- Selected-ion flow-tube mass-spectrometry (SIFT-MS) fingerprinting versus chemical profiling for geographic traceability of Moroccan Argan oils. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2018 Oct 15; 263:8-17
- This study investigated the effectiveness of SIFT-MS versus chemical profiling, both coupled to multivariate data analysis, to classify 95 Extra Virgin Argan Oils (EVAO), originating from five Morocc...
This study investigated the effectiveness of SIFT-MS versus chemical profiling, both coupled to multivariate data analysis, to classify 95 Extra Virgin Argan Oils (EVAO), originating from five Moroccan Argan forest locations. The full scan option of SIFT-MS, is suitable to indicate the geographic origin of EVAO based on the fingerprints obtained using the three chemical ionization precursors (H3O+, NO+ and O2+). The chemical profiling (including acidity, peroxide value, spectrophotometric indices, fatty acids, tocopherols- and sterols composition) was also used for classification. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines (SVM), were compared. The SIFT-MS data were therefore fed to variable-selection methods to find potential biomarkers for classification. The classification models based either on chemical profiling or SIFT-MS data were able to classify the samples with high accuracy. SIFT-MS was found to be advantageous for rapid geographic classification.
- Occurrence of tocopheryl fatty acid esters in vegetables and their non-digestibility by artificial digestion juices. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 May 16; 8(1):7657
- Tocopheryl fatty acid esters (TFAE) consist of tocopherols esterified to fatty acids, but only little is known about this substance class. In this study, twelve vegetable groups were screened on TFAE...
Tocopheryl fatty acid esters (TFAE) consist of tocopherols esterified to fatty acids, but only little is known about this substance class. In this study, twelve vegetable groups were screened on TFAE and contents of (free) tocopherols and TFAE were determined in red bell pepper, red chili pepper, cucumber and walnut (n = 5, respectively). Intact TFAE were separated by solid phase extraction from free tocopherols and analyzed by GC/MS. Highest TFAE values were determined in chili pepper (4.0-16 mg/100 g fresh weight, FW) and walnut (4.1-12 mg/100 g FW), followed by bell pepper (1.3-1.5 mg/100 g FW) and cucumber (0.06-0.2 mg/100 g FW). Contribution of TFAE to the total tocopherol content ranged from 7-84%. Neither the treatment with artificial digestion juices nor exposure to sunlight showed degradation of TFAE. This substance class might represent a hitherto overlooked storage form for free tocopherols in plants as they occur to be more stable. But as the ester bond in medium chain TFAE seems not to be fissile in the human body, they might not contribute in the same way as free tocopherols to the vitamin E activity of vegetables and might have to be determined separately.
- Some Strategies for Utilization of Rice Bran Functional Lipids and Phytochemicals. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oleo Sci 2018 May 15
- Rice bran contains a great amount of functional lipids and phytochemicals including γ-oryzanols, tocotrienols, and tocopherols. However, utilization of those compounds is limited and needs some prove...
Rice bran contains a great amount of functional lipids and phytochemicals including γ-oryzanols, tocotrienols, and tocopherols. However, utilization of those compounds is limited and needs some proven guidelines for better implementation. We introduce some effective strategies for the utilization of rice functional lipids, including an introduction of pigmented rice varieties for better bioactive compounds, biofortification of rice tocotrienols, plasma technology for improving rice phytochemicals, supercritical CO2 extraction of high quality rice bran oil, and an example on the development of tocotrienol-fortified foods.
- Deep insight into the minor fraction of virgin olive oil by using LC-MS and GC-MS multi-class methodologies. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2018 Sep 30; 261:184-193
- Several analytical methods are available to evaluate virgin olive oil (VOO) minor compounds; however, multi-class methodologies are yet rarely studied. Herewith, LC-MS and GC-MS platforms were used t...
Several analytical methods are available to evaluate virgin olive oil (VOO) minor compounds; however, multi-class methodologies are yet rarely studied. Herewith, LC-MS and GC-MS platforms were used to develop two methods capable of simultaneously determine more than 40 compounds belonging to different VOO minor chemical classes within a single run. A non-selective and highly efficient liquid-liquid extraction protocol was optimized for VOO minor components isolation. The separation and detection conditions were adjusted for determining phenolic and triterpenic compounds, free fatty acids and tocopherols by LC-MS, plus sterols and hydrocarbons by GC-MS. Chromatographic analysis times were 31 and 50 min, respectively. A comparative assessment of both methods in terms of analytical performance, easiness, cost and adequacy to the analysis of each class was carried out. The emergence of this kind of multi-class analytical methodologies greatly increases throughput and reduces cost, while avoiding the complexity and redundancy of single-chemical class determinations.
