- Safety of isotretinoin treatment as measured by liver parameters. [Journal Article]
- HHHistol Histopathol 2018 Dec 17; :18075
- Isotretinoin is an analogue of vitamin A and by suppressing the sebaceous glands it is often prescribed in cases of severe acne treatment. The treatment for the average patient is carried out during ...
Isotretinoin is an analogue of vitamin A and by suppressing the sebaceous glands it is often prescribed in cases of severe acne treatment. The treatment for the average patient is carried out during two to ten months. This study was designed to investigate liver structure, hepatic enzyme levels and the stress oxidative parameter after isotretinoin treatment during a similar period and using the dosages of 1 mg/kg and another one of 10 mg/kg in young male Wistar rats. We have analyzed the blood serum biochemical levels to determine hepatic function and lipid peroxidation, hepatic tissue levels of hepatic enzymes, histology and ultrastructure. The groups receiving 1 mg/kg were not altered after treatment. Their ultrastructure showed a metabolically more active organ after treatment with 10 mg/kg, in which there was an increase in the area occupied by mitochondria and rough reticulum in electron transmission images. The group that received 10 mg/kg also showed increased alkaline phosphatase, decreased high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein. The changes observed with the 10 mg/kg dose were not conclusive for liver damage, because of the lack of histological structural modifications and the few biochemical alterations. The 1 mg/kg dose showed a liver responding to some stimuli but without profound alterations. So, we confirm that the proposed protocol with 1mg/kg or 10 mg/kg isotretinoin did not cause important biochemical and histological disfunctions for male Wistar rat livers.
- The need to consider context in the evaluation of anti-infectious and immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin A and its derivatives. [Journal Article]
- CDCurr Drug Targets 2018 Dec 16
- Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids) act as potent regulators in many aspects of mammalian reproduction, development, repair, and maintenance of differentiated tissue functioning. Unlike other v...
Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids) act as potent regulators in many aspects of mammalian reproduction, development, repair, and maintenance of differentiated tissue functioning. Unlike other vitamins, Vitamin A and retinoids, which have hormonal actions, present significant toxicity, which plays roles in clinically relevant situations, such as hypervitaminosis A and retinoic acid ("differentiation") syndrome. Although clinical presentation is conspicuous in states of insufficient or excessive Vitamin A and retinoid concentration, equally relevant effects on host resistance to specific infectious agents, and in the general maintenance of immune homeostasis, may go unnoticed, because their expression requires either pathogen exposure or the presence of inflammatory co-morbidities. There is a vast literature on the roles played by retinoids in the maintenance of a tolerogenic, noninflammatory environment in the gut mucosa, which is taken by many as representative of a general role played by retinoids as anti-inflammatory hormones in other sites. However, in the gut mucosa itself, as well as in the bone marrow and inflammatory sites, context determines whether one observes an anti-inflammatory or proinflammatory action of retinoids. Both interactions between specialized cell populations, and interactions between retinoids and other classes of mediators/regulators, such as cytokines and glucocorticoid hormones, must be considered as important factors contributing to this overall context. We review evidence from recent studies on mucosal immunity, granulocyte biology and respiratory allergy models, which highlight the relevance of these variables as well as their possible contributions to the observed outcomes.
- Dietary effect of lemon verbena extract on selected blood parameters and on plasma oxidative profile in Avelignese horses. [Journal Article]
- ASAnim Sci J 2018 Dec 16
- The effect of Lippia citriodora extract on selected blood parameters and on plasma oxidative markers in Avelignese horses was evaluated. Twenty-four horses were divided into three groups, consisting ...
The effect of Lippia citriodora extract on selected blood parameters and on plasma oxidative markers in Avelignese horses was evaluated. Twenty-four horses were divided into three groups, consisting of eight animals each. Results of two experimental groups, 0.5 mg of verbascoside per kg of metabolic body weight (bw0.75 ) in the low-dose group (LVB) and 1.0 mg of verbascoside per kg of metabolic body weight (bw0.75 ) in the high-dose group (HVB), were compared to the control group (CON). Groups fed L. citriodora extract (HVB and LVB) showed a significant decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (p < .01), bilirubin, and transaminases (p < .05), and an increase in HDL cholesterol (p < .01) compared to the CON group. Oxidative status was improved due to significant decrease in plasma concentration of ROMs and TBARS (p < .01) and increase in levels of vitamin A and vitamin E (p < .01). Based on obtained results, it is assumed that dietary supplementation with L. citriodora extract might find a useful application in horse feeding, with positive impact observed in blood parameters and plasma oxidative markers, with beneficial effects on the physiological welfare of livestock animals.
