- An update on evidence based diagnostic and confirmatory testing strategies for heparin induced thrombocytopenia using combined immunological and functional assays. [Review]
- TATransfus Apher Sci 2018 Oct 30
- This manuscript aims to provide a concise review on current diagnostic/ confirmatory strategies of Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) with the combined use of immunological / functional assays in...
This manuscript aims to provide a concise review on current diagnostic/ confirmatory strategies of Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) with the combined use of immunological / functional assays in addition to the clinical probability. Laboratory diagnosis of HIT is of primordial importance as the related complications could become rapidly severe and life-threatening and can provoke limb amputation in some cases. The first action in the presence of HIT suspicion is to withdraw heparin and to initiate an alternative anticoagulant. Whilst vitamin K antagonists are not appropriate, anticoagulant options include Fondaparinux, Sodium Danaparoid, DOACs, Argatroban, and Bivalirudin. However, if HIT is excluded, patients can benefit again from the high therapeutic and antithrombotic efficacy of this drug, which remains superior to all the substitutive anticoagulant treatments. HIT is suspected in the presence of a platelet count drop > 50% on 2 successive counts, or a platelet count < 100 G/L, and of a significant clinical probability (4 Ts score). Testing patients' plasma is required for establishing the diagnosis. Laboratory investigation involves first the immunological measurement of heparin dependent IgG antibodies (mainly targeted to Heparin-Platelet Factor 4 complexes). When positive, a functional assay for platelet activation, performed at a low and high heparin concentration, allows confirming this disease. In any case, if the immuno-assay is negative, HIT can be excluded with a high probability, and heparin can be continued (if clinical examination favors this decision). Conversely, the higher the IgG antibody concentration is (and affinity), the higher is the probability of developing HIT. The functional assay has now become for confirming the platelet activation capacity of antibodies, and therefore confirming the presence of HIT. Up to now, the gold reference method for testing antibody-dependent platelet activation is the C14-Serotonin Release Assay, available only in very few laboratories working with radio-isotopes. A simple, sensitive, and accurate flow cytometry assay becomes now available to all clinical sites, and it can be easily used for testing the capacity of heparin dependent-antibodies to activate platelets, at low heparin concentration. This technique can be performed in any laboratory equipped with a flow cytometer and can make the HIT confirmation diagnosis rapidly available, which introduces a great improvement for management of patients with HIT. We believe that an evidence-based update on this topic is timely and well warranted.
- Hematopoietic protease nexin-1 protects against lung injury by preventing thrombin signaling in mice. [Journal Article]
- BABlood Adv 2018 Sep 25; 2(18):2389-2399
- Coagulation and fibrinolytic system deregulation has been implicated in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a devastating form of interstitial lung disease. We used intratracheal instil...
Coagulation and fibrinolytic system deregulation has been implicated in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a devastating form of interstitial lung disease. We used intratracheal instillation of bleomycin to induce pulmonary fibrosis in mice and analyzed the role of serine protease inhibitor E2 (serpinE2)/protease nexin-1 (PN-1), a tissue serpin that exhibits anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic properties. PN-1 deficiency was associated, after bleomycin challenge, with a significant increase in mortality, as well as a marked increase in active thrombin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, an overexpression of extracellular matrix proteins, and an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the lungs. Bone marrow transplantation experiments showed that protective PN-1 was derived from hematopoietic cell compartment. A pharmacological strategy using the direct thrombin inhibitor argatroban reversed the deleterious effects of PN-1 deficiency. Concomitant deficiency of the thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4) abolished the deleterious effects of PN-1 deficiency in hematopoietic cells. These data demonstrate that prevention of thrombin signaling by PN-1 constitutes an important endogenous mechanism of protection against lung fibrosis and associated mortality. Our findings suggest that appropriate doses of thrombin inhibitors or PAR4 antagonists may provide benefit against progressive lung fibrosis with evidence of deregulated thrombin activity.
- Safety and Feasibility of Argatroban, Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator, and Intra-Arterial Therapy in Stroke (ARTSS-IA Study). [Journal Article]
- JSJ Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Sep 21
- CONCLUSIONS: In patients treated with r-tPA and EVT, concomitant Argatroban is feasible, does not delay EVT provision, produces high rates of recanalization, is probably safe, and warrants further study.
- Fondaparinux in a critically Ill patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: A case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(37):e12236
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case reporting the successful use of fondaparinux for full anticoagulation for DVT in a critically ill patient with HIT and renal insufficiency. Our experience suggests that fondaparinux might be an alternative for anticoagulation treatment in patients with HIT and kidney dysfunction if another anticoagulant (argatroban) is unavailable.
- Upper Limb Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens Secondary to Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia Leading to Gangrene. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Jun 21; 10(6):e2853
- We present a case of a dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease patient who originally presented with sepsis and later developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia-related upper extremity deep venous...
