- Ficus carica aqueous extract alleviates delayed gastric emptying and recovers ulcerative colitis-enhanced acute functional gastrointestinal disorders in rats. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 Jun 02; 224:242-249
- CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results indicated that FCAE exhibits a natural laxative effect without provoking diarrhea and ameliorates functional gastrointestinal (GI) and motility disorders thus justifying its traditional usage.
- Antidiarrheal effect of bioactivity-guided fractions and bioactive components of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peels. [Journal Article]
- NMNeurogastroenterol Motil 2018 May 02; :e13364
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study describes the protective effects of pomegranate peels against castor oil-induced diarrhea. The findings showed that the ethyl acetate fraction was the active fraction of pomegranate peels, of which punicalagin, corilagin, and ellagic acid were responsible for the antidiarrheal effect of aqueous extracts.
- Speciation of phosphorus in plant- and manure-derived biochars and its dissolution under various aqueous conditions. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Sep 01; 634:1300-1307
- Phosphorus (P) in biochar serves as both a P source for plant growth and a contributor to water eutrophication, thus prioritizing the efficient management of P in biochar. This study employed solid- ...
Phosphorus (P) in biochar serves as both a P source for plant growth and a contributor to water eutrophication, thus prioritizing the efficient management of P in biochar. This study employed solid- and solution- state 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction analyses to explore the impact of feedstock and heating treatment temperature (HTT) on P species of biochars. The effects of ambient temperature, coexisting anions, pH and nutrient solution on P release were also investigated to study the effect of various environmental factors on P release from biochars. P species in both plant- and manure- derived biochars were dominated by inorganic orthophosphate and pyrophosphate (mainly calcium-bound-phosphates). The HTT of biochar showed a negative impact upon its pyrophosphate content. Compared with plant biochars, manure biochars contained higher P but had a lower release degree. Release of P from biochars was controlled by diffusion-dissolution process and was enhanced by higher ambient temperature, co-existing anions, and both acidic and alkaline conditions but inhibited by coexisting Hoagland nutrients. Anion-induced increase in P release was more significant for plant biochars than manure biochars. These findings help to adjust favorable environmental conditions for the full utilization of P in biochars.
- Hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchically structured birnessite-type MnO2/biochar composites for the adsorptive removal of Cu(II) from aqueous media. [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2018; 260:204-212
- In this study, hierarchical birnessite-type MnO2/biochar composites (δ-MnO2/BCs) were synthesized by a hydrothermal technique, and their Cu(II) removal performance was examined in aqueous solution. M...
In this study, hierarchical birnessite-type MnO2/biochar composites (δ-MnO2/BCs) were synthesized by a hydrothermal technique, and their Cu(II) removal performance was examined in aqueous solution. Morphological characterization confirmed that a three-dimensional flower-like structure of δ-MnO2 was formed, which results in effective adsorption affinity towards Cu(II). The effects of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, and ionic strength on the adsorption behavior of the prepared materials were systemically investigated. The adsorption kinetics indicated that Cu(II) adsorption onto δ-MnO2/BCs follows a pseudo-second-order model. Analysis of possible adsorption/diffusion mechanisms suggested that the adsorption process is controlled by both film and pore diffusion. The adsorption isotherms fit closely to the Sips isotherm model, and the theoretical maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) on the synthesized δ-MnO2/BCs are approximately 124, 154, 199, and 230 mg/g at 15, 25, 35, and 45 °C, respectively. Adsorption-desorption studies demonstrated the recyclability of the δ-MnO2/BCs for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions.
- HNO3 modified biochars for uranium (VI) removal from aqueous solution. [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2018; 256:247-253
- The HNO3 treatment was used to chemically modify the biochars produced from wheat straw (WH) and cow manure for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution. Macroscopic experiments proved that the enrichment...
The HNO3 treatment was used to chemically modify the biochars produced from wheat straw (WH) and cow manure for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution. Macroscopic experiments proved that the enrichment of U(VI) on the biochars was regulated by surface complexation and electrostatic interactions. FTIR and XPS analyses confirmed that the highly efficient adsorption of U(VI) was due to the carboxyl groups on the biochar surfaces. The reducing agents of the R-CH2OH groups facilitated U(VI) adsorption on the untreated biochars. Owing to the higher contents of surface COO groups and more negative surface charge, the modified biochars showed enhanced U(VI) adsorption ability than the untreated ones. The maximum adsorption capacity of U(VI) by the oxidized WH was calculated to be 355.6 mg/g at pH 4.5 and 298 K, which was an improvement of 40 times relative to the untreated WH and was higher than that of most carbon-based adsorbents.
- The effect of hazardous pollutants from coal combustion activity: Phytotoxicity assessment of aqueous soil extracts. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2018; 199:191-200
- Airborne fly ash and related hazardous particles derived from coal combustion contaminate soil and groundwater, negatively affecting ecosystems. The aim of this study was chemical and toxicological e...
Airborne fly ash and related hazardous particles derived from coal combustion contaminate soil and groundwater, negatively affecting ecosystems. The aim of this study was chemical and toxicological evaluation of aqueous extracts of soil collected from the vicinity of a coal-fired Plomin power plant (PPP), using Lemna (Lemna minor L.) bioassay and additional biochemical indicators - photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes and glutathione. Topsoil samples were collected from distances of 200, 300, 400 and 800 m from the PPP in accordance with the prevailing SW wind direction. Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (up to 15,765 ng L-1) and potentially toxic trace elements were detected in the Plomin soil extracts (PEs) in comparison to control soil extract (CE). Trace elements accumulated in L. minor were mostly in accordance with their concentrations in PEs. The results demonstrate that PEs induced significant growth inhibition and other phytotoxic effects. Those effects can be related to damage caused by increased production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant levels. The connection among the phytotoxicity, a distribution of analyzed contaminants, and distances from the PPP is clearly established.