- Use of olive leaf extract to reduce lipid oxidation of baked snacks. [Journal Article]
- FRFood Res Int 2018; 108:48-56
- Olive leaves are a waste of the olive oil processing industry and represent a good source of phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of olive leaf extract (OLE) on lipid ...
Olive leaves are a waste of the olive oil processing industry and represent a good source of phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of olive leaf extract (OLE) on lipid oxidation of baked snacks, like breadsticks, made with wheat flour, extra virgin olive oil (EVO), white wine, and salt. Two EVOs having different peroxide value and antioxidant profile (total phenol content, tocopherols, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity) were considered. The snacks were subjected to oven test or stored in the usual conditions of retailer shelves. The obtained data highlighted that EVO plays a key role both for the quality and for the shelf-life of baked snacks and the use of OLE is recommended especially when baked snacks are produced with low quality EVO which therefore does not have a good content of natural antioxidants. The OLE addition significantly reduced the forced oxidative degradation during oven test, as evidenced by a decrease of 27% in oxidation-related volatile compounds and of 42% in triacylglycerol oligopolymers compared to control snacks (CTR) without OLE. Moreover, OLE effectively acted also in normal storage conditions, improving sensory data, induction times, antioxidant activity, and volatile compounds compared to CTR (i.e. hexanal 165.49 vs 38.31 μg g-1 in OLE-added). The amount of oxidation-related volatile compounds showed an opposite trend with the quality level of oil used.
- Sapucaia nut (Lecythis pisonis Cambess) and its by-products: A promising and underutilized source of bioactive compounds. Part I: Nutritional composition and lipid profile. [Journal Article]
- FRFood Res Int 2018; 108:27-34
- The nutritional composition of the sapucaia nut, cake and shell, the nut and cake minerals content and the lipid profile of the nut oil (fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and triacylglycerols) w...
The nutritional composition of the sapucaia nut, cake and shell, the nut and cake minerals content and the lipid profile of the nut oil (fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and triacylglycerols) were determined. The nuts and cake exhibited a high content of lipid (47.9 to 60.8 mg 100 g-1), protein (15.8 to 19.5 mg 100 g-1), dietary fiber (16.5 to 22.6 mg 100 g-1) and provided an excellent source of selenium (26.4 to 46.94 μg g-1). The oil contained a high amount of unsaturated fatty acids (39.7 to 45.4% of oleic and 32.2 to 46.6% of linoleic acids) and presented a high Oxidative Stability Index (8.57-12.95 h) indicating the presence of antioxidant compounds in the oil. The major triacylglycerols in the sapucaia oil were LLO, PLO, LOO, POO, OOO, PLL and LLL. The main bioactive lipids identified in the oil were γ-tocopherol (19.2 to 28.5 mg 100 g-1) and β-sitosterol (92.8 to 194 mg 100 g-1). The results showed that the sapucaia nut and its by-products are a promising natural source of bioactive and nutritional compounds and when present in the diet can contribute to the maintenance of human health. In addition, the nut and by-product represents a promising raw material for the food industry.
- Deletion of plasma Phospholipid Transfer Protein (PLTP) increases microglial phagocytosis and reduces cerebral amyloid-β deposition in the J20 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2018 Apr 13; 9(28):19688-19703
- Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) binds and transfers a number of amphipathic compounds, including phospholipids, cholesterol, diacylglycerides, tocopherols and lipopolysaccharides. PLTP fu...
Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) binds and transfers a number of amphipathic compounds, including phospholipids, cholesterol, diacylglycerides, tocopherols and lipopolysaccharides. PLTP functions are relevant for many pathophysiological alterations involved in neurodegenerative disorders (especially lipid metabolism, redox status, and immune reactions), and a significant increase in brain PLTP levels was observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to controls. To date, it has not been reported whether PLTP can modulate the formation of amyloid plaques, i.e. one of the major histopathological hallmarks of AD. We thus assessed the role of PLTP in the AD context by breeding PLTP-deficient mice with an established model of AD, the J20 mice. A phenotypic characterization of the amyloid pathology was conducted in J20 mice expressing or not PLTP. We showed that PLTP deletion is associated with a significant reduction of cerebral Aβ deposits and astrogliosis, which can be explained at least in part by a rise of Aβ clearance through an increase in the microglial phagocytic activity and the expression of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. PLTP arises as a negative determinant of plaque clearance and over the lifespan, elevated PLTP activity could lead to a higher Aβ load in the brain.
- Facile preparation of an alternating copolymer-based high molecular shape-selective organic phase for reversed-phase liquid chromatography. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr A 2018 Jun 22; 1555:53-61
- The synthesis of a new alternating copolymer-grafted silica phase is described for the separation of shape-constrained isomers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tocopherols in reversed-p...
