- The COPD Pipeline XXXII. [Journal Article]
- COChronic Obstr Pulm Dis 2016 Jul 14; 3(3):688-692
- Testing agents for prevention or reversal of type 1 diabetes in rodents. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2013; 8(8):e72989
- We report the results of an independent laboratory's tests of novel agents to prevent or reverse type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, BioBreeding diabetes prone (BBDP) rat, an...
We report the results of an independent laboratory's tests of novel agents to prevent or reverse type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, BioBreeding diabetes prone (BBDP) rat, and multiple autoimmune disease prone (MAD) rat models. Methods were developed to better mimic human clinical trials, including: prescreening, randomization, blinding, and improved glycemic care of the animals. Agents were suggested by the research community in an open call for proposals, and selected for testing by an NIDDK appointed independent review panel. Agents selected for testing to prevent diabetes at later stages of progression in a rodent model were a STAT4 antagonist (DT22669), alpha1 anti-trypsin (Aralast NP), celastrol (a natural product with anti-inflammatory properties), and a Macrophage Inflammatory Factor inhibitor (ISO-092). Agents tested for reversal of established T1D in rodent models were: alpha1 anti-trypsin (Aralast NP), tolerogenic peptides (Tregitopes), and a long-acting formulation of GLP-1 (PGC-GLP-1). None of these agents were seen to prevent or reverse type 1 diabetes, while the positive control interventions were effective: anti-CD3 treatment provided disease reversal in the NOD mouse, dexamethasone prevented T1D induction in the MAD rat, and cyclosporin prevented T1D in the BBDP rat. For some tested agents, details of previous formulation, delivery, or dosing, as well as laboratory procedure, availability of reagents and experimental design, could have impacted our ability to confirm prior reports of efficacy in preclinical animal models. In addition, the testing protocols utilized here provided detection of effects in a range commonly used in placebo controlled clinical trials (for example, 50% effect size), and thus may have been underpowered to observe more limited effects. That said, we believe the results compiled here, showing good control and repeatability, confirm the feasibility of screening diverse test agents in an independent laboratory.
- Improvement of porcine islet isolation by inhibition of trypsin activity during pancreas preservation and digestion using α1-antitrypsin. [Journal Article]
- CTCell Transplant 2012; 21(2-3):465-71
- Porcine islets are considered to be a promising resource for xenotransplantation. However, it is difficult to isolate porcine islets because of the marked fragility and rapid dissociation. Endogenous...
Porcine islets are considered to be a promising resource for xenotransplantation. However, it is difficult to isolate porcine islets because of the marked fragility and rapid dissociation. Endogenous trypsin is one of the main factors to damage islets during the isolation procedure. Recent studies have suggested that trypsin inhibitors during the preservation of pancreas or the collagenase digestion can improve the result of islet isolation. In this study, we examined whether α1-antitrypsin (Aralast™), which inhibits several endogenous proteases and has immunomodulatory properties, can protect islets from the proteases and improve the results of porcine islet isolation. Twelve porcine pancreata were divided into three groups: without Aralast group (standard, n = 5), preserved with Aralast using the ductal injection (DI) method (DI, n = 3), and with Aralast using the DI method and in the collagenase solution (DI+C, n = 4). Efficacy of islet isolation was assessed by islet yields, purity, and viability. The trypsin activity of the preservation and the digestion solution during the isolation procedure was measured. During islet isolation, the trypsin activity in DI+C group was significantly inhibited compared to the standard group, whereas DI group showed less effect than DI+C group. The average of postpurification islet equivalents (IEQ) per pancreas weight in the DI+C group was significantly higher than the standard group (standard: 3516 ± 497 IEQ/g, DI: 4607 ± 1090 IEQ/g, DI+C: 7097 ± 995 IEQ/g; p = 0.017 between standard and DI+C). In the DI+C group, stimulation index was higher than in other groups, although there was no significant difference. The presence of Aralast in both DI solution and collagenase solution markedly inhibited trypsin activity during pancreas digestion procedure and improved the porcine islet isolation. Inhibition of trypsin activity by Aralast could improve porcine islet isolation.