- Feasibility of using low-cost, byproduct materials as sorbents to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Technol 2018 Feb 22; :1-10
- This work investigates the sorption of heavy metals by low-cost, byproducts such as charcoal fines (CF), waste green sand, and rice husk ash, in order to examine the feasibility of their use as alter...
This work investigates the sorption of heavy metals by low-cost, byproducts such as charcoal fines (CF), waste green sand, and rice husk ash, in order to examine the feasibility of their use as alternative filter materials for metal-contaminated waters. The sorption of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn was investigated in batch experiments and sorption isotherms were constructed. The three byproducts showed high metal removal efficiencies (>95%, regardless of the metal concentration tested). The highest metal sorption distribution coefficients were obtained for CF, with maximum values within the 105-106 L kg-1 range for all the target metals. The sorption isotherms were satisfactorily fitted using the Freundlich equation and a linear model, the latter only being valid for initial metal concentrations lower than 0.4 mmol L-1. Sorption reversibility was very low, with desorption yields lower than 2% and desorption distribution coefficients often higher than 106 L kg-1. The values of the sorption and desorption parameters indicated that the use of these materials, especially CF, could constitute a low-cost alternative for the remediation of contaminated waters.
- Removal of aqueous Cr(VI) by a magnetic biochar derived from Melia azedarach wood. [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2018; 256:1-10
- Magnetic biochar (MMABC) prepared from Melia azedarach wood was used for aqueous Cr(VI) removal. MMABC was a mesoporous material with SBET 5.219 m2/g and superparamagnetic magnetization 17.3 emu/g co...
Magnetic biochar (MMABC) prepared from Melia azedarach wood was used for aqueous Cr(VI) removal. MMABC was a mesoporous material with SBET 5.219 m2/g and superparamagnetic magnetization 17.3 emu/g contributed by the contained Fe3O4. The MMABC showed higher removal efficiency (99.8%) than biochar under conditions of dosage 5 g/L, pH = 3.0, and Cr(VI) concentration 10 mg/L. The saturation magnetization (16.1emg/g) of MMABC still remained after adsorption. According to FTIR and Raman results, the benzene-ring adjacent carbonyl did not showed obvious positive effects on Cr(VI) removal. A potential mechanism and corresponding apparent kinetic model indicated the Cr(VI) removal process by MMABC followed adsorption-reduction-adsorption steps. Cr(VI) was firstly adsorbed on surface and subsequently reduced to Cr(III), which was further adsorbed on MMABC surface. Langmuir isotherm (with maximal adsorption capacity of 25.27 mg/g) and pseudo second-order kinetic model were suitable for adsorption step.
- Effective adsorption of sulfamethoxazole, bisphenol A and methyl orange on nanoporous carbon derived from metal-organic frameworks. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Sci (China) 2018; 63:250-259
- Nanoporous carbons (NPCs) derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are attracting increasing attention in many areas by virtue of their high specific surface area, large pore volume and unique po...
Nanoporous carbons (NPCs) derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are attracting increasing attention in many areas by virtue of their high specific surface area, large pore volume and unique porosity. The present work reports the preparation of an NPC with high surface area (1731m2/g) and pore volume (1.68cm3/g) by direct carbonization of MOF-5. We examined the adsorption of three typical contaminants from aqueous solutions, i.e., sulfamethoxazole (SMX), bisphenol A (BPA) and methyl orange (MO), by using the as-prepared NPC. The results demonstrated that NPC could adsorb the contaminants effectively, with adsorption capacity (qm) of 625mg/g (SMX), 757mg/g (BPA) and 872mg/g (MO), respectively. These values were approximately 1.0-3.2 times higher than those obtained for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and commercial powder active carbon (PAC) under the same conditions. With its high surface area and unique meso/macropore structure, the enhanced adsorption of NPC most likely originates from the cooperative interaction of a pore-filling mechanism, electrostatic interaction, and hydrogen bonding. In particular, the pH value has a crucial impact on adsorption, suggesting the significant contribution of electrostatic interaction between NPC and the contaminants. This study provides a proof-of-concept demonstration of MOF-derived nanoporous carbons as effective adsorbents of contaminants for water treatment.
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- Adsorption of nitrate onto biochar derived from agricultural residuals. [Journal Article]
- WSWater Sci Technol 2018; 77(1-2):548-554
- To develop low-cost adsorbents for aqueous nitrate, biochars were prepared from three types of agricultural residuals at different pyrolysis temperatures (300 °C, 450 °C, and 600 °C). The corncob bio...
To develop low-cost adsorbents for aqueous nitrate, biochars were prepared from three types of agricultural residuals at different pyrolysis temperatures (300 °C, 450 °C, and 600 °C). The corncob biochar produced at 600 °C (CC600) was the best nitrate adsorbent of all the tested biochars. Characterization results showed that CC600 had good thermal stability, porous structure, and abundant surface functional groups. Findings from batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that CC600 showed relatively fast adsorption kinetics to nitrate in aqueous solutions. In addition, the Langmuir adsorption capacity of CC600 to nitrate was 14.46 mg/g, comparable to that of other biochar-based adsorbents. Therefore, CC600 showed promising potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent for the treatment of nitrate in water.