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1,259 results
  • Status Dystonicus with Atypical Presentation in Developmentally Delay Child: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
    JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2022 Aug 01; 60(252):739-742.Yadav SK, Yadav P, … Khati N
  • Status dystonicus is characterised by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions of muscles causing repetitive twisting movements, abnormal postures of the body, or both is a rare but life-threatening movement disorder. Early diagnosis and management of status dystonicus prevent serious complications. We report a 2 years old previously developmental delay diagnosed girl who present…
  • StatPearls: Trihexyphenidyl [BOOK]
    StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)JilaniTalha N.TNHCA Healthcare Sunrise Health Graduate Medical Education ProgramSabirSarahSRawalpindi Medical UniversitySharmaSandeepSMery Fitzgerald HospitalBOOK
  • Trihexyphenidyl works as an anticholinergic and is used for the treatment of tremors, spasms, stiffness, and weak muscle control seen in patients with Parkinson disease. It can also be used for the prevention or treatment of similar muscular conditions, which are caused by certain central nervous system (CNS) drugs such as fluphenazine, haloperidol, chlorpromazine. It was approved for the managem…
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Induced Status Dystonicus in a Child with West Syndrome. [Case Reports]
    Indian J Crit Care Med. 2022 Aug; 26(8):961-962.Singh J, Aulakh R
  • Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contraction causing repetitive twisting movements and abnormal postures. Status dystonicus (SD) is an enigmatic disease of cryptic etiology. We hereby report a child with West syndrome (WS) who went on to develop SD following intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection. An 11-month-old mal…
  • Pharmacological Management of Nightmares Associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. [Review]
    CNS Drugs. 2022 07; 36(7):721-737.Geldenhuys C, van den Heuvel LL, … Seedat S
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be a chronic and disabling condition. Post-traumatic nightmares (PTNs) form a core component of PTSD and are highly prevalent in this patient population. Nightmares in PTSD have been associated with significant distress, functional impairment, poor health outcomes, and decreased quality of life. Nightmares in PTSD are also an independent risk factor for su…
  • Type 1 neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation: a case report. [Case Reports]
    J Med Case Rep. 2022 Jun 03; 16(1):217.Labrada-Aguilera PE, Guach-Hevia DA, … González-Lago DA
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis can be made based on the presence of clinical and imaging features. The presence of "eye-of-the-tiger" sign on magnetic resonance imaging must be considered a nearly pathognomonic sign of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation presence. Treatment after high-severity presentation remains directed toward symptomatic findings. Both dopamine agonists and anticholinergic agents are useful to treat motor symptoms, but there is not yet an effective treatment to stop the underlying degeneration. New therapeutic approaches are needed to counteract late stages of the disease and improve prognosis.
  • Evolving Concepts in Our Understanding and Treatment of Holmes Tremor, Over 100 Years in the Making. [Review]
    Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y). 2022; 12:18.Hey G, Hu W, … Ramirez-Zamora A
  • Holmes Tremor (HT) is an irregular, slow-frequency (<4.5 Hz) tremor characterized by a combination of resting, postural, and action tremors mostly of the upper extremities. Symptoms of HT typically emerge 4 weeks to 2 years after a brain injury caused by a spectrum of etiologies. HT pathophysiology is thought to result from aberrant collateral axonal sprouting and synaptic dysfunction following n…
  • Anticholinergic treatment for sialorrhea in children: A systematic review. [Journal Article]
    Paediatr Child Health. 2022 May; 27(2):82-87.You P, Strychowsky J, … Chen BA
  • CONCLUSIONS: Glycopyrrolate, scopolamine/hyoscine, trihexyphenidyl/benzhexol, benztropine, and atropine have all shown efficacy in the treatment of sialorrhea in children. The small number of reports and the variability in study design precluded a meta-analysis. More studies are needed with uniformity in outcome measures to help guide evidence-based decision making. A guidance table is presented.
