- Identification of dual Sigma1 receptor modulators/acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with antioxidant and neurotrophic properties, as neuroprotective agents. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2018 Sep 08; 158:353-370
- In this manuscript we report on the design, synthesis and evaluation of dual Sigma 1 Receptor (S1R) modulators/Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors endowed with antioxidant and neurotrophic propert...
In this manuscript we report on the design, synthesis and evaluation of dual Sigma 1 Receptor (S1R) modulators/Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors endowed with antioxidant and neurotrophic properties, potentially able to counteract neurodegeneration. The compounds based on arylalkylaminoketone scaffold integrate the pharmacophoric elements of RRC-33, a S1R modulator developed by us, donepezil, a well-known AChE inhibitor, and curcumin, a natural antioxidant compound with neuroprotective properties. A small library of compounds was synthesized and preliminary in vitro screening performed. Some compounds showed good S1R binding affinity, selectivity towards S2R and N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor, AChE relevant inhibiting activity and are potentially able to bypass the BBB, as predicted by the in silico study. For the hits 10 and 20, the antioxidant profile was assessed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell lines by evaluating their protective effect against H2O2 cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Tested compounds resulted effective in decreasing ROS production, thus ameliorating the cellular survival. Moreover, compounds 10 and 20 showed to be effective in promoting the neurite elongation of Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG), thus demonstrating a promising neurotrophic activity. Of note, the tested compounds did not show any cytotoxic effect at the concentration assayed. Relying on these encouraging results, both compounds will undergo a structure optimization program for the development of therapeutic candidates for neurodegenerative diseases treatment.
- The efficacy and safety of memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. [Journal Article]
- EOExpert Opin Drug Saf 2018 Sep 17
- Currently, five pharmacotherapeutic options are available to treat Alzheimer's disease: memantine; the three cholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine; and combination treatm...
Currently, five pharmacotherapeutic options are available to treat Alzheimer's disease: memantine; the three cholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine; and combination treatments with memantine and one cholinesterase inhibitor. Selection of the best course of treatment is based upon the evidence gathered by systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. Areas covered: This article provides a risk-benefit analysis of these treatments using evidence from meta-analyses on their safety and their efficacy. Expert opinion: Memantine improves cognitive functions and behavioral disturbances more efficiently than the placebo, both as monotherapy and in combination with donepezil. Although memantine monotherapy and combination therapy are associated with a few individual adverse events such as somnolence, it is well-tolerated and its safety (all-cause discontinuation) is comparable or superior to that of the placebo (agitation). Pooled cholinesterase inhibitors are superior to the placebo in the improvement of cognitive functions, but not behavioral disturbances and they are not well-tolerated, as evaluated by the high discontinuation rate. Donepezil (10 mg/day) and oral rivastigmine and galantamine monotherapies carry the risk for some adverse events including gastrointestinal symptoms. Therefore, we consider that combined treatment with memantine and donepezil is the most useful treatment for Alzheimer's disease.
- The effects of donepezil on phencyclidine-induced cognitive deficits in a mouse model of schizophrenia. [Journal Article]
- PBPharmacol Biochem Behav 2018 Sep 12; 175:69-76
- Donepezil is the first-line of treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which improves cognitive impairment effectively, but whether it has an impact on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia remains u...
Donepezil is the first-line of treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which improves cognitive impairment effectively, but whether it has an impact on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effects and mechanisms of donepezil on schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits induced by phencyclidine (PCP). The cognitive deficits model of schizophrenia was established by injecting PCP into mice. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, served as positive control drug. Three behavioral tests including novel object recognition (NOR) test, Morris Water Maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) test were performed to evaluate the effect of donepezil on PCP-induced cognitive deficits. Furthermore, the content of BDNF and NGF in the hippocampus and cortex of mice was determined using ELISA. Expressions of p-GSK-3β/GSK-3β, p-Akt/Akt, Bcl-2/Bax and Caspase-3 in the hippocampus and cortex were detected by Western blot. Results revealed that donepezil has a protective effect on PCP-induced cognitive dysfunction. Moreover, donepezil can also improve PCP-induced schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and regulating synaptic plasticity, which was possible through the up-regulation of p-Akt, p-GSK-3β, Bcl-2 and the down-regulation of Bax, Caspase-3. The results indicated that donepezil might exhibit a beneficial effect on the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.