- Human alpha 1-antitrypsin therapy induces fatal anaphylaxis in non-obese diabetic mice. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Immunol 2008; 154(1):15-21
- Previous studies have shown that human alpha-1 antitrypsin (hAAT) gene delivery prevents type 1 diabetes (T1D) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Furthermore, hAAT protein administration prolongs acce...
Previous studies have shown that human alpha-1 antitrypsin (hAAT) gene delivery prevents type 1 diabetes (T1D) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Furthermore, hAAT protein administration prolongs acceptance of islet allografts. Therefore, we evaluated the use of purified hAAT protein therapy to prevent T1D in NOD mice. Female NOD, non-obese resistant (NOR), Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with vehicle alone or vehicle containing hAAT, human albumin or mouse albumin (or mg/injection/mouse; 2x/week). Preparations of clinical-grade hAAT included API(R), Aralast, Prolastin and Zemaira. Surprisingly, hAAT administration was associated with a high rate of fatal anaphylaxis. In studies seeking T1D prevention at 4 weeks of age, 100% mice died after six injections of hAAT. When administrated at 8-10 weeks of age, most (80-100%) NOD mice died following the fourth injection of hAAT, while 0% of Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice and 10% of NOR mice died. Interestingly, repeated injections of human albumin, but not mouse albumin, also induced sudden death in NOD mice. Antibodies to hAAT were induced 2-3 weeks after hAAT administration and death was prevented by treatment with anti-platelet-activating factor along with anti-histamine. In studies of disease reversal in NOD mice, using the four pharmaceutical grade formulations of hAAT, anaphylactic deaths were observed with all hAAT preparations. The propensity for fatal anaphylaxis following antigenic administration appears to be NOD- but not hAAT-specific. The susceptibility of NOD mice to hypersensitivity provides a significant limitation for testing of hAAT. Development of strategies to avoid this unwanted response is required to use this promising therapeutic agent for T1D.
- Alpha-1 antitrypsin treatment of spontaneously diabetic nonobese diabetic mice receiving islet allografts. [Journal Article]
- TPTransplant Proc 2008; 40(2):457-8
- Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a serine protease inhibitor able to prevent diabetes onset in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and to prolong islet allograft survival in a nonautoimmune murine model. In thi...
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a serine protease inhibitor able to prevent diabetes onset in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and to prolong islet allograft survival in a nonautoimmune murine model. In this study, we explored the effect of chronic administration of human AAT (hAAT) on allogeneic (C57BL/6) islet graft survival in spontaneously diabetic female NOD mice. Mice received intraperitoneal treatment with saline, Prolastin (1 or 2 mg/mouse) or Aralast (2 mg/mouse) on days -1, 0, 3, 6, and 9. Saline-treated mice rejected the grafts 10.0 +/- 2.5 days after transplantation (n = 9). Prolastin 1 mg (n = 9) and 2 mg (n = 3) resulted in rejection on 8.7 +/- 1.4 (not significant) and 13.0 +/- 4.3 days (P < .03), respectively. Aralast-treated mice showed prolongation of graft survival (13 +/- 5.9 days; n = 5; P < .03). Notably, repeated administrations of either hAAT formulation led to sudden death of a proportion of treated animals. Collectively, our preliminary data indicate that prolongation of islet allograft survival in the stringent autoimmune diabetic NOD mouse model can be achieved with hAAT monotherapy. The death of a proportion of treated animals may be consequent to immunization to hAAT and lethal hypersensitivity. Interestingly, this phenomenon was not observed in a non-autoimmune mouse strain (C57BL/6) despite extended hAAT treatment (>100 days).
- Prolonged islet allograft survival by alpha-1 antitrypsin: the role of humoral immunity. [Journal Article]
- TPTransplant Proc 2008; 40(2):455-6
- Immunomodulatory properties have been recognized for human alpha-1 antitrypsin (hAAT). However, production of anti-hAAT antibodies in mice may inactivate the protein. In this study, we evaluated the ...