- Retinol palmitate and ascorbic acid: Role in oncological prevention and therapy. [Review]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2019; 109:1394-1405
- Cancer development has been directly related to oxidative stress. During chemotherapy, some cancer patients use dietary antioxidants to avoid nutritional deficiencies due to cancer treatment. Among t...
Cancer development has been directly related to oxidative stress. During chemotherapy, some cancer patients use dietary antioxidants to avoid nutritional deficiencies due to cancer treatment. Among the antioxidants consumed, there are vitamins, including retinyl palmitate (PR) and ascorbic acid (AA), which have the capacity to reduce free radicals formation, protect cellular structures and maintain the cellular homeostasis. This systematic review evaluated the antioxidant and antitumor mechanisms of retinol palmitate (a derivative of vitamin A) and/or ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in cancer-related studies. Ninety-seven (97) indexed articles in the databases PubMed and Science Direct, published between 2013 and 2017, including 23 clinical studies (5 for every single compound while 13 in interaction) and 74 non-clinical studies (37 for retinol palmitate, 36 for ascorbic acid and 1 in interaction) were considered. Antioxidant and antitumor effects, with controversies over dosage and route of administration, were observed for the test compounds in their isolated form or associated in clinical studies. Prevention of cancer risks against oxidative damage was seen in lower doses of retinol palmitate and/or vitamin C. However, at high doses, they can generate reactive oxygen species, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in test systems. Non-clinical studies using cell lines have allowed understanding the mechanisms related to antioxidants and antitumor effects of the isolated compounds, however, studies on vitamin interactions, acting as antioxidants and/or antitumor are still rare and controversial. More studies, mainly related to modulation of antineoplastic drugs are needed for understanding the risks and benefits of their use during treatment in order to achieve effectiveness in cancer therapy and patient's quality of life.
- The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in Hair Loss: A Review. [Review]
- DTDermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2018 Dec 13
- People commonly inquire about vitamin and mineral supplementation and diet as a means to prevent or manage dermatological diseases and, in particular, hair loss. Answering these queries is frequently...
People commonly inquire about vitamin and mineral supplementation and diet as a means to prevent or manage dermatological diseases and, in particular, hair loss. Answering these queries is frequently challenging, given the enormous and conflicting evidence that exists on this subject. There are several reasons to suspect a role for micronutrients in non-scarring alopecia. Micronutrients are major elements in the normal hair follicle cycle, playing a role in cellular turnover, a frequent occurrence in the matrix cells in the follicle bulb that are rapidly dividing. Management of alopecia is an essential aspect of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of hair loss and its significant impact on patients' quality of life. The role of nutrition and diet in treating hair loss represents a dynamic and growing area of inquiry. In this review we summarize the role of vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, iron, selenium, and zinc, in non-scarring alopecia. A broad literature search of PubMed and Google Scholar was performed in July 2018 to compile published articles that study the relationship between vitamins and minerals, and hair loss. Micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals play an important, but not entirely clear role in normal hair follicle development and immune cell function. Deficiency of such micronutrients may represent a modifiable risk factor associated with the development, prevention, and treatment of alopecia. Given the role of vitamins and minerals in the hair cycle and immune defense mechanism, large double-blind placebo-controlled trials are required to determine the effect of specific micronutrient supplementation on hair growth in those with both micronutrient deficiency and non-scarring alopecia to establish any association between hair loss and such micronutrient deficiency.Plain Language Summary: Plain language summary available for this article.
- Carotenoids, Chronic Disease Prevention and Dietary Recommendations. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Vitam Nutr Res 2018 Dec 14; :1-10
- Carotenoids are C-30, C-40 or C-50 terpenoids produced by a number of bacteria, fungi, and plants. In addition to acting as vitamin A precursors such as β-carotene, their dietary intake and blood pla...
