- Plant Silicon and Phytolith Research and the Earth-Life Superdiscipline. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Plant Sci 2018; 9:1281
- Safety of anti-rheumatic drugs in men trying to conceive: A systematic review and analysis of published evidence. [Journal Article]
- SASemin Arthritis Rheum 2018 Aug 17
- There is limited evidence relating to the impact of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) upon male fertility and peri-conception paternal exposure in men with rheumatic disease. Therefore,...
There is limited evidence relating to the impact of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) upon male fertility and peri-conception paternal exposure in men with rheumatic disease. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of available evidence to update information on this subject and guide paternal counselling. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase was carried out up to September 2017, to find relevant peer-reviewed papers, using keywords for fertility/spermatogenesis/conception, men, and disease modifying or biologic drugs commonly prescribed in patients with rheumatic disease. The search yielded 724 papers, and the titles/abstracts were screened independently by 2 authors, duplicates removed and 233 potentially relevant papers selected for full text review. A total of 84 papers were included in the final analysis which covered the impact on fertility of over 611 male exposures to relevant drugs, and over 5986 pregnancies conceived during paternal exposure to (or within 3 months of stopping) these drugs. Aside from the known adverse impact of cyclophosphamide and sulfasalazine on spermatogenesis, overall there was no firm evidence of harm to fertility or pregnancy outcomes with paternal exposure to anti-TNF therapies, abatacept, rituximab, azathioprine, cyclosporine A, hydroxychloroquine, leflunomide, methotrexate or mycophenolate mofetil. There was no evidence found pertaining to the effects of male exposure to IVIG, tacrolimus, golimumab, anakinra or belimumab on fertility or pregnancy outcomes. These results provide further reassurance as to the safety of many DMARDs for men trying to conceive and will be useful when counselling men about risks of anti-rheumatic drugs to fertility and pregnancies, and following accidental conception.
- A comparison of the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide, leflunomide, corticosteroids, or conservative management alone in patients with IgA nephropathy: a retrospective observational study. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Sep 12; 8(1):13662
- To compare the long-term efficacy of corticosteroids (P) alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide (CTX), leflunomide (LEF), or Angiotensin-convertase inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blocke...
To compare the long-term efficacy of corticosteroids (P) alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide (CTX), leflunomide (LEF), or Angiotensin-convertase inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) in treatment for IgA nephropathy (IgAN), 311 patients with IgAN were identified. Therapeutic effectiveness (including progression, partial remission, complete remission) and combined renal endpoint (defined as 30% reduction in eGFR or ESRD) were compared based on different therapies. After immunosuppressive and ACEI/ARB treatment, the levels of eGFR, proteinuria and albumin were significantly improved at the last follow-up, the extent of improvement of eGFR, proteinuria, and albumin was more notable in P + CTX group and P + LEF group. 41%, 52.2%, 55.3% and 55.2% in P + CTX, P + LEF, P and ACEI/ARB group achieved complete remission, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that only proteinuria (Relative risk (RR) 0.82(0.72-0.94), P = 0.004) and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (RR 0.26(0.13-0.57), P = 0.001) were predictors for complete remission. The optimal cutoffs of eGFR was 47.085 ml/min/1.73 m2 predicting renal function recovery in P + CTX therapy. In conclusion, tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis and massive proteinuria were poor predictors for complete remission in IgAN, it appears as though patients may have benefited from immunosuppressive treatment but that comparison to a well-matched contemporary control group or, ideally, a randomized controlled clinical trial, would be required to show this.
- Comparative effectiveness of first-line biological monotherapy use in rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective analysis of the RECord-linkage On Rheumatic Diseases study on health care administrative databases. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2018 Sep 11; 8(9):e021447
- CONCLUSIONS: Adalimumab and infliximab monotherapies show lower retention rate compared with etanercept. The relatively small number of therapeutic courses different from tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors makes more difficult to achieve conclusive results with other biologics. Concomitant methotrexate, leflunomide and csDMARDs combination associate with longer survival on bDMARD. Our data confirm the effectiveness of the current practices in the choice of etanercept as first-line anti-TNF monotherapy and strengthen the currently recommended use of bDMARDs in combination with csDMARDs.
- Bombyx mori Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase: Knockdown Inhibits Cell Growth and Proliferation via Inducing Cell Cycle Arrest. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Aug 30; 19(9)
- Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway, is the fourth enzyme of pyrimidine synthesis and is used to oxidize dihydroorotate and hence to orotat. We cloned...
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway, is the fourth enzyme of pyrimidine synthesis and is used to oxidize dihydroorotate and hence to orotat. We cloned and characterized here the dhod of silkworms, Bombyx mori. The full-length cDNA sequence of dhod is 1339 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1173 bp that encoded a 390 amino acid protein. And two domains were involved in the Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase amino acid sequence of silkworms, Bombyx mori (BmDHODH), namely a DHO_dh domain and a transmembrane domain in N-termina. The silkworm dhod is expressed throughout development and in nine tissues. Moreover, knockdown of the silkworm dhod gene reduced cell growth and proliferation through G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Similarly, DHODH inhibitor (leflunomide) also reduced cell growth and proliferation, with a significant decrease of cyclin B and cdk2. DHODH is the fourth enzyme of pyrimidine synthesis, so we also found that leflunomide can inhibit, at least in part, the endomitotic DNA replication in silk glands cells. These findings demonstrate that downregulation of BmDHODH inhibits cell growth and proliferation in silkworm cells, and the endomitotic DNA replication in silk gland cells.
