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- Surface conversion of ZnO nanorods to ZIF-8 to suppress surface defects for a visible-blind UV photodetector. [Journal Article]
- NNanoscale 2018 Nov 09
- ZnO nanomaterials are promising building blocks for an efficient UV photodetector; however, their slow sensing behavior and undesired response to visible light, which are attributed to surface defect...
ZnO nanomaterials are promising building blocks for an efficient UV photodetector; however, their slow sensing behavior and undesired response to visible light, which are attributed to surface defects, such as oxygen or zinc vacancies, are challenges that remain to be addressed. Here, we transformed the ZnO nanorod surface into a zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) to eliminate ZnO surface defects. Vertical-type photodetectors were fabricated incorporating a Schottky junction at the ZIF-8/gold (Au) top electrode and could respond to UV light with a rapid response and recovery (1-2 s) and demonstrated a UV-to-visible rejection ratio in the order of 103, qualifying them as efficient visible-blind UV photodetectors. It is noteworthy that the ZIF-8 layer effectively separated the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and thus reduced their recombination probability. The enhanced photodetector displayed excellent figures-of-merit: a responsivity of 291 A W-1 and a detectivity of 5.9 × 1013 cm Hz1/2 W-1 under illumination at 295 nm.
- Declining diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive fibrosis tests is associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase in chronic hepatitis B. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Clin Cases 2018 Oct 26; 6(12):521-530
- CONCLUSIONS: ALT has a significant effect on the diagnostic performance of non-invasive fibrosis tests. The ALT level should be considered before performing these non-invasive tests.
- Association between urinary thiodiglycolic acid level and hepatic function or fibrosis index in school-aged children living near a petrochemical complex. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2018 Oct 06; 244:648-656
- The effect of exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) on susceptibility to hepatotoxicity in children is unknown, although experimental studies have demonstrated a significantly increased risk of he...
The effect of exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) on susceptibility to hepatotoxicity in children is unknown, although experimental studies have demonstrated a significantly increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents exposed to VCM in early life. Epidemiological studies have revealed a high prevalence of liver fibrosis and abnormal liver function in workers exposed to high VCM levels. We aimed to assess the association among urinary thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA) level, abnormal liver function, and hepatic fibrosis in school-aged children living near a petrochemical complex. A total of 303 school-aged (6-13 years) children within 10 km nearly a petrochemical complex was recruited in central Taiwan. First-morning urine and blood samples were collected from each subject, and urinary TDGA level was analyzed through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Liver function was determined by serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed using the AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4). Risk of hepatotoxicity induced by TDGA exposure was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. The median (range, subclinically abnormal %) AST and ALT levels of all subjects were 26.0 (17.0-99.0, 25.7%) and 15.0 (7.0-211.0, 5.9%) IU/L, respectively. Children in the highest urinary TDGA quartile (≥160.0 μg/g creatinine) exhibited significantly elevated median AST levels compared with those in the lowest quartiles (<35.4 μg/g creatinine, p = 0.033). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, children in the highest quartiles (Q4) of TDGA level had significantly increased odds ratio (OR) of subclinically abnormal AST (OR = 3.86; 95% confidence interval: 1.54-9.67) compared with those in the lowest quartile. A dose-response trend (p = 0.004) was observed. Our findings support the hypothesis that elevated urinary TDGA level in children living near petrochemical complex is associated with susceptibility to hepatotoxicity.
- Evaluation and Comparison of Thirty Non-invasive Models for Diagnosing Liver Fibrosis in Chinese Hepatitis B Patients. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Viral Hepat 2018 Oct 31
- The limitations of liver biopsy have led to the development of indirect non-invasive models for liver fibrosis assessment. We aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of 30 non-invasive models t...
The limitations of liver biopsy have led to the development of indirect non-invasive models for liver fibrosis assessment. We aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of 30 non-invasive models to predict fibrosis stage in treatment-naïve and treated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. 576 Chinese treatment-naïve CHB patients and 236 treated CHB patients who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy were included in the analysis. Histological grading and staging was assessed by the Ishak scoring system. The diagnostic accuracies of 30 non-invasive models were assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs). In treatment-naïve CHB patients, the AUROCs of the 30 non-invasive models for discriminating significant fibrosis (SF) were less than 0.800, and only the AUROC of the PP score for diagnosing advanced fibrosis (AF) were more than 0.800, while the AUROCs of FIB-4, FibroQ, HB-F, Lok index, PHP score and PP score for predicting cirrhosis were greater than 0.800. In treated CHB patients, only the AUROCs of APRI, GUCI, King's score, and Wang I for identifying cirrhosis were more than 0.800. The Spearman correlation analysis identified that only the changes in FCI and Virahep-C model values were weakly correlated with changes in Ishak fibrosis scores before and after treatment (r=0.206, p=0.008; r=0.187, p=0.016, respectively). In conclusion, in Chinese CHB patients, the 30 existing non-invasive models were not suitable for assessing each stage of fibrosis except cirrhosis before and after antiviral therapy, especially in gauging progression and regression of liver fibrosis following therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir-based direct-acting antiviral regimens for hepatitis C virus genotype 6 in southwest China: real-world experience of a retrospective study. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Viral Hepat 2018 Oct 31
- Optional treatments for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 6 infection have not been extensively studied. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir (...
