- Peripheral Vasculitic Neuropathy Associated With Minocycline Use. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2018; 19(3):138-141
- We describe 2 patients presenting with multiplex mononeuritis, associated with skin manifestation, secondary to minocycline-induced vasculitis. One of the cases is associated neither with lupus nor p...
We describe 2 patients presenting with multiplex mononeuritis, associated with skin manifestation, secondary to minocycline-induced vasculitis. One of the cases is associated neither with lupus nor polyarteritis nodosa. An extensive laboratory workup ruled out any possible underlying immunologic disorder. Electrodiagnostic studies were conducted to show axonal neuropathy in patchy and multifocal distribution consistent with multiplex mononeuritis. This diagnosis was confirmed with nerve biopsy. Withdrawing from the offending medication, minocycline, improved the patients' clinical condition and the quantitative serological measures.
- Comparative activity of antimicrobials againstPseudomonas aeruginosa,Achromobacter xylosoxidansandStenotrophomonas maltophiliakeratitis isolates. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Ophthalmol 2018 Feb 19
- CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant difference in susceptibility patterns betweenA. xylosoxidans,S. maltophiliaandP. aeruginosa. Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides may not be effective againstA. xylosoxidansandS. maltophilia. Antibiotics that are not commercially available as eye drops, such as beta-lactams forA. xylosoxidans, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and minocycline for bothA. xylosoxidansandS. maltophiliashould be considered.
- In vitro activity of various antibiotics against clinical strains of Legionella species isolated in Japan. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Chemother 2018 Feb 17
- The activities of various antibiotics against 58 clinical isolates of Legionella species were evaluated using two methods, extracellular activity (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]) and intracel...
The activities of various antibiotics against 58 clinical isolates of Legionella species were evaluated using two methods, extracellular activity (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]) and intracellular activity. Susceptibility testing was performed using BSYEα agar. The minimum extracellular concentration inhibiting intracellular multiplication (MIEC) was determined using a human monocyte-derived cell line, THP-1. The most potent drugs in terms of MICs against clinical isolates were levofloxacin, garenoxacin, and rifampicin with MIC90values of 0.015 μg/ml. The activities of ciprofloxacin, pazufloxacin, moxifloxacin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were slightly higher than those of levofloxacin, garenoxacin, and rifampicin with an MIC90of 0.03-0.06 μg/ml. Minocycline showed the highest activity, with an MIC90of 1 μg/ml. No resistance against the antibiotics tested was detected. No difference was detected in the MIC distributions of the antibiotics tested between L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and L. pneumophila non-serogroup 1. The MIECs of ciprofloxacin, pazufloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, garenoxacin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were almost the same as their MICs, with MIEC90values of 0.015-0.06 μg/ml, although the MIEC of minocycline was relatively lower and that of rifampicin was higher than their respective MICs. No difference was detected in the MIEC distributions of the antibiotics tested between L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and L. pneumophila non-serogroup 1. The ratios of MIEC:MIC for rifampicin (8) and pazufloxacin (2) were higher than those for levofloxacin (1), ciprofloxacin (1), moxifloxacin (1), garenoxacin (1), clarithromycin (1), and azithromycin (1). Our study showed that quinolones and macrolides had potent antimicrobial activity against both extracellular and intracellular Legionella species. The present data suggested the possible efficacy of these drugs in treatment of Legionella infections.
- High doses of minocycline may induce delayed activation of microglia in aged rats and thus cannot prevent postoperative cognitive dysfunction. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Int Med Res 2018 Jan 01; :300060517754032
- Objective Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common after surgery in elderly patients and is associated with high morbidity. The molecular mechanisms responsible for POCD are unknown. Mino...
Objective Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common after surgery in elderly patients and is associated with high morbidity. The molecular mechanisms responsible for POCD are unknown. Minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, may be useful in treating and preventing POCD. We explored whether minocycline can inhibit microglial activation and prevent POCD in aged rats as a surgery model. Methods Rats aged 18 to 20 months were randomly allocated to the following groups: naïve, abdominal surgery alone, or minocycline injection before abdominal surgery. Hippocampal cytokine mRNA levels were measured at 3 hours, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days after surgery, and microglial activation was measured at 3 hours and 7 days after surgery. Memory was assessed using the Morris water maze test. Results Surgery resulted in severe cognitive impairment in aged rats and induced a significant neuroinflammatory response and microglial activation. The use of minocycline can prevent microglial activation after surgery, but delayed microglial activation may occur. The use of minocycline may further impair memory after surgery. Conclusion Minocycline can restrain microglial activation and restrict the inflammatory response in the hippocampus early after surgery, but it may induce delayed microglial activation and cannot prevent POCD in aged rats.
- Attenuation of neuro-inflammation improves survival and neurodegeneration in a mouse model of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. [Journal Article]
- BBBrain Behav Immun 2018 Feb 16
- All pre-term newborns and a high proportion of term newborns develop neonatal jaundice. Neonatal jaundice is usually a benign condition and self-resolves within few days after birth. However, a combi...