- Repeated Intrastriatal Botulinum Neurotoxin-A Injection in Hemiparkinsonian Rats Increased the Beneficial Effect on Rotational Behavior. [Journal Article]
- TToxins (Basel) 2018 Sep 11; 10(9)
- Injection of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) into the striatum of hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rats reduced apomorphine-induced rotation behavior significantly, for at least 3 months. Thereafter, rotat...
Injection of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) into the striatum of hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rats reduced apomorphine-induced rotation behavior significantly, for at least 3 months. Thereafter, rotation behavior increased again. We injected hemi-PD rats with 1 ng BoNT-A twice, the second injection following 6 months after the first one and tested the rats for apomorphine-induced rotations and spontaneous motor behaviors, i.e., corridor task and stepping test. To test the hypothesis that BoNT-A reduced striatal hypercholinism in hemi-PD rats, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil was injected prior to separate apomorphine-induced rotation tests. In hemi-PD rats, the first BoNT-A injection led to a clear reduction of the apomorphine-induced rotations, and the second BoNT-A injection to a more massive and prolonged reaction. In hemi-PD rats whose apomorphine-induced rotation behavior was strongly reduced by an intrastriatal BoNT-A, subsequent donepezil injections led to significant increases of the rotation rate. Concerning corridor task and stepping test, neither first nor second BoNT-A injections changed hemi-PD rats' behavior significantly. The data give evidence for the possibility of repeated intrastriatal administrations of BoNT-A, for treatment of motor symptoms in experimental hemi-PD over a longer time.
- Nickel-Catalyzed Hydrogen-Borrowing Strategy for α-Alkylation of Ketones with Alcohols: A New Route to Branched gem-Bis(alkyl) Ketones. [Journal Article]
- OLOrg Lett 2018 Sep 11
- The α-alkylation of ketones using an earth-abundant and nonprecious NiBr2/L1 system is reported. This nickel-catalyzed reaction could be performed in gram scale and successfully applied in the synthe...
The α-alkylation of ketones using an earth-abundant and nonprecious NiBr2/L1 system is reported. This nickel-catalyzed reaction could be performed in gram scale and successfully applied in the synthesis of donepezil (Alzheimer's drug) and functionalization of steroid hormones and fatty acid derivatives. Synthesis of N-heterocycles, methylation of ketones, and one-pot double alkylation to bis-hetero aryl ketones using two different alcohols with a single catalyst broadens the scope of the catalytic protocol. Preliminary mechanistic studies using defined Ni-H species and deuterium-labeling experiments established the participation of the borrowing-hydrogen strategy.
- An Investigation into the Quality of Medicines in Yangon, Myanmar. [Journal Article]
- PPharmacy (Basel) 2018 Aug 30; 6(3)
- Many poor-quality medicines are supplied to patients mainly in developing countries. No systematic survey on counterfeit medicines has been conducted in Myanmar since 1999. The purpose of this study ...
Many poor-quality medicines are supplied to patients mainly in developing countries. No systematic survey on counterfeit medicines has been conducted in Myanmar since 1999. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current situation of substandard or counterfeit medicines in Myanmar. Samples of oral medicines, cefuroxime axetil (CXM), donepezil hydrochloride (DN) and omeprazole (OM), and injections, ceftriaxone sodium (CTRX), and gentamicin sulfate (GM), were collected from pharmacies, hospitals, and wholesalers in Yangon, Myanmar in 2014. Authenticity and quality were verified. There were 221 (94%) foreign medicines among 235 collected samples. Five samples of GM and 1 DN sample were not registered with the Food and Drug Administration, Myanmar. In quality analysis, 36 samples out of 177 (20.3%) did not pass quantity tests, 27 samples out of 176 (15.3%) did not pass content uniformity tests, and 23 out of 128 samples (18.0%) did not pass dissolution tests. Three of the unregistered GM samples failed in both identification and microbial assay tests. Counterfeit GM is being sold in Yangon. Also, the quality of OM is a matter of concern. Poor-quality medicines were frequently found among the products of a few manufacturers. Regular surveys to monitor counterfeit and substandard medicines in Myanmar are recommended.
