- Safety and efficacy of tigecycline in complicated and uncomplicated pelvic inflammatory disease. [Journal Article]
- EREur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018; 22(11):3595-3601
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limited sample size, tigecycline seemed an effective and safe treatment for women with complicated/resistant PID. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to confirm these results.
- Increased C-fiber response induced by experimental disc herniation is associated with upregulation of fractalkine and its receptor in nucleus pulposus and dorsal root ganglion. [Journal Article]
- SJScand J Pain 2017 Dec 29; 8(1):50
- Aims Lumbar radicular pain following intervertebral disc herniation may be caused by a local inflammatory response induced by nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Here in an animal model mimicking the clinic...
Aims Lumbar radicular pain following intervertebral disc herniation may be caused by a local inflammatory response induced by nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Here in an animal model mimicking the clinical situation following disc herniation we investigated the effect of NP on the spinal nociceptive signaling and local gene expression. Methods In anaesthetized Lewis rats, extracellular single unit recordings of spinal nociceptive activity and qPCR were used to explore the effect of NP application onto the dorsal nerve roots (L3-L5). All animal experiments were approved by the Norwegian Animal Research Authority and were performed in conformity with the laws and regulations controlling experiments and procedures on live animals in Norway. Results A clear increase in C-fiber response was observed following NP conditioning. In the NP tissue, the gene expression of interleuking-1 β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor 1 (Csf1), fractakine (CX3CL1) and the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 was increased. Minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, inhibited the increase in neuronal activity, and attenuated the increase in gene expression in NP tissue. Interestingly, gene expression analysis demonstrated an increase in the expression of TNF, CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in the dorsal roots ganglion (DRG). An increase in the expression of IL-1 β and TNF in cultured DRG cells was also induced in vitro. Conclusions The present study suggests that hyperexcitability in the pain pathways after disc herniation may involve upregulation of CX3CL1 signaling in NP - but also in the DRG.
- Neuronal complement cascade drives bone cancer pain via C3R mediated microglial activation. [Journal Article]
- BRBrain Res 2018 Jun 14
- Activation of spinal cord microglia is crucial for the development of bone cancer pain (BCP). The essential signal between neuronal excitability and microglial activation is not fully understood. In ...
Activation of spinal cord microglia is crucial for the development of bone cancer pain (BCP). The essential signal between neuronal excitability and microglial activation is not fully understood. In the present study, carcinoma implantation into tibia was used to induce BCP and RNAi-lentivirus was injected into spinal cord to knock down C1, C2 or C3 of complement cascade. We showed that C1, C2 and C3 co-localized in the same neurons and increased in cancer-bearing rats along with microglial activation. Knocked down of C1, C2 or C3 inhibited microglial activation and prevented the development of cancer-induced bone pain. Intrathecal administration of either minocycline (an inhibitor of microglial activity) to inhibit the activation of microglia or compstatin (a C3-targeted complement inhibitor) to block the complement cascade reversed cancer induced bone pain. Further study indicated that neuronal complement promoted the activation of microglia via complement 3 receptor (C3R). In the in vitro experiments, the proliferation of microglia was enhanced by the activation product of C3 (iC3b), but was inhibited by compstatin. These results indicated that neuronal complement pathway promoted the activation of microglia via C3R and contributed to the development of BCP.
- Preparation and evaluation of β-glucan hydrogel prepared by the radiation technique for drug carrier applications. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 Jun 14
- β-Glucan can provide excellent environment to apply to drug carrier due to its immunological and anti-inflammatory effect. Minocycline hydrochloride (MH) has excellent oral bioavailability pharmacolo...
