- HPLC-DAD-APCI/ESI-MSnanalysis of carotenoids and α-tocopherol in Costa Rican Acrocomia aculeata fruits of varying maturity stages. [Journal Article]
- FRFood Res Int 2018; 105:645-653
- Carotenoids and tocopherols were characterised in the meso- and exocarp of wild-growing Costa Rican Acrocomia aculeata fruits. Comprehensive profiling of these lipophilic micronutrients in fruits of ...
Carotenoids and tocopherols were characterised in the meso- and exocarp of wild-growing Costa Rican Acrocomia aculeata fruits. Comprehensive profiling of these lipophilic micronutrients in fruits of three varying maturity stages was conducted for the first time. A method for the simultaneous extraction and quantitation of carotenoids and α-tocopherol was developed and validated. Detailed HPLC-DAD-APCI/ESI-MSnanalyses enabled the identification of α-tocopherol and 25 carotenoids. The latter comprised antheraxanthin, β-carotene, lutein, luteoxanthin, neoxanthin, phytoene, phytofluene, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and several (Z)-isomers of the aforementioned compounds. Quantitation by HPLC-DAD/FLD revealed total carotenoid concentrations of 872±178 and 3075±407μg/100g fresh weight in the meso- and exocarp of fully ripe fruits, respectively. In both fruit fractions, progressing maturation resulted in the accumulation of phytoene, phytofluene, (all-E)-zeaxanthin, (all-E)-antheraxanthin, and (all-E)-violaxanthin. Carotenoid profiling was supported by multivariate data analysis. Carotenoid precursors and xanthophyll cycle pigments characterised Macauba fruits of full maturity.
- Emulsions as delivery systems for gamma and delta tocotrienols: Formation, properties and simulated gastrointestinal fate. [Journal Article]
- FRFood Res Int 2018; 105:570-579
- Tocotrienols have been reported to have stronger bioactivities than tocopherols, and may therefore be suitable as a potent source of vitamin E in functional foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals. H...
Tocotrienols have been reported to have stronger bioactivities than tocopherols, and may therefore be suitable as a potent source of vitamin E in functional foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals. However, their inclusion into new products is hindered by their low water-solubility and oral bioavailability. Oil-in-water emulsions (O/W) could provide an adequate delivery system for these bioactive compounds. Tocotrienols were tested in bulk oil and within O/W conventional emulsions (>10μm) and nanoemulsions (<350nm). The emulsions were prepared with medium chain triglycerides (MCT) as an oil phase (5 to 40% wt) and quillaja saponins as a natural surfactant. The gastrointestinal fate of the emulsion-based delivery systems was investigated using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physical properties of the emulsions (color, apparent viscosity) were affected with increased droplet concentration. The lipid phase composition (emulsion type and particle size) had a pronounced impact on the microstructure of the emulsions in different regions of the GIT. At simulated small intestine conditions, the rate of lipid digestion and tocotrienol bioaccessibility decreased in the following order: nanoemulsions>emulsions>bulk oil. These results suggest that emulsions containing small lipid droplets are particularly suitable for delivering tocotrienols.
- Rice tocopherol deficiency 1 encodes a homogentisate phytyltransferase essential for tocopherol biosynthesis and plant development in rice. [Journal Article]
- PCPlant Cell Rep 2018 Feb 09
- RTD1 encodes a homogentisate phytyltransferase catalyzing a key step in rice tocopherol biosynthesis, confers cold tolerance and regulates rice development by affecting the accumulation of DELLA prot...