Optional treatments for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 6 infection have not been extensively studied. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for HCV GT6. We performed a retrospective study at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University in Southwest China from January 2016 to May 2017. Our study screened 130 treatment-naïve patients with chronic HCV GT6 and without liver cirrhosis. A total of 60 HCV GT6 patients were ultimately enrolled. All patients received SOF-based DAAs therapy, including SOF 400 mg plus daclatasvir (DCV) 60mg daily or SOF 400mg plus velpatasvir (VEL) 100mg daily for 12 weeks. The sustained virological response 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12) was 100% (60/60) in treatment-naïve patients with HCV GT6, including 100% (37/37) of patients receiving SOF plus DCV therapy and 100% (23/23) of patients receiving SOF plus VEL therapy. Measurements of liver stiffness were significantly decreased in patients at week 12 (p=0.014) and week 24 (p<0.001) of DAAs treatment compared to baseline values. The serum biomarker aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and Fibrosis-4 score were also significantly reduced at week 12 and week 24 compared to before treatment (both p<0.001). SOF-based therapy was well-tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, SOF plus DCV and SOF plus VEL were safe and achieved a high SVR12 rate for treatment-naïve patients with HCV GT6 without liver cirrhosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Soluble Markers of Immune Activation Differentially Normalize and Selectively Associate with Improvement in AST, ALT, Albumin, and Transient Elastography During IFN-Free HCV Therapy. [Journal Article]
- PIPathog Immun 2018 Sep 07; 3(1):149-163
- CONCLUSIONS: Soluble markers of immune activation normalize or partially normalize at different rates after initiation of curative HCV DAA therapy, and TE scores improve, with wide variability in the degree of absolute improvement in liver stiffness from patient to patient. Decline magnitude of sCD14 was associated with improvement in TE score, while magnitude of improvement in AST correlated with reduction in sCD163 levels. These data provide support for a model where monocyte/Kupffer cell activation may account for a portion of the liver inflammation and edema, which is at least partially reversible following initiation of HCV DAA therapy.
- Relationship between various hepatic function scores and the formation of esophageal varices in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection due to contaminated blood products for hemophilia. [Journal Article]
- HRHepatol Res 2018 Oct 25
- CONCLUSIONS: ALICE scoring was found to be the most valuable system for portal hypertension in HIV/HCV coinfected hemophilic patients. Because of its high specificity, ALICE for secondary surveillance could be used after other markers such as APRI and FIB-4 indices.
- Missed Diagnosis of Liver Cirrhosis Leads to Disparities in Care for Older Patients. [Journal Article]
- GRGastroenterology Res 2018; 11(5):333-339
- CONCLUSIONS: Older age was the most significant predictor of the missed diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. This led to a larger tumor size at diagnosis, which may imply worse prognosis in these patients. Further evaluation of health disparities related to older age and outcomes of older patients with liver cirrhosis should guide the development of guidelines to prevent the missed diagnosis of cirrhosis.
- Patterns of disease progression and incidence of complications in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). [Review]
- BPBest Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2018 Jun - Aug; 34-35:71-83
- Clinical outcome for patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is dictated by development of cirrhosis, portal hypertension and its associated complications; including for some, a predispositio...
Clinical outcome for patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is dictated by development of cirrhosis, portal hypertension and its associated complications; including for some, a predisposition toward hepatocellular carcinoma. However rates of clinical progression vary, and accurately identifying disease course is of critical importance to patients, clinicians, as well as industry, who are committed to developing new effective and life-prolonging therapy as well as treating symptoms that appear disproportionate to underlying disease severity. Patients seek reassurance and guidance as to their own prognosis, and clinicians wish to confidently recognise those at highest risk of poor outcomes as equally as they strive to reassure individuals with a more favourable disease trajectory. International registries have facilitated a much greater knowledge of disease incidence and heterogeneity of presenting phenotypes. In so doing they highlight the opportunity to provide a more individualized estimate of the clinical course that patients experience, and have led to a renewed approach to risk stratification; both in terms of 'hard outcomes' and also disease-associated complications in PBC specifically.
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- Five Fibrosis Biomarkers Together with Serum Ferritin Level to Diagnose Liver Fibrosis and Cirrhosis. [Journal Article]
- CLClin Lab 2018 10 01; 64(10):1685-1693
- CONCLUSIONS: APRI coupled with SF should be the best reliable biomarkers for liver cirrhosis. Simultaneously, from our data SF involved in all stages of inflammation. Therefore, down regulation of ferritin in the early stage of fibrosis should be helpful in decreasing the inflammatory effect of ferritin.