The synthesis of a new alternating copolymer-grafted silica phase is described for the separation of shape-constrained isomers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tocopherols in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Telomerization of the monomers (octadecyl acrylate and N-methylmaleimide) was carried out with a silane coupling agent; 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), and the telomer (T) was grafted onto porous silica surface to prepare the alternating copolymer-grafted silica phase (Sil-alt-T). The new hybrid material was characterized by elemental analyses, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, and solid-state 13C and 29Si cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy. The results of 13C CP/MAS NMR demonstrated that the alkyl chains of the grafted polymers in Sil-alt-T remained disordered, amorphous, and mobile represented by gauche conformational form. Separation abilities and molecular-shape selectivities of the prepared organic phase were evaluated by the separation of PAHs isomers and Standard Reference Material 869b, Column Selectivity Test Mixture for Liquid Chromatography, respectively and compared with commercially available octadecylsilylated silica (ODS) and C30 columns as well as previously reported alternating copolymer-based column. The effectiveness of this phase is also demonstrated by the separation of tocopherol isomers. Oriented functional groups along the polymer main chains and cavity formations are investigated to be the driving force for better separation with multiple-interactions with the solutes. One of the advantages of the Sil-alt-T phase to that of the previously reported phase is the synthesis of the telomer first and then immobilized onto silica surface. In this case, the telomer was characterized easily with simple spectroscopic techniques and the molecular mass and polydispersity index of the telomer were determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) before grafting onto silica surface. Moreover, both of the monomers were commercially available. Therefore, the technique of preparation was very facile and better separation was achieved with the Sil-alt-T phase compared to the ODS, C30 and other previously reported alternating copolymer-based columns.
- Comparative study on the chemical composition, anthocyanins, tocopherols and carotenoids of selected legumes. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2018 Sep 15; 260:317-326
- Twenty-nine legumes were assessed for their nutritional and phytochemical compositions. Soybean and black soybean had the highest protein contents (34.05-42.65 g/100 g DW, dry weight of legumes), par...
Twenty-nine legumes were assessed for their nutritional and phytochemical compositions. Soybean and black soybean had the highest protein contents (34.05-42.65 g/100 g DW, dry weight of legumes), particularly being a rich source of lysine (1.78-2.23 g/100 g DW. Soybean and black soybean had the highest fat contents (14.13-22.19 g/100 g DW). Broad beans had the highest unsaturated fatty acids (83.57-89.01 g/100 g fatty acid), particularly rich in α-linolenic and linoleic acid. The highest and the lowest dietary fiber were found in red kidney beans (35.36 g/100 g DW) and mung beans (22.77 g/100 g DW), respectively. Except for soybean and white kidney bean, 6 major anthocyanins in the legumes samples were identified. The soybean contained the highest total tocopherols content (90.40-120.96 μg/g dry weight of beans), followed by black soybean (66.13-100.76 μg/g DW). The highest carotenoids were found in lentils (4.53-21.34 μg/g DW) and red kidney beans (8.29-20.95 μg/g DW).
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- Fat-soluble vitamins A and E and health disparities in a cohort of pregnant women at delivery. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nutr Sci 2018; 7:e14
- The objective of the present study was to evaluate intakes and serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin E, and related compounds in a cohort of maternal-infant pairs in the Midwestern USA in relation to me...
The objective of the present study was to evaluate intakes and serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin E, and related compounds in a cohort of maternal-infant pairs in the Midwestern USA in relation to measures of health disparities. Concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in maternal serum were measured using HPLC and measures of socio-economic status, including food security and food desert residence, were obtained in 180 mothers upon admission to a Midwestern Academic Medical Center labour and delivery unit. The Kruskal-Wallis and independent-samples t tests were used to compare measures between groups; logistic regression models were used to adjust for relevant confounders. P < 0·05 was considered statistically significant. The odds of vitamin A insufficiency/deficiency were 2·17 times higher for non-whites when compared with whites (95 % CI 1·16, 4·05; P = 0·01) after adjustment for relevant confounders. Similarly, the odds of being vitamin E deficient were 3·52 times higher for non-whites (95 % CI 1·51, 8·10; P = 0·003). Those with public health insurance had lower serum lutein concentrations compared with those with private health insurance (P = 0·05), and living in a food desert was associated with lower serum concentrations of β-carotene (P = 0·02), after adjustment for confounders. Subjects with low/marginal food security had higher serum levels of lutein and β-cryptoxanthin compared with those with high food security (P = 0·004 and 0·02 for lutein and β-cryptoxanthin). Diet quality may be a public health concern in economically disadvantaged populations of industrialised societies leading to nutritional disadvantages as well.