- A Two-Step Protocol for Umpolung Functionalization of Ketones Via Enolonium Species. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vis Exp 2018 08 16; (138)
- α-Functionalization of ketones via umpolung of enolates by hypervalent iodine reagents is an important concept in synthetic organic chemistry. Recently, we have developed a two-step strategy for keto...
α-Functionalization of ketones via umpolung of enolates by hypervalent iodine reagents is an important concept in synthetic organic chemistry. Recently, we have developed a two-step strategy for ketone enolate umpolung that has enabled the development of methods for chlorination, azidation, and amination using azoles. In addition, we have developed C-C bond-forming arylation and allylation reactions. At the heart of these methods is the preparation of the intermediate and highly reactive enolonium species prior to addition of a reactive nucleophile. This strategy is thus reminiscent of the preparation and use of metal enolates in classical synthetic chemistry. This strategy allows the use of nucleophiles that would otherwise be incompatible with the strongly oxidizing hypervalent iodine reagents. In this paper we present a detailed protocol for chlorination, azidation, N-heteroarylation, arylation, and allylation. The products include motifs prevalent in medicinally active products. This article will greatly assist others in using these methods.
- New England BK consortium: Regional survey of BK screening and management protocols in comparison to published consensus guidelines. [Journal Article]
- TITranspl Infect Dis 2018 Sep 02; :e12985
- CONCLUSIONS: There was a large variance in BKPyV screening and management strategies among centers. Due to these results, all participating centers agreed to implement uniform screening and aim to optimize management protocols.
- Leflunomide therapy for refractory cytomegalovirus infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oncol Pharm Pract 2018 Aug 31; :1078155218796188
- Background Currently, there are no prospective, randomized trials analyzing leflunomide for the treatment of cytomegalovirus infection or disease in allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. Objectiv...
Background Currently, there are no prospective, randomized trials analyzing leflunomide for the treatment of cytomegalovirus infection or disease in allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. Objective The primary objective of this case series was to determine the clinical and virological responses of utilizing leflunomide as therapy for refractory cytomegalovirus infections, unresponsive to first-line therapy in allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. Additionally, patient and leflunomide specific characteristics were identified and determined in this descriptive case series. Methods This is a single-center, case series of adult allogeneic stem cell transplant patients with refractory cytomegalovirus infections receiving leflunomide between 1 January 2005 and 31 March 2015. Results A total of 14 patients with refractory cytomegalovirus infections received leflunomide. All patients received concurrent anti-cytomegalovirus therapy. Nine of 13 patients tested positive for phosphotransferase UL97 and/or viral DNA polymerase UL54 genotype mutations. Nine patients achieved a virological response with undetectable cytomegalovirus titers. Of the 13 patients with teriflunomide serum levels, eight patients maintained levels >40 micrograms/milliliter (mcg/mL). Common adverse effects were pancytopenia (n = 8) and elevated liver function tests (n = 4). Conclusions Despite current strategies, refractory or recurrent cytomegalovirus infection and disease remain a clinical challenge to treat in the stem cell transplant patient population. Leflunomide used in combination with other concomitant therapies use for refractory cytomegalovirus infection in clinical practice may be a safe and effective option in the allogeneic stem cell transplant patient population.
- Fluoroquinolones and BK Virus Nephropathy: A Myth or a Reality. [Review]
- IJIndian J Nephrol 2018 Jul-Aug; 28(4):257-264
- BK polyomavirus (BKV) is a challenging problem for the transplant nephrologist. Various strategies have been used to prevent or treat BK virus nephropathy (BKVN). These include reduction in immunosup...
BK polyomavirus (BKV) is a challenging problem for the transplant nephrologist. Various strategies have been used to prevent or treat BK virus nephropathy (BKVN). These include reduction in immunosuppression, intravenous immune globulin, cidofovir, leflunomide, and the fluoroquinolone antibiotics. All these agents have their own toxicities. Great interest was shown to use fluoroquinolones to prevent BKVN after its useful experience was reported in bone marrow transplant. Fluoroquinolones being cheap and easily available, attracted nephrologists to use it, for prevention of BKVN. These agents have been shown in vitro studies to be effective. However, there are mixed results about their effectiveness in prevention of BKVN in clinical setting. This review will focus the evidence available for using fluoroquinolones in prevention of BKVN and its usefulness. Furthermore, a way forward to use these agents or not for prevention of BKVN will also be discussed.
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- CLIPPERS syndrome responsive to Leflunomide: A case report. [Journal Article]
- MSMult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Aug 08; 25:265-267
- CONCLUSIONS: As far as we have documented, this is the first case of CLIPPERS kept under control with leflunomide in the medium-term with a good relative prognosis.