- The impact of vitamin A supplementation in childhood on adult outcomes: An exploration of mechanisms, timing of exposure, and heterogeneous effects. [Journal Article]
- SSSoc Sci Med 2018 Feb 05; 201:95-102
- There is now a critical threshold of evidence documenting the relationship between one's exposure to shocks in early life and outcomes in adulthood. Using Nepal's vitamin A supplementation program, t...
There is now a critical threshold of evidence documenting the relationship between one's exposure to shocks in early life and outcomes in adulthood. Using Nepal's vitamin A supplementation program, this study provides additional insights on the mechanisms and differences in effects by the timing of the first exposure and across different groups. The program's sequential rollout between 1993 and 2001 and the age eligibility provide an exogenous variation in exposure to the program. I utilize that variation and data on more than 700,000 individuals from the 2011 census to estimate the program's causal effect on long-term health and educational outcomes. I find that the program reduced the probability of having a disability but had no effect on educational outcomes. The positive effects on disability seem to have improved marriage prospects. The program also had different effects on individuals based on their timing of the exposure to the program, with an early exposure strengthening the positive health effects. Effects also differed by the individual's gender and ethnicity. They were more pronounced for men and individuals from traditionally advantaged ethnic groups. The findings suggest that long-term effects can differ even when the take-up rate is similar for different segments of the population.
- HIC1 links retinoic acid signalling to group 3 innate lymphoid cell-dependent regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis. [Journal Article]
- PPPLoS Pathog 2018; 14(2):e1006869
- The intestinal immune system must be able to respond to a wide variety of infectious organisms while maintaining tolerance to non-pathogenic microbes and food antigens. The Vitamin A metabolite all-t...
The intestinal immune system must be able to respond to a wide variety of infectious organisms while maintaining tolerance to non-pathogenic microbes and food antigens. The Vitamin A metabolite all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) has been implicated in the regulation of this balance, partially by regulating innate lymphoid cell (ILC) responses in the intestine. However, the molecular mechanisms of atRA-dependent intestinal immunity and homeostasis remain elusive. Here we define a role for the transcriptional repressor Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1, ZBTB29) in the regulation of ILC responses in the intestine. Intestinal ILCs express HIC1 in a vitamin A-dependent manner. In the absence of HIC1, group 3 ILCs (ILC3s) that produce IL-22 are lost, resulting in increased susceptibility to infection with the bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Thus, atRA-dependent expression of HIC1 in ILC3s regulates intestinal homeostasis and protective immunity.
- The Relationship between Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Offspring Kidney Structure and Function in Humans: A Systematic Review. [Review]
- NNutrients 2018 Feb 21; 10(2)
- The intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and organ development. Evidence from animal models indicates that the developing kidney is vulnerable to suboptimal maternal nutrition and ch...
The intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and organ development. Evidence from animal models indicates that the developing kidney is vulnerable to suboptimal maternal nutrition and changes in health status. However, evidence from human studies are yet to be synthesised. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to systematically review current research on the relationship between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring kidney structure and function in humans. A search of five databases identified 9501 articles, of which three experimental and seven observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Nutrients reviewed to date included vitamin A (n= 3), folate and vitamin B12 (n= 2), iron (n= 1), vitamin D (n= 1), total energy (n= 2) and protein (n= 1). Seven studies were assessed as being of "positive" and three of "neutral" quality. A variety of populations were studied, with limited studies investigating maternal nutrition during pregnancy, while measurements of offspring kidney outcomes were diverse across studies. There was a lack of consistency in the timing of follow-up for offspring kidney structure and/or function assessments, thus limiting comparability between studies. Deficiencies in maternal folate, vitamin A, and total energy during pregnancy were associated with detrimental impacts on kidney structure and function, measured by kidney volume, proteinuria, eGFRcystCand mean creatinine clearance in the offspring. Additional experimental and longitudinal prospective studies are warranted to confirm this relationship, especially in Indigenous populations where the risk of renal disease is greater.
- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: clinical aspects and preventive and therapeutic strategies. [Review]
- JTJ Transl Med 2018 Feb 20; 16(1):36
- CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a respiratory condition that presently occurs in preterm neonates and can lead to chronic respiratory problems. Although knowledge about BPD pathogenesis has significantly increased in recent years, not all of the mechanisms that lead to lung damage are completely understood, which explains why therapeutic approaches that are theoretically effective have been only partly satisfactory or useless and, in some cases, potentially negative. However, prevention of prematurity, systematic use of nonaggressive ventilator measures, avoiding supraphysiologic oxygen exposure and administration of surfactant, caffeine and vitamin A can significantly reduce the risk of BPD development. Cell therapy is the most fascinating new measure to address the lung damage due to BPD. It is desirable that ongoing studies yield positive results to definitively solve a major clinical, social and economic problem.
- Do Current Fortification and Supplementation Programs Assure Adequate Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Belgian Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Women? [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2018 Feb 16; 10(2)
- Abstracts:Adequate intakes of fat-soluble vitamins are essential to support the growth and development of the foetus, the neonate, and the young child. By means of an online self-...