All pre-term newborns and a high proportion of term newborns develop neonatal jaundice. Neonatal jaundice is usually a benign condition and self-resolves within few days after birth. However, a combination of unfavorable complications may lead to acute hyperbilirubinemia. Excessive hyperbilirubinemia may be toxic for the developing nervous system leading to severe neurological damage and death by kernicterus. Survivors show irreversible neurological deficits such as motor, sensitive and cognitive abnormalities. Current therapies rely on the use of phototherapy and, in unresponsive cases, exchange transfusion, which is performed only in specialized centers. During bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity different molecular pathways are activated, ranging from oxidative stress to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and inflammation, but the contribution of each pathway in the development of the disease still requires further investigation. Thus, to increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of bilirubin neurotoxicity, encephalopathy and kernicterus, we pharmacologically modulated neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in a lethal mouse model of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Treatment of mutant mice with minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, resulted in a dose-dependent rescue of lethality, due to reduction of neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, without affecting plasma bilirubin levels. In particular, rescued mice showed normal motor-coordination capabilities and behavior, as determined by the accelerating rotarod and open field tests, respectively. From the molecular point of view, rescued mice showed a dose-dependent reduction in apoptosis of cerebellar neurons and improvement of dendritic arborization of Purkinje cells. Moreover, we observed a decrease of bilirubin-induced M1 microglia activation at the sites of damage with a reduction in oxidative and ER stress markers in these cells. Collectively, these data indicate that neurodegeneration and neuro-inflammation are key factors of bilirubin-induced neonatal lethality and neuro-behavioral abnormalities. We propose that the application of pharmacological treatments having anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, to be used in combination with the current treatments, may significantly improve the management of acute neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, protecting from bilirubin-induced neurological damage and death.
- Minocycline through attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response reduces the neuropathic pain in a rat model of chronic constriction injury. [Journal Article]
- IJIran J Basic Med Sci 2018; 21(2):138-144
- CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that antinociceptive effects of minocycline might be mediated through the inhibition of inflammatory response and attenuation of oxidative stress.
- Molecular Imaging of Apoptosis in Ischemia Reperfusion Injury With Radiolabeled Duramycin Targeting Phosphatidylethanolamine: Effective Target Uptake and Reduced Nontarget Organ Radiation Burden. [Journal Article]
- JCJACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 Feb 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Duramycin is similarly effective in imaging apoptotic cell death as Annexin-V with lower nontarget organ radiation. Clinical feasibility of apoptosis imaging with a PE-seeking tracer should be tested.
- An injectablein situhexagonal mesophase system for local delivery of minocycline hydrochloride: Preparation and pharmacodynamics in rats. [Journal Article]
- PPharmazie 2017 May 01; 72(5):249-256
- In this study, an optimized in situ reversed hexagonal mesophase loaded with minocycline hydrochloride (MH) was developed for the chronic periodontitis treatment. The in situ hexagonal liquid crystal...
In this study, an optimized in situ reversed hexagonal mesophase loaded with minocycline hydrochloride (MH) was developed for the chronic periodontitis treatment. The in situ hexagonal liquid crystals (ISH2) comprised phytantriol (PT), propylene glycol (PG), water and vitamin E acetate (VitEA). The physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release and the therapeutic effects on chronic periodontitis of the formed samples were tested. The injectable liquid crystal-forming systems were characterized by crossed-polarized light microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, and rheological measurements. The optimal ISH2 (PT/PG/water/VitEA, 56:27:10:7, w/w/w/w) loaded with 20 mg·g-1 MH was proved to be injectable with suitable pH, and was able to sustain the drug release for 10 days. The pharmacodynamic studies of the optimal formula were performed on male SPF rats, the Periocline® ointment was used as a control. The investigated ISH2 loaded with MH was demonstrated to be effective for periodontal treatment with significantly improved gingival index, pocket depth and alveolar bone loss. The developed ISH2 may be a promising application for local delivery system of MH in treating periodontal diseases.
- A 19-Year Retrospective Study of Adverse Drug Reactions to Multidrug Therapy in Leprosy Requiring a Change in Regime. [Journal Article]
- IDIndian Dermatol Online J 2018 Jan-Feb; 9(1):33-36
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ADRs was low in this study, with dapsone being the commonest drug. There were no adverse reactions to clofazimine. No adverse reactions were reported with the alternative regimes of ofloxacin and minocycline.
New Search Next
- Short proline-rich lipopeptide potentiates minocycline and rifampicin against multidrug- and extensively drug-resistantPseudomonas aeruginosa. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Feb 05
- A series of 16 short proline-rich lipopeptides (SPRLPs) were constructed to mimic longer naturally-existing proline-rich antimicrobial peptides. Antibacterial assessment revealed that lipopeptides co...
A series of 16 short proline-rich lipopeptides (SPRLPs) were constructed to mimic longer naturally-existing proline-rich antimicrobial peptides. Antibacterial assessment revealed that lipopeptides containing hexadecanoic acid (C16) possess optimal antibacterial activity relative to others with shorter lipid component. SPRLPs were further evaluated for their potential to serve as adjuvants in combination with existing antibiotics to enhance antibacterial activity against drug-resistantPseudomonas aeruginosaOut of sixteen prepared SPRLPs, C12-PRP was found to significantly potentiate the antibiotics minocycline and rifampicin against multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant (MDR/XDR)P. aeruginosaclinical isolates. This non-hemolytic C12-PRP is comprised of a heptapeptide sequence PRPRPRP-NH2acylated to dodecanoic acid (C12) at the N-terminus. The adjuvant potency of C12-PRP was apparent by its ability to reduce the minimum inhibitory concentration of minocycline and rifampicin below their interpretative susceptibility breakpoints against MDR/XDRP. aeruginosaAn attempt to optimize C12-PRP through peptidomimetic modification was performed by replacing all L- to D-amino acids. C12-PRP demonstrated pliability to optimization as synergism with minocycline and rifampicin were retained. Moreover, C12-PRP displayed no cytotoxicity against human liver carcinoma HepG2 and human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cell lines. Thus, the SPRLP C12-PRP is a lead adjuvant candidate that warrants further optimization. Discovery of agents that are able to resuscitate activity of existing antibiotics against drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, especiallyP. aeruginosaare of great clinical interest.