β-Glucan can provide excellent environment to apply to drug carrier due to its immunological and anti-inflammatory effect. Minocycline hydrochloride (MH) has excellent oral bioavailability pharmacological properties. Specifically, MH is effectively absorbed into the gingiva for periodontal disease treatment. In this study, we attempt to develop MH loaded β-glucan hydrogel for periodontal disease treatment through radiation-crosslinking technique. In addition, MH loaded β-glucan hydrogels were tested for their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity. Finally, we conducted an in vivo study to demonstrate the potential to prevent the invasion of bacteria to treat periodontal disease. The gel content and compressive strength of the β-glucan hydrogels increased as the β-glucan content and the absorbed dose (up to 7 kGy) increased. For a radiation dose of 7 kGy, the gelation and the compressive strength of a 6 wt% β-glucan hydrogel were approximately 92% and 270 kPa, respectively. As a drug, MH was consistently released from β-glucan hydrogels, reaching 80% at approximately 90 min. Furthermore, the MH loaded β-glucan hydrogels showed no cytotoxicity. The MH loaded β-glucan hydrogels exhibited good antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis. In addition, MH loaded β-glucan hydrogel demonstrated the potential of a good capability to prevent the invasion of bacteria and to treat wounds.
- Neurological melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei) in a chronic psychotic patient treated with antipsychotics: A case report. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(24):e11110
- CONCLUSIONS: Because melioidosis is endemic in Southern Taiwan and the use of antipsychotics might mask the symptoms, physicians dealing with patients from endemic areas with a medical history of antipsychotics should always consider the possibility of neurological melioidosis and provide prompt empirical management to suspicious cases.
- Design of minocycline-containing starch nanocapsules for topical delivery. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Microencapsul 2018 Jun 11; :1-28
- Pharmaceutical research has been focused on developing improved delivery systems while exploring new ways of using approved excipients. The present work investigated the potential of starch nanocapsu...
Pharmaceutical research has been focused on developing improved delivery systems while exploring new ways of using approved excipients. The present work investigated the potential of starch nanocapsules (StNC) as a topical delivery platform for hydrophilic antimicrobial drugs using minocycline hydrochloride (MH) as a model drug. Thus, a quality by design approach was used to assess the role of different factors that affect the main pharmaceutical properties of StNC prepared using an emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Full characterization was performed in terms of particle size, encapsulation efficiency, morphology and physical stability at 5 ± 3°C. Results show the surfactant and lipid contents play a major role in StNC particle size distribution. The MH loading only promoted minor changes upon StNC properties. Formulations were stable without variations on physicochemical properties. All tested formulations presented a zeta potential of +33.6±6.7 mV, indicating a good physical stability and evidencing that StNC are suitable nanocarriers for topical use.
- Ibudilast produces anti-allodynic effects at the persistent phase of peripheral or central neuropathic pain in rats: different inhibitory mechanism on spinal microglia from minocycline and propentofylline. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2018 Jun 07
- Microglia exhibit various activation phenotypes in the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury, and promote neuropathic pain. Ibudilast is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activ...
Microglia exhibit various activation phenotypes in the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury, and promote neuropathic pain. Ibudilast is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity, but its effect on activated microglia in chronic neuropathic pain is poorly understood. We investigated whether ibudilast was effective on established allodynia associated with activated microglial phenotypes in two rat models of peripheral and central neuropathic pain. A single intrathecal injection of ibudilast (25μg) inhibited established allodynia on days 7-21 after sciatic nerve injury in rats. Repeated injections of ibudilast (25μg/day) reduced the numbers of phosphorylated p38-positive cells without changing hypertrophic microglia, whereas minocycline (100μg/day) decreased the numbers of hypertrophic microglia associated with phosphorylated p38 levels in the spinal cord. Gene analysis revealed that minocycline, but not ibudilast, increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine genes Il10 and Tgfβ1 in the spinal cord. Propentofylline (100μg/day) was less effective on microglial phenotypes and established allodynia. Ibudilast inhibited persistent allodynia after the recovery of motor deficits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats. Therefore, ibudilast might be effective for chronic neuropathic pain after peripheral and central nerve damage. Ibudilast mediated these effects on activated microglia using a different mechanism compared with minocycline and propentofylline.
