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Unbound Medicine.
(Arbovirus encephalitides)
16,177 results
  • West Nile Virus in Culex Mosquitoes in Central Macedonia, Greece, 2022. [Journal Article]
    Viruses. 2023 Jan 13; 15(1)Tsioka K, Gewehr S, … Papa A
  • In 2022, Greece was the second most seriously affected European country in terms of the West Nile virus (WNV), after Italy. Specifically, Central Macedonia was the region with the most reported human cases (81.5%). In the present study, 30,816 female Culex pipiens sensu lato mosquitoes were collected from May to September 2022 in the seven regional units of Central Macedonia; they were then group…
  • Human Usutu Virus Infections in Europe: A New Risk on Horizon? [Review]
    Viruses. 2022 Dec 27; 15(1)Cadar D, Simonin Y
  • The Usutu virus (USUV), a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in 1959 in South Africa, has spread over the last twenty years across the European continent. This virus follows an enzootic cycle involving mosquitoes and birds. This caused epizootics with significant bird mortality in Europe in 2016 and 2018. It can also occasionally infect humans and other mammals, including horses and…
  • Epidemiological and Evolutionary Analysis of West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Italy. [Journal Article]
    Viruses. 2022 Dec 22; 15(1)Mencattelli G, Silverj A, … West Nile Working Group
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus potentially causing serious illness in humans and other animals. Since 2004, several studies have highlighted the progressive spread of WNV Lineage 2 (L2) in Europe, with Italy being one of the countries with the highest number of cases of West Nile disease reported. In this paper, we give an overview of the epidemiological and genetic features char…
  • Development of Toehold Switches as a Novel Ribodiagnostic Method for West Nile Virus. [Journal Article]
    Genes (Basel). 2023 Jan 16; 14(1)Giakountis A, Stylianidou Z, … Mathiopoulos KD
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging neurotropic RNA virus and a member of the genus Flavivirus. Naturally, the virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving mosquitoes as vectors and birds that are the principal amplifying virus hosts. In humans, the incubation period for WNV disease ranges from 3 to 14 days, with an estimated 80% of infected persons being asymptomatic, around 19% developin…
  • Evaluation of an open forecasting challenge to assess skill of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease prediction. [Journal Article]
    Parasit Vectors. 2023 Jan 12; 16(1):11.Holcomb KM, Mathis S, … Johansson MA
  • CONCLUSIONS: Historical WNND cases were strong predictors of future cases with minimal increase in skill achieved by models that included other factors. Although opportunities might exist to specifically improve predictions for areas with large populations and low or high winter temperatures, areas with high case-count variability are intrinsically more difficult to predict. Also, the prediction of outbreaks, which are outliers relative to typical case numbers, remains difficult. Further improvements to prediction could be obtained with improved calibration of forecast uncertainty and access to real-time data streams (e.g. current weather and preliminary human cases).
  • A West Nile virus nonlocal model with free boundaries and seasonal succession. [Journal Article]
    J Math Biol. 2023 Jan 10; 86(2):25.Pu L, Lin Z, Lou Y
  • The paper deals with a West Nile virus (WNv) model, in which the nonlocal diffusion characterizes the long-range movement of birds and mosquitoes, the free boundaries describe their spreading fronts, and the seasonal succession accounts for the effect of the warm and cold seasons. The well-posedness of the mathematical model is established, and its long-term dynamical behaviours, which depend upo…
  • Arm race between Rift Valley fever virus and host. [Review]
    Front Immunol. 2022; 13:1084230.Wang X, Yuan Y, … Zhang L
  • Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), an emerging arbovirus within the Phenuiviridae family of Bunyavirales that has potential to cause severe diseases in both humans and livestock. It increases the incidence of abortion or foetal malformation in ruminants and leads to clinical manifestations like encephalitis or haemorrhagic fever in humans. Upon…
  • Human biting mosquitoes and implications for West Nile virus transmission. [Journal Article]
    Parasit Vectors. 2023 Jan 02; 16(1):2.Uelmen JA, Lamcyzk B, … Smith RL
  • CONCLUSIONS: The less commonly used HLC method provides important insight into the complement of human-biting mosquitoes in a region with consistent WNV epidemics. This study underscores the value of the HLC collection method as a complementary tool for surveillance to aid in WNV vector species characterization. However, given the added risk to the collector, novel mitigation methods or alternative approaches must be explored to incorporate HLC collections safely and strategically into control programs.
  • New directions in the experimental therapy of tick-borne encephalitis. [Review]
    Antiviral Res. 2023 Feb; 210:105504.Eyer L, Seley-Radtke K, Ruzek D
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a potentially fatal disease common in much of Europe and Asia. There is no specific therapy for the treatment of TBE patients. However, several efforts are being made to develop small molecules that specifically interfere with the life cycle of TBE virus. In particular, recently various nucleoside analogues that can inhibit the viral replicase, such as the RNA-dep…
  • Survey of West Nile and Banzi Viruses in Mosquitoes, South Africa, 2011-2018. [Journal Article]
    Emerg Infect Dis. 2023 Jan; 29(1):164-169.MacIntyre C, Guarido MM, … Venter M
  • We collected >40,000 mosquitoes from 5 provinces in South Africa during 2011-2018 and screened for zoonotic flaviviruses. We detected West Nile virus in mosquitoes from conservation and periurban sites and potential new mosquito vectors; Banzi virus was rare. Our results suggest flavivirus transmission risks are increasing in South Africa.
  • Vector Competence of German Aedes punctor (Kirby, 1837) for West Nile Virus Lineages 1 and 2. [Journal Article]
    Viruses. 2022 Dec 14; 14(12)Körsten C, Al-Hosary AA, … Silaghi C
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes as a biological vector. Because of its biting behavior, the widespread snow-melt mosquito Aedes punctor could be a potential bridge vector for WNV to humans and nonhuman mammals. However, little is known on its role in transmission of WNV. The aim of this study was to determine the vector competence of German Ae. punctor for…
  • Fitness of mCherry Reporter Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Tick Experimental Models. [Journal Article]
    Viruses. 2022 Nov 29; 14(12)Kevély Á, Prančlová V, … Koči J
  • The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes a most important viral life-threatening illness transmitted by ticks. The interactions between the virus and ticks are largely unexplored, indicating a lack of experimental tools and systematic studies. One such tool is recombinant reporter TBEV, offering antibody-free visualization to facilitate studies of transmission and interactions between a ti…
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