RTD1 encodes a homogentisate phytyltransferase catalyzing a key step in rice tocopherol biosynthesis, confers cold tolerance and regulates rice development by affecting the accumulation of DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1. Tocopherols are one of the most important lipid-soluble antioxidants having indispensable roles in living organisms. The physiological functions of tocopherols have been comprehensively characterized in animals and artificial membranes. However, genetic and molecular functions of tocopherols in plants are less understood. This study aimed to isolate a tocopherol-deficient mutant rtd1 in rice. The rtd1 mutant showed overall growth retardation throughout the growth period. Most of the agronomic traits were impaired in rtd1. Map-based cloning revealed that the RTD1 gene encoded a homogentisate phytyltransferase, a key enzyme catalyzing the committed step in tocopherol biosynthesis. RTD1 was preferentially expressed in green leafy tissues, and the protein was located in chloroplasts. Cold tolerance was found to be reduced in rtd1. The cold-related C-repeat-binding factor (CBF)/dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 1 (DREB1) genes were significantly upregulated in rtd1 under natural growth conditions. Moreover, rtd1 exhibited a reduced response to gibberellin (GA).The transcript and protein levels of DELLA protein-coding gene SLENDER RICE 1 (SLR1) in rice was increased in rtd1. However, the GA content was not changed, suggesting a transcriptional, not posttranslational, regulation of SLR1. These findings implied that tocopherols play important roles in regulating rice growth and development.
- Potential roles of vitamin E in age-related changes in skeletal muscle health. [Review]
- NRNutr Res 2018; 49:23-36
- Skeletal muscle disorders including sarcopenia are prevalent during the complex biological process of aging. Loss of muscle mass and strength commonly seen in sarcopenia is induced by impaired neurom...
Skeletal muscle disorders including sarcopenia are prevalent during the complex biological process of aging. Loss of muscle mass and strength commonly seen in sarcopenia is induced by impaired neuromuscular innervation, transition of skeletal muscle fiber type, and reduced muscle regenerative capacity, all attributable to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Current literature suggests that vitamin E molecules (α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and the corresponding tocotrienols) with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities may mitigate age-associated skeletal dysfunction and enhance muscle regeneration, thus attenuating sarcopenia. Preclinical and human experimental studies show that vitamin E benefits myoblast proliferation, differentiation, survival, membrane repair, mitochondrial efficiency, muscle mass, muscle contractile properties, and exercise capacity. Limited number of human cross-sectional observational studies reveal positive associations between serum tocopherol level and muscle strength. Several factors, including difficulties in validating vitamin E intake and deficiency, variations in muscle-protective activity and metabolism of diverse forms of vitamin E, and lack of understanding of the mechanisms of action, preclude randomized clinical trials of vitamin E in people with sarcopenia. Future research should consider long-term clinical trials of with adequate sample size, advanced imaging technology and omics approaches to investigate underlying mechanisms and assess clinically meaningful parameters such as muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle mass in sarcopenia prevention and/or treatment.
- Methods for efficient analysis of tocopherols, tocotrienols and their metabolites in animal samples with HPLC-EC. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Drug Anal 2018; 26(1):318-329
- Tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as vitamin E, have received a great deal of attention because of their interesting biological activities. In the present study, we reexamined and impr...
Tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as vitamin E, have received a great deal of attention because of their interesting biological activities. In the present study, we reexamined and improved previous methods of sample preparation and the conditions of high-performance liquid chromatography for more accurate quantification of tocopherols, tocotrienols and their major chain-degradation metabolites. For the analysis of serum tocopherols/tocotrienols, we reconfirmed our method of mixing serum with ethanol followed by hexane extraction. For the analysis of tissue samples, we improved our methods by extracting tocopherols/tocotrienols directly from tissue homogenate with hexane. For the analysis of total amounts (conjugated and unconjugated forms) of side-chain degradation metabolites, the samples need to be deconjugated by incubating with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase; serum samples can be directly used for the incubation, whereas for tissue homogenates a pre-deproteination step is needed. The present methods are sensitive, convenient and are suitable for the determination of different forms of vitamin E and their metabolites in animal and human studies. Results from the analysis of serum, liver, kidney, lung and urine samples from mice that had been treated with mixtures of tocotrienols and tocopherols are presented as examples.
- Quality properties of puffed corn snacks incorporated with sesame seed powder. [Journal Article]
- FSFood Sci Nutr 2018; 6(1):85-93
- Puffed corn snacks are tasty and affordable cereal-based food products which have a relatively poor nutritional quality. Sesame seed is a rich source of essential amino and fatty acids, phenolic comp...
