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- Transfer Dysphagia Due to Focal Dystonia. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mov Disord 2018; 11(3):129-132
- CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of these clinical presentations among neurologists and non-neurologists can facilitate an early diagnosis and prevent unnecessary investigations.
- Glutaric Aciduria Type 1 with Microcephaly: Masquerading as Spastic Cerebral Palsy. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Neurosci 2018 Jul-Sep; 13(3):349-351
- Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1) is an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. A 13-month-old boy presented with microcephaly, dev...
Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1) is an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. A 13-month-old boy presented with microcephaly, developmental delay, and progressive spasticity and was being treated as spastic cerebral palsy, later on had loss of developmental milestones after acute episode of illness at 12 months of age. The magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed widened Sylvian fissure, hyperintensities in bilateral globus pallidus, and bilateral frontoparietal atrophy along with white matter loss. The urine examination by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy revealed a marked excretion of glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid. The diagnosis of GA-1 was confirmed on the basis of characteristic neuroimaging, biochemical, and mutation studies. There are rare reports in the literature about association of GA-1 with microcephaly. The child was started on trihexyphenidyl, l -carnitine, and high-dose riboflavin, and dietary therapy in the form of low-protein diet was advised.
- Off-Label Use of Antipsychotic Agents in Dementia: Evidence for the Revision of the Reimbursement Policy. [Journal Article]
- TITher Innov Regul Sci 2018 Sep 10; :2168479018795857
- CONCLUSIONS: National legislation on the drug reimbursement in Lithuania and Latvia does not provide safeguards for public health at the same level as the marketing authorization does. Absence of a revision of former decisions in the light of new evidence is a critical weakness of the drug reimbursement in Lithuania and Latvia. Reimbursement for the off-label indications may pose a risk to public health.
- Tremor during orthostatism as the initial symptom of Machado-Joseph disease. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Neurol Neurosurg 2018; 173:173-175
- A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital. He had mild tremor in his four extremities when supine or sitting, which was markedly exacerbated when standing. We diagnosed him with Machado-Joseph d...
A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital. He had mild tremor in his four extremities when supine or sitting, which was markedly exacerbated when standing. We diagnosed him with Machado-Joseph disease according to the genetic test. His tremor improved with clonazepam, trihexyphenidyl, and a rotigotine patch.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Trihexyphenidyl works as an anticholinergic and is used for the treatment of tremors, spasms, stiffness, and weak muscle control seen in patients with Parkinson disease. It can also be used for th...
Trihexyphenidyl works as an anticholinergic and is used for the treatment of tremors, spasms, stiffness, and weak muscle control seen in patients with Parkinson disease. It can also be used for the prevention or treatment of similar muscular conditions which are caused by certain central nervous system (CNS) drugs such as fluphenazine, haloperidol, chlorpromazine. Although it has been pertinent in clinical trials investigating the treatment of Parkinson disease since 1949, it was approved for the management of all types of parkinsonism (idiopathic, postencephalitic, and arteriosclerotic) in June 2003 by the FDA. Trihexyphenidyl is often used as an adjuvant therapy when treating the above-mentioned forms of parkinsonism with levodopa.
- [Antipsychotic-induced motor symptoms in schizophrenic psychoses-Part 1 : Dystonia, akathisia und parkinsonism]. [Review]
- NNervenarzt 2018 Aug 20
- Acute antipsychotic-induced movement disorders (AIMD) are clinically relevant since they are frequently associated with high subjective distress, and since over the long-term they can negatively impa...
