- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- First-generation antipsychotics are dopamine receptor antagonists (DRA) and are known as typical antipsychotics. They include phenothiazines (trifluoperazine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, acetophe...
First-generation antipsychotics are dopamine receptor antagonists (DRA) and are known as typical antipsychotics. They include phenothiazines (trifluoperazine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, acetophenazine, triflupromazine, mesoridazine), butyrophenones (Haloperidol), thioxanthenes (thiothixene, chlorprothixene), dibenzoxazepines (loxapine), dihydroindole (molindone), and diphenylbutylpiperidines (pimozide).
- Interaction of calmodulin with poly(acrylic acid) brushes: Effects of high pressure, pH-value and ligand binding. [Journal Article]
- CSColloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Jul 31; 171:478-484
- Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes are well-known to interact with proteins in an ionic strength-dependent way. Moreover, they provide a native-like environment that largely maintains the secondary str...
Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes are well-known to interact with proteins in an ionic strength-dependent way. Moreover, they provide a native-like environment that largely maintains the secondary structure and biological activity of adsorbed proteins. Recently, it has been shown that the application of high pressure can lead to a reduced protein adsorption at a PAA brush in the case of a positively charged protein. Here, we analyze the effect of pressure on the interactions between a protein and a PAA brush in more detail. We use calmodulin as model protein that has a negative net charge at neutral pH-value and determine the degree of adsorption at a planar PAA brush applying total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) spectroscopy. Remarkably, the degree of calmodulin adsorption at a PAA brush is increasing with increasing pressure, when the protein is negatively charged. However, at low pH-value, where calmodulin is positively charged, high pressure leads to a partial desorption of the protein. Moreover, in the presence of trifluoperazine, which binds to calmodulin as a ligand, the pressure effect is diminished. The results of this study indicate that protein adsorption at a PAA brush at the "wrong" side of the isoelectric point, i.e. under net electrostatic repulsion, can involve a volume reduction that is favored under high pressure. It is suggested that this volume reduction is related to a hydration of counterions that are released from the PAA chains and the protein surface. In contrast, at pH-values close to the isoelectric point, the obtained data are consistent with a charge regulation mechanism that involves a volume increase. Thus, the application of high pressure in combination with pH-variation, as carried out in this study, provides the volume changes of adsorption that need to be consistent with any proposed mechanism of protein interaction with a PAA brush.
- New roles of fluoxetine in pharmacology: Antibacterial effect and modulation of antibiotic activity. [Journal Article]
- MPMicrob Pathog 2018 Jul 26; 123:368-371
- The antimicrobial activity of psychotropic drugs, especially those of the class of mainly phenothiazines has been previously reported. Other drugs, including verapamil and trifluoperazine demonstrate...
The antimicrobial activity of psychotropic drugs, especially those of the class of mainly phenothiazines has been previously reported. Other drugs, including verapamil and trifluoperazine demonstrated to be effective against multidrug-resistant strains. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressant drugs that have presented significant activity against resistant bacterial resistance, but the antibacterial effect as well the antibiotic modulating properties of fluoxetine remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate in vitro, the antibacterial effect and the antibiotic modulating activity of fluoxetine against standard and multiresistant bacterial strains. The microorganisms used were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. For the antibacterial tests, 10 mg fluoxetine hydrochloride were and diluted in 1 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and then diluted in sterile distilled water to a concentration of 1024 μg/mL. To determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs), the drugs were diluted to concentrations ranging from 512 to 0.5 μg/mL in 96-well microdilution plates. The evaluation of the modulatory activity of fluoxetine was performed by combining this drug with the following antibiotics: Erythromycin, Gentamicin, Imipenem, Norfloxacin and Tetracycline at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8). Our results demonstrated that the MIC fluoxetine were 256 and 102 μg/mL against standard and resistant strains of S. aureus, respectively. The MIC of fluoxetine against both standard and resistant strains of P. aeruginosa was 161 μg/mL and against E. coli, the MIC of fluoxetine was 102 μg/mL for both standard and resistant strains, demonstrating that this drug present significant antibacterial activity. The association of fluoxetine with gentamicin and erythromycin P. aeruginosa and E. coli presented synergistic effects, demonstrating that this drug can selectively modulate the activity of antibiotics of clinical use. In conclusion, fluoxetine presented significant antibacterial effect and potential antibiotic modulating activity against multiresistant bacteria. Therefore, additional studies are needed to characterize the antimicrobial properties of this drug, as well as the clinical implications of its use in the treatment of infections by resistant microorganisms.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Limited information indicates that maternal doses of trifluoperazine up to 10 mg daily do not affect the breastfed infant. Very limited long-term follow-up data indicate no adverse developmental effe...
Limited information indicates that maternal doses of trifluoperazine up to 10 mg daily do not affect the breastfed infant. Very limited long-term follow-up data indicate no adverse developmental effects when other phenothiazines are used alone. Because there is little published experience with trifluoperazine during breastfeeding, other antipsychotic agents may be preferred, especially wile nursing an newborn or preterm infant.