We present a case of a dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease patient who originally presented with sepsis and later developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia-related upper extremity deep venous thrombosis that rapidly progressed to phlegmasia. Argatroban, a direct thrombin inhibitor, was initiated without delay. Argatroban restored the venous patency completely but did not reverse his two gangrenous fingers. The patient finally underwent digital amputation. The management of this uncommon, but life-threatening, situation of upper limb phlegmasia cerulea dolens secondary to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia leading to gangrene is discussed in this case report.
- Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia. [Review]
- PMPostgrad Med J 2018; 94(1114):453-457
- Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) is a severe and potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction. Patients become extremely hypercoagulable, and this can lead to life-threatening and limb-t...
Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) is a severe and potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction. Patients become extremely hypercoagulable, and this can lead to life-threatening and limb-threatening thrombosis with a mortality of 5%-10%. HIT is an antibody-mediated process in which platelet activation occurs. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion along with a scoring system and laboratory testing. Patients suspected of having HIT must not receive any further heparin or low-molecular weight heparin and must be started on an alternative anticoagulant such as argatroban or danaparoid. Fondaparinux may also be considered but is not licenced for this indication.
- Evaluation of anticoagulant agents for the treatment of human metapneumovirus infection in mice. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gen Virol 2018; 99(10):1367-1380
- Thrombin has been demonstrated to be involved in several viral diseases including human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections. We previously showed that immediate administration of thrombin inhibitor arg...
Thrombin has been demonstrated to be involved in several viral diseases including human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections. We previously showed that immediate administration of thrombin inhibitor argatroban post-infection protected mice against hMPV disease. This current work aims at determining whether warfarin and heparin, two other anticoagulants inhibiting thrombin formation and activities, may also be used for treatment against hMPV in vivo. We found that immediate injections of argatroban, warfarin or heparin after virus challenge protected mice against hMPV infection, as evidenced by decreased or no mortality, less weight loss, reduced viral load and attenuated inflammation. However, delayed treatments starting 1 day post-infection with argatroban or warfarin almost did not impact the survival whereas delayed treatment with heparin induced an increased mortality during infection. Moreover, these treatments also did not reduce weight loss, viral replication and inflammation. In agreement with these results, thrombin generation was decreased upon immediate anticoagulant treatments but was unaltered upon delayed treatments. Thus, thrombin generation occurs at the onset of hMPV infection and thrombin inhibition may be only useful for the treatment of this disease when initiated in the early stage. In this case, heparin is not recommended because of its reduced efficacy on mortality in infected mice whereas argatroban and warfarin appear as safe and effective drugs for the treatment of hMPV disease. The antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects of argatroban occur via thrombin-dependent pathways whereas the mechanisms by which warfarin exerts its beneficial effects against hMPV infection were not elucidated and need to be further studied.
- Small-Volume Flow Cytometry-Based Multiplex Analysis of the Activity of Small GTPases. [Journal Article]
- MMMethods Mol Biol 2018; 1821:177-195
- Small, monomeric guanine triphosphate hydrolases (GTPases) are ubiquitous cellular integrators of signaling. A signal activates the GTPase, which then binds to an effector molecule to relay a signal ...
Small, monomeric guanine triphosphate hydrolases (GTPases) are ubiquitous cellular integrators of signaling. A signal activates the GTPase, which then binds to an effector molecule to relay a signal inside the cell. The GTPase effector trap flow cytometry assay (G-Trap) utilizes bead-based protein immobilization and dual-color flow cytometry to rapidly and quantitatively measure GTPase activity status in cell or tissue lysates. Beginning with commercial cytoplex bead sets that are color-coded with graded fluorescence intensities of a red (700 nm) wavelength, the bead sets are derivatized to display glutathione on the surface through a detailed protocol described here. A different glutathione-S-transferase-effector protein (GST-effector protein) can then be attached to the surface of each set. For the assay, users can incubate bead sets individually or in a multiplex format with lysates for rapid, selective capture of active, GTP-bound GTPases from a single sample. After that, flow cytometry is used to identify the bead-borne GTPase based on red bead intensity, and the amount of active GTPase per bead is detected using monoclonal antibodies conjugated to a green fluorophore or via labeled secondary antibodies. Three examples are provided to illustrate the efficacy of the effector-functionalized beads for measuring the activation of at least five GTPases in a single lysate from fewer than 50,000 cells.
- Argatroban plus aspirin versus aspirin in acute ischemic stroke. [Journal Article]
- NRNeurol Res 2018; 40(10):862-867
- CONCLUSIONS: Argatroban is effective and safe for the treatment of moderate AIS with similar efficacy to high-dose aspirin in the acute phase of AIS, although no additional benefit on short-term outcome was observed. For patients with mild AIS, argatroban may be inferior to high-dose aspirin.
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- Treatment of refractory delayed onset heparin-induced thrombocytopenia after thoracic endovascular aortic repair with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). [Journal Article]
- RPRes Pract Thromb Haemost 2017; 1(1):134-137