Puffed corn snacks are tasty and affordable cereal-based food products which have a relatively poor nutritional quality. Sesame seed is a rich source of essential amino and fatty acids, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, and antioxidants. In this study, puffed corn snacks were produced by incorporating sesame powder at 0% (control sample), 5%, 10%, and 15% levels in its formulation and stored at room temperature (24°C) for 60 days. Fatty acid composition, tocopherol, sesamin and sesamolin, phenolic compounds, peroxide value (PV), acidity (AV), and sensory evaluation of the samples were determined. The results indicate that oleic acid content increased and palmitic acid decreased significantly (p < .05) in all the samples at 10% and 15% inclusion levels. The content of phenolic compounds, γ-tocopherols, sesamin, and sesamolin had significant increases in all the formulated samples. PV results indicated that the formulated samples had a higher stability when the ratio of sesame powder was increased, while the AV values showed a significant increase during storage. Incorporation of 10% sesame powder in the snack formulation had a positive effect on the stability, sensory, and nutritional quality of the product. This approach can be used to modify nutritional quality of this food product and introduce to food market as a relatively healthy snack.
- Tocotrienol is a cardioprotective agent against ageing-associated cardiovascular disease and its associated morbidities. [Review]
- NMNutr Metab (Lond) 2018; 15:6
- Ageing is a nonmodifiable risk factor that is linked to increased likelihood of cardiovascular morbidities. Whilst many pharmacological interventions currently exist to treat many of these disorders ...
Ageing is a nonmodifiable risk factor that is linked to increased likelihood of cardiovascular morbidities. Whilst many pharmacological interventions currently exist to treat many of these disorders such as statins for hypercholesterolemia or beta-blockers for hypertension, the elderly appear to present a greater likelihood of suffering non-related side effects such as increased risk of developing new onset type 2 diabetes (NODM). In some cases, lower efficacy in the elderly have also been reported. Alternative forms of treatment have been sought to address these issues, and there has been a growing interest in looking at herbal remedies or plant-based natural compounds. Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the manifestation of ageing-related cardiovascular disease. Thus, it is natural that a compound that possesses both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory bioactivities would be considered. This review article examines the potential of tocotrienols, a class of Vitamin E compounds with proven superior antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity compared to tocopherols (the other class of Vitamin E compounds), in ameliorating ageing-related cardiovascular diseases and its associated morbidities. In particular, the potential of tocotrienols in improving inflammaging, dyslipidemia and mitochondrial dysfunction in ageing-related cardiovascular diseases are discussed.
- Vitamin E Status Is Inversely Associated with Risk of Incident Tuberculosis Disease among Household Contacts. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nutr 2018 Jan 01; 148(1):56-62
- CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin E deficiency was associated with an increased risk of progression to TB disease among HHCs of index TB cases. Assessment of vitamin E status among individuals at high risk for TB disease may play a role in TB control efforts.
- Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oleo Sci 2018 Feb 01; 67(2):135-142
- Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefit...
Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO2extraction (SC-CO2). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO2and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.
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- Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of extruded snack-type products developed from novel formulations of lentil and nutritional yeast flours. [Journal Article]
- FFFood Funct 2018 Jan 23
- Pulses are well known to be gluten-free functional foods that provide a rich source of nutritional and healthy compounds with antioxidant-promoting activity. In the present study, the bioactive compo...
Pulses are well known to be gluten-free functional foods that provide a rich source of nutritional and healthy compounds with antioxidant-promoting activity. In the present study, the bioactive compounds, dietary fibre, arabinoxylans, individual phenolic compounds and tocopherols, were evaluated in different lentil flours (raw and extruded at 140 and 160 °C) formulated with nutritional yeasts, along with the changes induced by the extrusion process. The total dietary fibre and arabinoxylan content significantly (p < 0.05) increased after the extrusion process while a significant decrease of all tocopherol isoforms was also observed. Catechin, caffeic, kaempferol and quercetin derivatives were identified in the raw and extruded lentil flours. The decreases of total phenolic and individual phenolic compounds were directly related to the extrusion temperature; total phenolics and catechin hexoside exhibited a larger decrease in the lentil flours formulated with higher content of nutritional yeast (12 and 16%). The antioxidant activity results, determined using different assays, reflected the important effect of extrusion processing and food ingredients.