Carotenoids are C-30, C-40 or C-50 terpenoids produced by a number of bacteria, fungi, and plants. In addition to acting as vitamin A precursors such as β-carotene, their dietary intake and blood plasma/serum and tissue levels have been associated in several epidemiological studies to the reduced incidence of chronic diseases, including the reduction of type 2 diabetes and other cardiometabolic diseases, as well as some types of cancer. Lutein and zeaxanthin also appear to play a role in the amelioration of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the main cause of blindness in the elderly, and may be regarded as conditionally essential nutrients for the elderly. Furthermore, some studies have proposed that carotenoids may improve cognitive functions. Though the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, it is perceived that direct antioxidant effects and protection from UV-light, as well as rather indirect effects, acting on transcription factors such as NF-κB, Nrf-2, and nuclear receptors such as RAR/RXR (retinoic acid receptor/retinoid X receptor), altering gene expression, all can play a role. Despite individual intervention trials suggesting negative effects of high doses of β-carotene on smokers, perhaps due to effects related to cytochrome enzyme activation, there is accumulating evidence that these colourful pigments indeed contribute to a healthy life and well-being. However, further research is warranted to better understand factors influencing variable inter-individual responses following carotenoid consumption and to establish more detailed recommendations regarding their dietary intake and toward establishing health claims.
- Role of serum vitamin A and E in pregnancy. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 16(6):5185-5189
- Serum levels of vitamin A and E in early, middle and late pregnancy were analyzed to evaluate vitamin nutritional status in pregnancy, and provide guidance for pregnant women about vitamin supplement...
Serum levels of vitamin A and E in early, middle and late pregnancy were analyzed to evaluate vitamin nutritional status in pregnancy, and provide guidance for pregnant women about vitamin supplements in pregnancy. In total, 28,023 serum samples were randomly selected from pregnant women in early, middle and late pregnancy between January 2013 and June 2014 in Beijing. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to determine the concentration of serum vitamin A and E in pregnancy. The concentration of serum vitamin A in early, middle and late pregnancy was 0.33±0.08, 0.37±0.09 and 0.33±0.15 mg/l, respectively, total abnormal rate was 25.31%, and deficiency (24.98%) was the main feature. The rate of deficiency in the early pregnancy (38.22%) was greater than that in late pregnancy (35.13%). The serum vitamin E in early, middle and late pregnancy was 9.10±2.47, 14.24±3.66 and 15.80±5.01 mg/l, respectively, total abnormal rate was 5.60%, and excess (5.37%) was the main feature. The excess rate in early pregnancy was at the lowest level (0.50%), and reached the highest level (15.32%) in late pregnancy. The serum levels of vitamin A and E are different during pregnancy. Generally, vitamin A is deficient and vitamin E is in excess. Therefore, monitoring the vitamin A and E levels, and strengthening perinatal education and providing guidance for pregnant women to supply vitamins rationally play important role in guaranteeing maternal and fetal safety.
- Conduct of vaccination in hard-to-reach areas to address potential polio reservoir areas, 2014-2015. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Public Health 2018 Dec 13; 18(Suppl 4):1312
- CONCLUSIONS: The hard-to-reach project has improved population immunity against polio, as well as other routine vaccinations and delivery of child health survival interventions in the hard-to-reach and underserved communities.
- Xerosis in Patient with Vitamin A Deficiency - a Case Report. [Journal Article]
- CSCesk Slov Oftalmol 2018; 73(5-6):222-224
- Xerosis is a corneal and ocular surface disease caused by vitamin A deficiency. It is a rare disease in developed countries, but in third world countries it is a common cause of blindness. We describ...
Xerosis is a corneal and ocular surface disease caused by vitamin A deficiency. It is a rare disease in developed countries, but in third world countries it is a common cause of blindness. We describe a typical xerosis in patient with vitamin A deficiency and long-term malnutrition and alcoholism in our case. In spite of initially serious presentation of the disease, the patients response to treatment was prompt and there was complete regression of the disease. Key words: xerosis, vitamin A deficiency.
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- Four years after implementation of a national micronutrient powder program in Kyrgyzstan, prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is lower, but prevalence of vitamin A deficiency is higher. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Four years after the initiation of a national Infant and Young Child Nutrition program including the introduction of point-of-use fortification with MNP, the prevalence of iron deficiency and IDA is lower, but the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency is higher.