Abstracts:Adequate intakes of fat-soluble vitamins are essential to support the growth and development of the foetus, the neonate, and the young child. By means of an online self-administered frequency questionnaire, this study aimed to evaluate the intake of vitamins A, D, E, and K in Belgian infants (n= 455), toddlers (n= 265), pregnant women (n= 161), and lactating women (n= 165). The contribution of foods, fortified foods, and supplements on the total intake was quantified. 5% of toddlers, 16% of pregnant women, and 35% of lactating women had an inadequate vitamin A intake. Conversely, excessive vitamin A intakes were associated with consumption of liver (products). Furthermore, 22% of infants were at risk for inadequate vitamin D intake due to the lack of prophylaxis, while consumption of highly dosed supplements posed a risk for excessive intakes in 6%-26% of infants. Vitamin D intake in pregnant women and lactating women was inadequate (median of 51%, respectively, 60% of the adequate intake). In all groups, the risk for inadequate intake of vitamin E and K was low. Contribution of fortified foods to vitamin A, D, E, and K intake was minor, except in toddlers. National fortification strategies should be investigated as an alternative or additional strategy to prevent vitamin D and A deficiency. There is a need to revise and set uniform supplement recommendations. Finally, non-users of vitamin D prophylaxis need to be identified for targeted treatment.
- Insights of hypercarotenaemia: A brief review. [Review]
- CNClin Nutr ESPEN 2018; 23:19-24
- Carotenoids are generally 40-carbon tetraterpenoids responsible for most of the yellow, orange and red colours throughout the natural world. Pro-vitamin A carotenoids serve as the precursors of vitam...
Carotenoids are generally 40-carbon tetraterpenoids responsible for most of the yellow, orange and red colours throughout the natural world. Pro-vitamin A carotenoids serve as the precursors of vitamin A. In addition to that, carotenoids exhibit range of important protective mechanisms in human health. Hypercarotenaemia is characterized by carotenodermia resulting in yellowing of the skin specially palms and soles. Hypercarotenaemia develops in subjects consuming high levels of carotenoid rich foods or β-carotene supplements (>30 mg day-1) over a period of months. Less or normal intake of carotenoids very rarely gives rise to metabolic carotenaemia due to genetic defects of the enzyme 15-15'-carotenoid dioxygenase. Moreover, it is known that those with hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus tend to develop hypercarotenaemia with the normal intake of carotenoid rich foods. Further, hypercarotenaemia has been reported in anorexia nervosa. However, recently some studies have been shown that there is no major correlation between carotenoid intake and hypercarotenaemia indicating that a genetic factor is at play in development of hypercarotenaemia. Therefore, the subjects appear to need to be genetically pre-disposed to hypercarotenaemia.
- Subclinical inflammation affects iron and vitamin A but not zinc status assessment in Senegalese children and Cambodian children and women - ERRATUM. [Journal Article]
- PHPublic Health Nutr 2018 Feb 20; :1
- Synergistic and additive effects of ATRA in combination with different anti-tumor compounds. [Review]
- CBChem Biol Interact 2018 Feb 16
- All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a derivative of vitamin A, has been shown to potentiate cancer chemotherapy due to its ability to induce signals for cell differentiation or death, and inhibit cell pr...
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a derivative of vitamin A, has been shown to potentiate cancer chemotherapy due to its ability to induce signals for cell differentiation or death, and inhibit cell proliferation. The combination of ATRA with taxoids, kinase inhibitors, natural compounds, retinoids, ER or HER2 inhibitors, chemotherapeutic drugs, proteasome inhibitors and nanoformulations of tretinoin have demonstrated additive or synergistic effects in anti-cancer activities. The mechanisms by which the compounds exert their synergistic effects depend on the tumor and the cell type. However, several experiments demonstrated similar mechanisms such as reduction of PCK, c-myc, E2F and Bcl-2, as well as increase of p21 and TGF-β. When the apoptotic synergistic effect was observed, the predominant effect of ATRA was in differentiation induction. The results indicate that future combinations of ATRA and anti-tumor agents hold promise to enhance and improve anti-carcinogenic therapies.
- Factors associated with nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy. [Journal Article]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 2018 Feb 18
- Bangladesh has a high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy, but little is known about the nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy or associated factors. W...
Bangladesh has a high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy, but little is known about the nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy or associated factors. We used the baseline data of 1552 pregnant adolescents from a longitudinal, cluster-randomized effectiveness trial conducted in northwest Bangladesh. Forty-four percent of the adolescents were short for their age, 36% had low body mass index, 28% were anemic, 10% had iron deficiency, and 32% had vitamin A deficiency. The mean consumption of animal-source foods was 10.3 times/week. In multivariate analysis, socioeconomic status, education, and food security were generally positively associated with anthropometric indicators and dietary practices but not with iron or vitamin A status. Our findings confirm that there is a high burden of undernutrition among these Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy. Understanding factors related to undernutrition can help to identify adolescent pregnant women at higher risk and provide appropriate counseling and care.
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- National Immunization Campaigns with Oral Polio Vaccine Reduce All-Cause Mortality: A Natural Experiment within Seven Randomized Trials. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Public Health 2018; 6:13
- CONCLUSIONS: Bissau had no case of polio infection so the results suggest that campaign-OPV has beneficial NSEs. Discontinuation of OPV-campaigns in low-income countries may affect general child mortality levels negatively.