  • KMT2B-Related Dystonia: Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment. [Case Reports]
    Mol Syndromol. 2022 Feb; 13(2):159-164.Aksoy A, Yayıcı Köken Ö, … Toptaş Dedeoğlu Ö
  • In this study, we report the first known Turkish case of a novel nonsense mutation c.2453dupT (p.M818fs*28) in the KMT2B (NM_014727.2) gene diagnosed in a male patient with KMT2B-related dystonia (DYT-KMT2B, DYT-28, Dystonia*-28), which is a complex, childhood-onset, progressive, hereditary dystonia. The patient, who is followed up from 9 to 13 years of age, had dysmorphic features, developmental…
  • Status Dystonicus in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study and Review of Literature. [Review]
    J Child Neurol. 2022 05; 37(6):441-450.Saini AG, Hassan I, … Singhi P
  • Background: Status dystonicus is a life-threatening, underrecognized movement disorder emergency. We aimed to ascertain the etiology, clinical presentation, complications, and outcomes of status dystonicus in children and reviewed the literature for similar studies. Methods: Records of all children aged <14 years admitted to a single center with status dystonicus between 2014 and 2018 were review…
  • Misuse of Anticholinergic Medications: A Systematic Review. [Review]
    Biomedicines. 2022 Feb 01; 10(2)Chiappini S, Mosca A, … Di Giannantonio M
  • (1) Background: Over the last decade, misuse and diversion of medications has appeared to be increasingly concerning phenomena, including a range of different molecules. As current knowledge on the abuse of centrally acting anticholinergics is limited, the aim of the present study is to review the relevant published data, focusing on the following molecules: benztropine, biperiden, scopolamine, o…
  • Treatment strategies for clozapine-induced nocturnal enuresis and urinary incontinence: a systematic review. [Review]
    CNS Spectr. 2022 Jan 28 [Online ahead of print]Tanzer T, Warren N, … Siskind D
  • CONCLUSIONS: Following assessment of urological, psychiatric, pharmacological, and common comorbid medical issues, first-line treatments should be nonpharmacological, including bathroom alarms, voiding before bedtime, and nocturnal fluid restriction. If these interventions do not provide adequate relief, aripiprazole should be trialed. Desmopressin may be considered for severe refractory cases, but monitoring for hyponatremia is essential.
  • Catatonia: A rare presentation of Wilson's disease. [Case Reports]
    Ind Psychiatry J. 2021 Oct; 30(Suppl 1):S325-S327.Davis S, Chag J, … Saldanha D
  • Wilson's disease (WD) or hepatolenticular degeneration is a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism affecting both the liver and the central nervous system. Psychiatric manifestations may precede neurological signs in the early stages of WD, but catatonia is a rare presentation. Here, we report a case of an 18-year-old girl who presented to the psychiatry outpatient department with catatonia…
  • Pediatric Dystonic Storm: A Hospital-Based Study. [Journal Article]
    Neurol Clin Pract. 2021 Oct; 11(5):e645-e653.Goswami JN, Roy S, Patnaik SK
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dystonic storm is a medical emergency mandating aggressive multimodal management. Supportive care, antidystonic drugs, and early elective ventilation alongside adequate sedation with benzodiazepines ameliorate complications. Relapses of dystonic storm are not uncommon.
  • LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Parkinson Disease Agents [BOOK]
    LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Bethesda (MD)BOOK
  • Parkinson disease is a progressive neurological condition characterized by slowness and paucity of movement (bradykinesia), muscle rigidity, resting tremors, and disordered posture. The onset is typically in the 6th or 7th decade of life with slow progression to akinesia, severe tremors, physical disability and death within 10 to 25 years of initial symptoms. Parkinson disease is common and affec…
  • Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed): Flavoxate [BOOK]
    Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed). National Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)BOOK
  • No information is available on the use of flavoxate during breastfeeding. Long-term use of trihexyphenidyl might reduce milk production or milk letdown, but a single dose is not likely to interfere with breastfeeding. During long-term use, observe for signs of decreased lactation (e.g., insatiety, poor weight gain).
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