- Assessment of Three-Drug Combination Pharmacodynamic Interactions in Pancreatic Cancer Cells. [Journal Article]
- AJAAPS J 2018 Jun 27; 20(5):80
- The pharmacodynamic interactions among trifluoperazine (TFP), gemcitabine (GEM), and paclitaxel (PTX) were assessed in pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1). The phenothiazine TFP was chosen for its poten...
The pharmacodynamic interactions among trifluoperazine (TFP), gemcitabine (GEM), and paclitaxel (PTX) were assessed in pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1). The phenothiazine TFP was chosen for its potential activity on cancer stem cells, while GEM and PTX cause apoptosis. Effects of each drug alone and in various combinations on cell growth inhibition of PANC-1 cells were studied in vitro to determine the drug-specific parameters and assess the nature of drug interactions. Joint inhibition (JI) and competitive inhibition (CI) equations were applied with a ψ interaction term. TFP fully inhibited growth of cells (Imax = 1) with an IC50 = 9887 nM. Near-maximum inhibition was achieved for GEM (Imax = 0.825) and PTX (Imax= 0.844) with an IC50 = 17.4 nM for GEM and IC50 = 7.08 nM for PTX. Estimates of an interaction term ψ revealed that the combination of TFP-GEM was apparently synergistic; close to additivity, the combination TFP-PTX was antagonistic. The interaction of GEM-PTX was additive, and TFP-GEM-PTX was synergistic but close to additive. The combination of TFP IC60-GEM IC60-PTX IC60 seemed optimal in producing inhibition of PANC-1 cells with an inhibitory effect of 82.1-90.2%. The addition of ψ terms to traditional interaction equations allows assessment of the degree of perturbation of assumed mechanisms.
- Molecular and functional characterization of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A in cynomolgus macaques. [Journal Article]
- BPBiochem Pharmacol 2018 Jun 23; 155:172-181
- UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are drug-metabolizing enzymes essential for the metabolism of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics. Molecular characteristics of UGTs have been extensively invest...
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are drug-metabolizing enzymes essential for the metabolism of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics. Molecular characteristics of UGTs have been extensively investigated in humans, but in cynomolgus macaques, a non-human primate species widely used in drug metabolism studies, remain to be investigated. In this study, 12 UGT1A cDNAs (UGT1A1, 1A2, 1A4A, 1A4B, 1A5A, 1A5B, 1A5C, 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, and 1A10) were isolated and characterized in cynomolgus macaques. UGT1A5C cDNA did not contain a complete coding region due to nonsense mutations, and was excluded from further analysis. Amino acid sequences of all 11 cynomolgus UGT1As had high sequence identities (92-95%) with human UGT1As and were phylogenetically close to human UGT1As. These cynomolgus UGT1A genes shared exons 2-5, and contained a variable exon 1 unique to each gene, similar to human UGT1A genes. Moreover, cynomolgus and human UGT1A gene clusters were located in corresponding regions in the genome. Among the 10 tissue types analyzed, cynomolgus UGT1A mRNAs were most abundantly expressed in the liver, jejunum, and/or kidney, the drug-metabolizing organs, similar to human UGT1As. Among these 11 cynomolgus UGT1A mRNAs, cynomolgus UGT1A2, UGT1A9, and UGT1A10 mRNAs were most abundantly expressed in the liver, kidney, and jejunum, respectively. Cynomolgus liver microsomes and UGT1A proteins catalyzed glucuronidation of the substrates human UGT1As catalyze, including 4-methylumbelliferone, 4-nitrophenol, estradiol, trifluoperazine, serotonin, and propofol, although trifluoperazine glucuronidation was not catalyzed by any cynomolgus UGT1A proteins. These results suggest that cynomolgus UGT1As are functional enzymes with molecular similarities to human UGT1As.
- Calmodulins from Schistosoma mansoni: Biochemical analysis and interaction with IQ-motifs from voltage-gated calcium channels. [Journal Article]
- CCCell Calcium 2018 May 17; 74:1-13
- The trematode Schistosoma mansoni is a causative agent of schistosomiasis, the second most common parasitic disease of humans after malaria. Calcium homeostasis and calcium-mediated signalling pathwa...
The trematode Schistosoma mansoni is a causative agent of schistosomiasis, the second most common parasitic disease of humans after malaria. Calcium homeostasis and calcium-mediated signalling pathways are of particular interest in this species. The drug of choice for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel, disrupts the regulation of calcium uptake and there is interest in exploiting calcium-mediated processes for future drug discovery. Calmodulin is a calcium sensing protein, present in most eukaryotes. It is a critical regulator of processes as diverse as muscle contraction, cell division and, partly through interaction with voltage-gated calcium channels, intra-cellular calcium concentrations. S. mansoni expresses two highly similar calmodulins - SmCaM1 and SmCaM2. Both proteins interact with calcium, manganese, cadmium (II), iron (II) and lead ions in native gel electrophoresis. These ions also cause conformational changes in the proteins resulting in the exposure of a more hydrophobic surface (as demonstrated by anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate fluorescence assays). The proteins are primarily dimeric in the absence of calcium ions, but monomeric in the presence of this ion. Both SmCaM1 and SmCaM2 interact with a peptide corresponding to an IQ-motif derived from the α-subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel SmCav1B (residues 1923-1945). Both proteins bound with slightly higher affinity in the presence of calcium ions. However, there was no difference between the affinities of the two proteins for the peptide. This interaction could be antagonised by chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine, but not praziquantel or thiamylal. Interestingly no interaction could be detected with the other three IQ-motifs identified in S. mansoni voltage-gated ion calcium channels.