- Aging-related Repositioned Drugs, Donepezil and Sildenafil Citrate, Increase Apoptosis of Anti-mitotic Drug-resistant KBV20C Cells Through Different Molecular Mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- ARAnticancer Res 2018; 38(9):5149-5157
- CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that HAL-FLU or HAL-SID sensitization in KBV20C cells involves both cytotoxic and P-gp inhibitory effects, whereas HAL-DON sensitization may involve only P-gp inhibitory activity of DON.
- Application of donepezil increased collagen 1 expression in mesenchymal stroma cells of an ovine osteoporosis model. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2018 Sep 01; 18(3):354-365
- CONCLUSIONS: AChE inhibition via donepezil resulted in an increased synthesis of osteoid which consists mainly of collagen. Thus, we suppose that increased acetylcholine levels through AChE inhibition do not support MSC proliferation but osteogenic activity probably combined with osteogenic differentiation.
- The histamine H3R antagonist DL77 attenuates autistic behaviors in a prenatal valproic acid-induced mouse model of autism. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Aug 30; 8(1):13077
- Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment in social communication and restricted/repetitive behavior patterns or interests. Antagonists targeting h...
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment in social communication and restricted/repetitive behavior patterns or interests. Antagonists targeting histamine H3 receptor (H3R) are considered potential therapeutic agents for the therapeutic management of different brain disorders, e.g., cognitive impairments. Therefore, the effects of subchronic treatment with the potent and selective H3R antagonist DL77 (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg, i.p.) on sociability, social novelty, anxiety, and aggressive/repetitive behavior in male Tuck-Ordinary (TO) mice with ASD-like behaviors induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA, 500 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated using the three-chamber test (TCT), marble burying test (MBT), nestlet shredding test (NST), and elevated plus maze (EPM) test. The results showed that VPA-exposed mice exhibited significantly lower sociability and social novelty preference compared to VPA-exposed mice that were pretreated with DL77 (10 or 15 mg/kg, i.p.). VPA-exposed mice presented a significantly higher percentage of buried marbles in MBT and shredded nestlet significantly more in NST compared to the control groups. However, VPA-exposed animals pretreated with DL77 (10 or 15 mg/kg, i.p.) buried a reduced percentage of marbles in MBT and presented a significantly lower percentage of shredding behavior in NST. On the other hand, pretreatment with DL77 (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to restore the disturbed anxiety levels and hyperactivity observed in VPA-exposed animals in EPM, whereas the reference drug donepezil (DOZ, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly palliated the anxiety and reduced the hyperactivity measures of VPA-exposed mice. Furthermore, pretreatment with DL77 (10 or 15 mg/kg, i.p.) modulated oxidative stress status by increasing GSH and decreasing MDA, and it attenuated the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α exacerbated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, in VPA-exposed mouse brain tissue. Taken together, these results provide evidence that modulation of brain histaminergic neurotransmission, such as by subchronic administration of the H3R antagonist DL77, may serve as an effective pharmacological therapeutic target to rescue ASD-like behaviors in VPA-exposed animals, although further investigations are necessary to corroborate and expand these initial data.
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- Donepezil structure-based hybrids as potential multifunctional anti-Alzheimer's drug candidates. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2018; 33(1):1212-1224
- A new series of multifunctional hybrids, based on the structure of the donepezil (DNP) drug, have been developed and evaluated as potential anti Alzheimer's disease (AD) agents. The rationale of this...
A new series of multifunctional hybrids, based on the structure of the donepezil (DNP) drug, have been developed and evaluated as potential anti Alzheimer's disease (AD) agents. The rationale of this study was the conjugation of a benzylpiperidine/benzylpiperazine moiety with derivatives of bioactive heterocyclics (benzimidazole or benzofuran), to mimic the main structure of DNP and to endow the hybrids with additional relevant properties such as inhibition of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation, antioxidant activity and metal chelation. Overall, they showed good activity for AChE inhibition (IC50=4.0-30.0 μΜ) and moderate ability for inhibition of Aβ1-42 self-mediated aggregation. The hybrids containing chelating groups showed improvement in the inhibition of Cu-induced Aβ42 aggregation and the antioxidant capacity. Moreover, neuroprotective effects of these compounds were evidenced in neuroblastoma cells after Aβ1-42 induced toxicity. Structure-activity relationship allowed the identification of some promising compounds and the main determinant structural features for the targeted properties.