzyme activity was maximally inhibited by 81.92%, followed by CYP3A4 (79.24%) > CYP2C9 (69.22%) > CYP2D6 (28.18%). The IC50 (mean ± SE) values for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibition were 26.5 ± 2.9 µM, 0.5 ± 0.4 µM, >500 µM and 25.2 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. These findings suggest that there is a high probability of drug interactions resulting from the co-administration of TQ or herbs containing TQ with drugs that are metabolized by the CYP enzymes, particularly CYP2C9.
- Pharmacokinetics and metabolic elimination of tolbutamide in female rats: Comparison with male rats. [Journal Article]
- BDBiopharm Drug Dispos 2018 Jul 06
- As there are to be known gender differences in the expression profiles of rat hepatic CYP2C, we examined the pharmacokinetic behavior of tolbutamide (TB), a typical probe for CYP2C, and hepatic enzym...
As there are to be known gender differences in the expression profiles of rat hepatic CYP2C, we examined the pharmacokinetic behavior of tolbutamide (TB), a typical probe for CYP2C, and hepatic enzyme activities for metabolizing TB in female rats to compare with male rats. On the pharmacokinetic analysis of TB after intravenous administration to female rats, the elimination rate constant at the terminal phase (ke ), total clearance (CLtot ) and the apparent volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss ) were significantly lower than in male rats. The binding rates of TB to serum protein were similar in male and female rats, indicating that the change in unbound TB concentration in serum is not associated with the difference in the pharmacokinetic disposition of TB. On metabolic examination using hepatic microsomes, the maximum reaction velocity (Vmax ) of the metabolic conversion from TB to 4-hydroxytolbutamide (4-OH-TB) in female rats was lower than that in male rats, although there was no significant difference in the Michaelis constant (Km ) between genders. Consistent with this, the Vmax -to-Km ratio (Vmax /Km ) was significantly lower in female rats than in male rats. Therefore, the low in vitro CYP2C-dependent activity for hepatic TB removal in female rats provided a clear explanation for the lower in vivo elimination clearance of TB. Our findings strongly suggest that there is a gender difference in the metabolic capacity to eliminate drugs that serve as substrates of hepatic CYP2C enzymes in rats.
- Permanent neonatal diabetes: combining sulfonylureas with insulin may be an effective treatment. [Case Reports]
- DMDiabet Med 2018 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: In people with KCNJ11 mutations causing permanent neonatal diabetes, and where complete transfer is not possible, consideration should be given to dual insulin and sulfonylurea therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Somatostatin promotes glucose generation of Ca2+oscillations in pancreatic islets both in the absence and presence of tolbutamide. [Journal Article]
- CCCell Calcium 2018 Jun 01; 74:35-42
- Many cellular processes, including pulsatile release of insulin, are triggered by increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+. This study examines how somatostatin affects glucose generation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ osc...
Many cellular processes, including pulsatile release of insulin, are triggered by increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+. This study examines how somatostatin affects glucose generation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations in mouse islets in absence and presence of tolbutamide blockade of the KATP channels. Ca2+ was measured with dual wavelength microflurometry in isolated islets loaded with the indicator Fura-2. Rise of glucose from 3 to 20 mM evoked introductory lowering of Ca2+ prolonged by activation of somatostatin receptors. During continued superfusion exposure to somatostatin triggered oscillations mediated by periodic increase from the basal level (absence of tolbutamide) or by periodic interruption of an elevated level (presence of tolbutamide). In the latter situation the oscillations were transformed into sustained elevation by activation of muscarinic receptors (acetylcholine) or increase of cyclic AMP (IBMX, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, forskolin). The observed effect of cyclic AMP raises the question whether high proportions of the glucagon-producing α-cells promote steady-state elevation of Ca2+. In support for this idea somatostatin was found to trigger glucose-induced Ca2+ oscillations essentially in small islets that contain very few α-cells. The results indicate that somatostatin promotes glucose generation of Ca2+oscillations with similar characteristics both in the absence and presence of functional KATP channels.
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- The Ontogeny of Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activity and Protein Abundance in Conventional Pigs in Support of Preclinical Pediatric Drug Research. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:470
- Since the implementation of several legislations to improve pediatric drug research, more pediatric clinical trials are being performed. In order to optimize these pediatric trials, adequate preclini...
Since the implementation of several legislations to improve pediatric drug research, more pediatric clinical trials are being performed. In order to optimize these pediatric trials, adequate preclinical data are necessary, which are usually obtained by juvenile animal models. The growing piglet has been increasingly suggested as a potential animal model due to a high degree of anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. However, physiological data in pigs on the ontogeny of major organs involved in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs are largely lacking. The aim of this study was to unravel the ontogeny of porcine hepatic drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP450) activities as well as protein abundances. Liver microsomes from 16 conventional pigs (8 males and 8 females) per age group: 2 days, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6-7 months were prepared. Activity measurements were performed with substrates of major human CYP450 enzymes: midazolam (CYP3A), tolbutamide (CYP2C), and chlorzoxazone (CYP2E). Next, the hepatic scaling factor, microsomal protein per gram liver (MPPGL), was determined to correct for enzyme losses during the fractionation process. Finally, protein abundance was determined using proteomics and correlated with enzyme activity. No significant sex differences within each age category were observed in enzyme activity or MPPGL. The biotransformation rate of all three substrates increased with age, comparable with human maturation of CYP450 enzymes. The MPPGL decreased from birth till 8 weeks of age followed by an increase till 6-7 months of age. Significant sex differences in protein abundance were observed for CYP1A2, CYP2A19, CYP3A22, CYP4V2, CYP2C36, CYP2E_1, and CYP2E_2. Midazolam and tolbutamide are considered good substrates to evaluate porcine CYP3A/2C enzymes, respectively. However, chlorzoxazone is not advised to evaluate porcine CYP2E enzyme activity. The increase in biotransformation rate with age can be attributed to an increase in absolute amount of CYP450 proteins. Finally, developmental changes were observed regarding the involvement of specific CYP450 enzymes in the biotransformation of the different substrates.