Immunomodulatory properties have been recognized for human alpha-1 antitrypsin (hAAT). However, production of anti-hAAT antibodies in mice may inactivate the protein. In this study, we evaluated the effects of chronic hAAT administration on allogeneic islet graft survival. Chemically diabetic mice lacking an efficient humoral response due to the targeted disruption of the Ig mu-chain (muMT mice) or wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice received DBA/2 mouse islets under the kidney capsule. hAAT (Prolastin or Aralast) was given intraperitoneally on day 0 and every 3 days thereafter. Control animals received no treatment. hAAT administration in WT mice resulted in prolongation of islet allograft survival in a dose-dependent fashion in both hAAT-treated groups. Lack of Ig response (muMT mice) per se conferred a beneficial effect on graft survival that worsened in the Prolastin-treated groups but improved in the Aralast-treated group. Our data indicate that systemic administration of hAAT results in prolongation of islet allograft survival. Absence of mature B cells and Ig mu-chain resulted in improved graft survival, pointing to a role for B cells in the rejection process in this model. Treatment with Prolastin worsened graft survival in muMT mice, whereas Aralast did improve it, suggesting a different efficacy and possible actions of the two drug formulations.
- Aralast: an alpha 1-protease inhibitor for the treatment of alpha-antitrypsin deficiency. [Review]
- EOExpert Opin Pharmacother 2007; 8(15):2609-14
- Alpha-antitrypsin (AAT) is a serine protease inhibitor, which inhibits the proteolytic enzyme elastase. Individuals with a deficiency of AAT may develop clinical manifestations that include a decline...
Alpha-antitrypsin (AAT) is a serine protease inhibitor, which inhibits the proteolytic enzyme elastase. Individuals with a deficiency of AAT may develop clinical manifestations that include a decline in lung function. Deficiency of AAT can lead to many clinical manifestations, most commonly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the form of emphysema. However, patients with this genetic disorder may also develop dysfunctions of other organs such as the liver and/or skin. There are approximately 100 alleles associated with the gene encoding for AAT, where the estimated prevalence of this disorder is approximately as common as cystic fibrosis; however, misdiagnosis continues to be a problem. Augmentation therapy using intravenous AAT has been shown to reduce the forced expiratory volume in one second decline, associated with AAT deficiency. Restoration of serum AAT concentrations above 11 microM have correlated with a reduced level of disease progression. The normal dosing regimen of intravenous AAT is 60 mg/kg given every week. Although a dosage consolidation of 250 mg/kg given every 28 days has been explored, long-term efficacy has not been determined. Aralast is one of three approved human plasma-derived treatment options used to prevent the progression of emphysema associated with AAT deficiency disorder.
- Biochemical, molecular characterization, and glycoproteomic analyses of alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor products used for replacement therapy. [Journal Article]
- TTransfusion 2006; 46(11):1959-77
- CONCLUSIONS: Protein chemical characterization of A1PI showed that all A1PI products to some extent differ from A1PI circulating in human plasma. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that removal of C-terminal Lys394 and cysteinylation of Cys232 are unlikely to affect structure and/or function of A1PI but cysteinylation may influence interaction between A1PI and its physiologic ligands. Aralast, Prolastin, and Zemaira contain the same set of N-glycans in the same ratios as those in normal human plasma A1PI. Tri- and tetraantennary structures are responsible for the partitioning into IEF isoforms, with the migration shift of Aralast not being due to any difference in the N-glycosylation, but to the partial loss of the C-terminal lysine.
- Comment: Aralast: a new alpha1-protease inhibitor for treatment of alpha-antitrypsin deficiency. [Letter]
- APAnn Pharmacother 2006; 40(4):786-7
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- Comment: comparisons of Aralast and Prolastin, alpha1-protease inhibitors for treatment of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. [Letter]
- APAnn Pharmacother 2006; 40(2):353-4; author reply 354