- Minocycline plus N-acetylcysteine protect oligodendrocytes when first dosed 12 hours after closed head injury in mice. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurosci Lett 2018 Jun 06; 682:16-20
- The mouse closed head injury (CHI) model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces widespread demyelination. Myelin content is restored by minocycline (MINO) plus n-acetylcysteine (NAC) or MINO alone ...
The mouse closed head injury (CHI) model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces widespread demyelination. Myelin content is restored by minocycline (MINO) plus n-acetylcysteine (NAC) or MINO alone when first dosed at 12 h after CHI. In a rat controlled cortical impact model of TBl, a first dose of MINO plus NAC one h after injury protects resident oligodendrocytes that induce remyelination. In contrast, MINO less effectively protects oligodendrocytes and remyelination is mediated by oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation and differentiation. MINO plus NAC or MINO alone is hypothesized to work similarly in the CHI model as in the controlled cortical impact model even when first dosed at 12-h post-CHI. We tested this hypothesis by examining the time course of the changes in the oligodendrocyte antigenic markers CC1, 2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and phospholipid protein between 2 and 14 days post-CHI in mice treated with saline, NAC, MINO or MINO plus NAC. CHI produced a long-lasting loss of these markers that was not altered by NAC treatment. In contrast, oligodendrocyte marker expression was maintained by MINO plus NAC between 2 and 14 days post-injury. MINO alone did not prevent the early loss of oligodendrocyte markers, but marker expression significantly increased by 14-days post-injury. These data suggest that MINO plus NAC or MINO alone when first dosed 12 h after CHI increase myelin content using similar mechanisms seen when first dosed 1 h after closed head injury. These data also suggest that drugs protect oligodendrocytes with a clinically useful therapeutic time window.
- Mutations in ParC and GyrA of moxifloxacin-resistant and susceptible Mycoplasma genitalium strains. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0198355
- Macrolide or fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium is spreading worldwide. We aimed to determine the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the quinolone resistance determin...
Macrolide or fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium is spreading worldwide. We aimed to determine the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR) of parC and gyrA in cultured M. genitalium strains. In addition, we examined the prevalence of macrolide- and fluoroquinolone resistance mediating mutations in specimens collected from Japanese male patients with urethritis in two time-periods between 2005-2009 and 2010-2017, respectively, by sequencing the QRDR of parC and gyrA and domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of moxifloxacin, sitafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, doxycycline, minocycline, azithromycin and clarithromycin were determined in 23 M. genitalium strains. Three cultured strains had elevated MICs for moxifloxacin at 16, 4 and 2 mg/L and had SNPs with the amino-acid change Ser83→Ile in ParC (p<0.001) and 3 kinds of SNPs with amino-acid changes Asp99→Asn, Gly93→Cys and Met95→Ile in GyrA, respectively. Among a total of 148 M. genitalium positive urine specimens, the prevalence of A2058G and A2059G SNPs in the 23S rRNA gene and any SNPs in ParC increased from 4.8% and 22.6% in 2005-2009 to 42.2% and 53.1% in 2010-2017, respectively. If M. genitalium is considered multi-drug resistant in clinical specimens carrying SNPs in the 23S rRNA gene and Ser83→Ile in ParC, the prevalence of multi-drug resistance is 12.5% in 2010-2017 in Japan. In conclusion, the SNP resulting in Ser83→Ile in ParC is closely related to moxifloxacin resistance even though other factors may also affect treatment outcomes by moxifloxacin. The prevalence of circulating multi-drug resistant M. genitalium strains with macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistance is dramatically increasing in Japan.
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- Ultrasound-guided microfoam sclerotherapy with polidocanol for symptomatic giant hepatic cyst - Initial experience. [Journal Article]
- HRHepatol Res 2018 Jun 07
- CONCLUSIONS: US-guided microfoam sclerotherapy using polidocanol may be an effective and safe method for the treatment of symptomatic giant liver cysts.