- Treatment of SEC62 over-expressing tumors by Thapsigargin and Trifluoperazine. [Journal Article]
- BCBiomol Concepts 2018 May 19; 9(1):53-63
- Treatment with analogues of the SERCA-inhibitor Thapsigargin is a promising new approach for a wide variety of cancer entities. However, our previous studies on various tumor cells suggested resistan...
Treatment with analogues of the SERCA-inhibitor Thapsigargin is a promising new approach for a wide variety of cancer entities. However, our previous studies on various tumor cells suggested resistance of SEC62 over-expressing tumors to this treatment. Therefore, we proposed the novel concept that e.g. lung-, prostate-, and thyroid-cancer patients should be tested for SEC62 over-expression, and developed a novel therapeutic strategy for a combinatorial treatment of SEC62 over-expressing tumors. The latter was based on the observations that treatment of SEC62 over-expressing tumor cells with SEC62-targeting siRNAs showed less resistance to Thapsigargin as well as a reduction in migratory potential and that the siRNA effects can be mimicked by the Calmodulin antagonist Trifluoperazine. Therefore, the combinatorial treatment of SEC62 over-expressing tumors was proposed to involve Thapsigargin and Trifluoperazine. Here, we addressed the impact of Thapsigargin and Trifluoperazine in separate and combined treatments of heterotopic tumors, induced by inoculation of human hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (FaDu)-cells into the mouse flank. Seeding of the tumor cells and/or their growth rate were significantly reduced by all three treatments, suggesting Trifluoperazine is a small molecule to be considered for future therapeutic strategies for patients, suffering from Sec62-overproducing tumors.
- Osteocyte-Driven Downregulation of Snail Restrains Effects of Drd2 Inhibitors on Mammary Tumor Cells. [Journal Article]
- CRCancer Res 2018 Jul 15; 78(14):3865-3876
- While bone is a frequent target of breast cancer-associated metastasis, little is known about the effects of tumor-bone interactions on the efficacy of tumor-suppressing agents. Here we examined the ...
While bone is a frequent target of breast cancer-associated metastasis, little is known about the effects of tumor-bone interactions on the efficacy of tumor-suppressing agents. Here we examined the effect of two FDA-approved dopamine modulators, fluphenazine and trifluoperazine, on mammary tumor cells, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. These agents suppressed proliferation and migration of mammary tumor cells chiefly by antagonizing dopamine receptor D2 and reduced bone resorption by downregulating nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (Nfatc1). Three-dimensional spheroid formation assays revealed that tumor cells have high affinity to osteocytes and type I collagen, and interactions with osteocytes as well as administration of fluphenazine and trifluoperazine downregulated Snail and suppressed migratory behaviors. Unlike the inhibitory action of fluphenazine and trifluoperazine on tumor growth, tumor-osteocyte interactions stimulated tumor proliferation by upregulating NFκB and Akt. In the bone microenvironment, osteocytes downregulated Snail and acted as an attractant as well as a stimulant to mammary tumor cells. These results demonstrate that tumor-osteocyte interactions strengthen dopamine receptor-mediated suppression of tumor migration but weaken its inhibition of tumor proliferation in the osteocyte-rich bone microenvironment.Significance: These findings provide novel insight into the cellular cross-talk in the bone microevironment and the effects of dopamine modulators on mammary tumor cells and osteocytes. Cancer Res; 78(14); 3865-76. ©2018 AACR.
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- Synergistic Enhancement of Enzyme Performance and Resilience via Orthogonal Peptide-Protein Chemistry Enabled Multilayer Construction. [Journal Article]
- BBiomacromolecules 2018 Jul 09; 19(7):2700-2707
- Protein immobilization is critical to utilize their unique functions in diverse applications. Herein, we report that orthogonal peptide-protein chemistry enabled multilayer construction can facilitat...
Protein immobilization is critical to utilize their unique functions in diverse applications. Herein, we report that orthogonal peptide-protein chemistry enabled multilayer construction can facilitate the incorporation of various folded structural domains, including calmodulin in different states, affibody, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). An extended conformation is found to be the most advantageous for steady film growth. The resulting protein thin films exhibit sensitive and selective responsive behaviors to biosignals, such as Ca2+, trifluoperazine, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and fully maintain the catalytic activity of DHFR. The approach is applicable to different substrates such as hydrophobic gold and hydrophilic silica microparticles. The DHFR enzyme can be immobilized onto silica microparticles with tunable amounts. The multilayer setup exhibits a synergistic enhancement of DHFR activity with increasing numbers of bilayers and also makes the embedded DHFR more resilient to lyophilization. Therefore, this is a convenient and versatile method for protein immobilization with potential benefits of synergistic enhancement in enzyme performance and resilience.