- Pharmacological and neurosurgical interventions for managing dystonia in cerebral palsy: a systematic review. [Journal Article]
- DMDev Med Child Neurol 2018 Feb 06
- CONCLUSIONS: For dystonia reduction, ITB and DBS are possibly effective, whereas trihexyphenidyl was possibly ineffective. There is insufficient evidence to support oral medications or botulinum toxin to reduce dystonia. There is insufficient evidence for pharmacological and neurosurgical interventions to improve motor function, decrease pain, and ease caregiving. The majority of the pharmacological and neurosurgical management of dystonia in CP is based on clinical expert opinion.Intrathecal baclofen and deep brain stimulation are possibly effective in reducing dystonia. Current evidence does not support effectiveness of oral medications or botulinum toxin to reduce dystonia. Evidence is inadequate for pharmacological/neurosurgical interventions impact on improving motor function, pain/comfort, and easing caregiving. The majority of the care pathway rests on expert opinion.
- Prescribing Pattern for Parkinson's Disease in Indian Community before Referral to Tertiary Center. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Neurol Sci 2017; 44(6):705-710
- CONCLUSIONS: Levodopa and trihexyphenidyl were the most commonly prescribed drugs in our patients. A higher use of trihexyphenidyl could be due to its easy availability, low cost, and better tolerability in our patients, who were relatively young at the time of onset of their disease. The choice of antiparkinsonian medications at the primary and secondary care levels in India may be inappropriate, and newer guidelines tailored to the Indian context are warranted.
- Disabling tremor induced by long-term use of sodium valproate and lamotrigine: Case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96(47):e8711
- CONCLUSIONS: Considering the wide and long-term utilization of VPA and LTG, healthcare providers should be aware of them as a possible cause of tremor. When necessary, an attempt of discontinuing the suspected drugs should be made to confirm the diagnosis, instead of symptomatic treatment, especially when the adverse event was severe and fatal.
- Progressive delayed hemidystonia following clinically mild traumatic brain injury. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2017 Dec 28; 2017
- A 16-year-old boy presented with progressive left hemidystonia over 3 years. The possibilities of symptomatic hemidystonia due to focal lesions such as infarct (vasculitis), tumours, tuberculoma, art...
A 16-year-old boy presented with progressive left hemidystonia over 3 years. The possibilities of symptomatic hemidystonia due to focal lesions such as infarct (vasculitis), tumours, tuberculoma, arteriovenous malformations or heredodegenerative disorders such as Wilson disease were considered. Imaging showed a peculiar scar involving right basifrontal region extending upto anterior, centromedian and dorsomedial nuclei of thalamus due to blowout fracture of roof of orbit. This scar was responsible for progressive left hemidystonia. On probing the history, it was revealed that patient had sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) 3 years ago. Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia severity rating scale showed improvement from 19 to 6 after treatment with tablet trihexyphenidyl 16 mg and clonazepam 1 mg. A linear scar reaching upto thalamus due to blowout fracture of roof of orbit following clinically mTBI is unique. Delayed, progressive hemidystonia has been reported following severe head injury, however is less common following clinically mTBI.
- Successful Use of Risperidone, Trihexyphenidyl, and Paroxetine in Pregnancy. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Psychol Med 2017 Nov-Dec; 39(6):835-836
- [Drug-Induced Akathisia]. [Journal Article]
- BNBrain Nerve 2017; 69(12):1417-1424
- Akathisia consists of subjective inner restlessness, such as awareness of the inability to remain seated, restless legs, fidgetiness, and the desire to move constantly, and of objective increased mot...
Akathisia consists of subjective inner restlessness, such as awareness of the inability to remain seated, restless legs, fidgetiness, and the desire to move constantly, and of objective increased motor phenomena, such as body rocking, shifting from foot to foot, stamping in place, crossing and uncrossing legs, pacing around. Although the broad definition of akathisia includes the inner and motor restlessness observed in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, post-encephalitic parkinsonism, and restless legs syndrome, here we exclusively focus on the narrow definition of antipsychotic-induced akathisia. The most reliable treatment for acute akathisia is the reduction or the withdrawal of antipsychotic medication. However, this is often not possible because it may worsen the patients' mental condition. Various pharmacological agents have been used for the treatment of this condition. These include anticholinergic agents (e.g., biperiden and trihexyphenidyl), benzodiazepines, beta-adrenoceptor blockers (e.g., propranolol), and serotonin 2A receptor antagonists (e.g., mianserin, cyproheptadine, and mirtazapine).
- An unusual presentation of tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Mov Disord 2017; 4:18
- CONCLUSIONS: TH deficiency can cause a broad range of clinical symptoms and severity. As more cases are discovered, the phenotype expands. Here we describe a unique case of DRD and possible parkinsonism due to TH deficiency with residual symptoms of dystonia that was task dependent and responded to a sensory trick. In addition, while the history is limited, it is possible he may have had episodes similar to "lethargy-irritability crises" seen in more severe cases. In large part he fits within the milder form of TH hydroxylase deficiency.
- Psychotropic prescriptions for the treatment of schizophrenia in an outpatient clinic. [Journal Article]
- TPTrends Psychiatry Psychother 2017 Jul-Sep; 39(3):165-172
- CONCLUSIONS: There was a very high preference for the use of first-generation antipsychotics for all treatment settings (in- and outpatients), a pattern that is likely to persist.
- Efficacy of oral pharmacological treatments in dyskinetic cerebral palsy: a systematic review. [Review]
- DMDev Med Child Neurol 2017; 59(12):1237-1248
- CONCLUSIONS: This lack of evidence is partially owing to the inconsistency of classifications of patients and of outcome measures used in the reviewed studies. Further randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacological trials, optimized for different age groups, based on valid, reliable, and disease-specific rating scales are strongly needed. Outcome measures should be selected within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.Evidence to prove (or disprove) the efficacy of oral drugs in dyskinetic cerebral palsy is low. The most investigated drugs, trihexyphenidyl and levodopa, show contradictory results. Tetrabenazine, levetiracetam, and gabapentin efficacy should be studied in more detail. Lack of evidence is partially due to the inconsistency of classifications and outcome measures used. Outcome measures should be selected within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in next clinical trials.
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- GeneReviews® [BOOK]
- BOOKUniversity of Washington, Seattle: Seattle (WA)
- Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). The phenotypic spectrum of PKAN includes classic PKAN and atypical PKAN. Cl...
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). The phenotypic spectrum of PKAN includes classic PKAN and atypical PKAN. Classic PKAN is characterized by early childhood onset of progressive dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, and choreoathetosis. Pigmentary retinal degeneration is common. Atypical PKAN is characterized by later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.