Acute antipsychotic-induced movement disorders (AIMD) are clinically relevant since they are frequently associated with high subjective distress, and since over the long-term they can negatively impact treatment adherence of patients with schizophrenic psychoses. This review article summarizes the relevant studies on the prevalence, risk factors, prevention and treatment options and instruments for early prediction of acute AIMD in schizophrenic psychoses. The current evidence and treatment recommendations are divided into three main areas: acute dystonia, akathisia, and parkinsonism. For the treatment of acute dystonia trihexyphenidyl and biperiden have shown their efficacy. Considering pharmacological treatment of akathisia, there is some preliminary evidence for medication with lipophilic beta-receptor blockers (propranolol and pindolol), clonidine, benzodiazepines, mianserin, mirtazapine und trazodone. The treatment options for drug-induced parkinsonism include reduction or switching from one antipsychotic to another with a lower affinity for dopamine D2 receptors, amantadine or in the regular administration of anticholinergic drugs. In conclusion, acute AIMD is easily to recognize but is not always effectively and durably treated. Early recognition and treatment of acute AIMD could be associated with improved treatment outcomes.
- SCA2 presenting as a focal dystonia. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Mov Disord 2018; 5:6
- CONCLUSIONS: We describe a patient with SCA2 who presented with focal dystonia of the right upper extremity. Subtle cerebellar signs as well as the family history became especially important given the absence of predominant gait ataxia. Our case emphasizes that focal dystonia is not only a feature of SCA2, but can also rarely be the presenting sign as well as the most prominent feature during the disease course.
- Trihexyphenidyl Misuse in Delusional Disorder. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosci Rural Pract 2018 Jul-Sep; 9(3):428-430
- Trihexyphenidyl is an anticholinergic medication that is routinely used for the management of extrapyramidal symptoms in patients who receive antipsychotic medications. Trihexyphenidyl has been repor...
Trihexyphenidyl is an anticholinergic medication that is routinely used for the management of extrapyramidal symptoms in patients who receive antipsychotic medications. Trihexyphenidyl has been reported to be abused by some patients, who start to take it in increasing doses and tend to report a sensation of relaxation or pleasure with this medication. Hence, whether trihexyphenidyl should be considered a psychoactive substance and whether nonprescription misuse of this medication should be considered under the purview of substance use disorders need further clarity. We present here two cases of trihexyphenidyl misuse which developed in the context of persistent delusional disorders and highlight the challenges in diagnosis in such a situation.
- Development of a modified partial filling method in capillary electrophoresis using two chiral plugs for the simultaneous enantioseparation of chiral drugs: Comparison with mixed chiral selector capillary electrophoresis. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr A 2018 Sep 14; 1567:211-218
- In this study, a chiral CE method was developed based on the partial filling technique with two chiral plugs for the simultaneous enantioseparation of some racemic drugs, including baclofen, carvedil...
In this study, a chiral CE method was developed based on the partial filling technique with two chiral plugs for the simultaneous enantioseparation of some racemic drugs, including baclofen, carvedilol, cetirizine, chlorpheniramine, citalopram, fluoxetine, hydroxyzine, propranolol, tramadol, trihexyphenidyl. This method of capillary filling involves the application of two adjacent chiral plugs containing the same BGE, but with different chiral selectors in the plugs for the enantioseparation of a mixture of drugs which cannot be separated with single or mixed chiral selectors. By using this method, each plug can separate the enantiomers independently (same as a single chiral selector modified CE) and the possible interactions between the chiral selectors would be inhibited. The best results were obtained using a fused silica capillary (60cm×50μm id (50cm effective length)) with phosphate buffer (100mM, pH 3.0) containing 10mM hydroxypropyl-α/β-cyclodextrin and 10% (w/v) maltodextrin and detected by UV at 214nm. The influence of the length and order of the chiral plugs on the enantioresolution was also studied and optimized. The proposed method was compared with a mixed chiral selector-CE system with a combination of hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin in the BGE. According to the results, the modified partial filling method is a simple and efficient method for the simultaneous chiral separation and offers appropriate migration times and resolutions compared to the results obtained from mixed chiral selector CE.
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- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Limited information indicates that maternal doses of trihexyphenidyl up to 4 mg daily together with haloperidol did not produce any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Long-term use of trihexypheni...
Limited information indicates that maternal doses of trihexyphenidyl up to 4 mg daily together with haloperidol did not produce any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Long-term use of trihexyphenidyl might reduce milk production or milk letdown, but a single dose is not likely to interfere with breastfeeding. During long-term use, observe for signs of decreased lactation (e.g., insatiety, poor weight gain).