- Nanostructured cubosomes in an in situ nasal gel system: an alternative approach for the controlled delivery of donepezil HCl to brain. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Liposome Res 2018 Dec 02; :1-27
- The purpose of this research was to develop cubosomal mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel to enhance the donepezil HCl delivery to the brain. Glycerol mono-oleate (GMO) and surfactant poloxamer 407 were u...
The purpose of this research was to develop cubosomal mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel to enhance the donepezil HCl delivery to the brain. Glycerol mono-oleate (GMO) and surfactant poloxamer 407 were used to prepare cubosomes. The developed formulations were characterized for particle size (PS), poly dispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in vitro drug release and in vivo bio-distribution study in blood and brain tissue. Central composite design was used for the optimization purpose and the selected formulation (containing GMO 2g and poloxamer 1.5%) was prepared in presence of gellan gum and konjac gum as gelling agent and mucoadhesive agent respectively. The optimal cubosomal dispersion and optimal cubosomal mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel were subjected to in vivo bio-distribution studies in rat model. It showed significantly higher transnasal permeation and better distribution to the brain, when compared to the drug solution. Thus, the formulated cubosomal mucoadhesive in situ gel could be considered as a promising carrier for brain targeting of CNS acting drugs through the transnasal route.
- Design and development of some phenyl benzoxazole derivatives as a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with antioxidant property to enhance learning and memory. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2018 Nov 22; 163:116-135
- Based on the Gaussian-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and virtual screening (VS) processes, some promising acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) having antioxidant potent...
Based on the Gaussian-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and virtual screening (VS) processes, some promising acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) having antioxidant potential were designed synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their ability to enhance learning and memory. The synthesized phenyl benzoxazole derivatives exhibited significant antioxidant potential and AChE inhibitory activity, whereas the antioxidant potential of compound 34 (49.6%) was observed significantly better than standard donepezil (<10%) and parallel to ascorbic acid (56.6%). Enzyme kinetics study of most potent compound 34 (AChE IC50 = 0.363 ± 0.017 μM; Ki = 0.19 ± 0.03 μM) revealed the true nature and competitive type of inhibition on AChE. The compound 34 was further assessed for in vivo and ex vivo studies and the results showed the significant reversal of cognitive deficits and antioxidant potential at the dose of 5 mg/kg comparable to standard drug donepezil.
- Hyperbranched cellulose polyester of oral thin film and nanofiber for rapid release of donepezil; preparation and in vivo evaluation. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 Nov 26; 124:871-887
- Cellulose blended hyperbranched polyester (CHP) and hyperbranched cellulose polyester (HPC) were synthesized by melt condensation method using 2,2-bis (methylol) propionic acid and p-TSA. Obtained po...
Cellulose blended hyperbranched polyester (CHP) and hyperbranched cellulose polyester (HPC) were synthesized by melt condensation method using 2,2-bis (methylol) propionic acid and p-TSA. Obtained polymers were utilized for the preparation of various donepezil loaded thinfilm (CHPF, HPCF) and nanofibers (CHPN, HPCN) using solvent casting and electrospinning technique respectively. Formulated thinfilms and nanofibers were subjected to thermal analysis and microscopic evaluations. Compared with thinfilm formulations, hyperbranched nanofiber has shown lower particle size about 50-100 nm. This might be helped in releasing 98% of drug in the span of 10 min in in vitro studies for HPCN 4 formulation. Further investigation of in vivo bioavailability studies, peak plasma concentration was observed at 3 to 3.5 h for HPCN formulation. Hyperbranched cellulose formulations (HPCN 4) have significantly higher absorption (AUC 0-∞) (1294.1 ± 5.4 ng/mL) than cellulose blended hyperbranched polymer formulations (876.1 ± 6.1 ng/mL). These studies revealed that the hyperbranched nanofiber formulations possess high mechanical strength and good drug release properties. Current study concludes prepared Hyperbranched cellulose nanofiber will be good alternative for commercially available dosage forms for the treatment of Alzheimer's diseases.
- New procognitive enhancers acting at the histamine H3 and AMPA receptors reverse natural forgetting in mice: comparisons with donepezil and memantine in the object recognition task. [Journal Article]
- BPBehav Pharmacol 2018 Nov 26
- This study evaluated the procognitive effects of S 38093 (a new inverse agonist of the histaminergic H3 receptor) and S 47445 (a new α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) in 2-3-mont...
This study evaluated the procognitive effects of S 38093 (a new inverse agonist of the histaminergic H3 receptor) and S 47445 (a new α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) in 2-3-month-old Swiss mice as compared with donepezil and memantine, two main reference compounds in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The object recognition task allows the study of natural forgetting and is classically used in assessing drug effects on memory. Here, we show that mice exhibit significant object recognition at short (15 min) but not long (24 h) retention intervals separating the familiarization and recognition phases. S 47445 (1.0, 3.0, and 10.0 mg/kg) and S 38093 (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg), both administered postoperatively, 1 h before familiarization and recognition sessions, rescued memory at the long retention interval; their memory-enhancing effects were as powerful as those obtained with donepezil or memantine (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg for both compounds). Thus, S 38093 and S 47445, detected as positive controls in the object recognition task, are promising compounds for the treatment of amnesic syndromes.
- Hippocampal proteomic alteration in triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and implication of PINK 1 regulation in donepezil treatment. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Proteome Res 2018 Nov 28
- CONCLUSIONS: Donepezil exhibited neuroprotective effects via multiple mechanisms. In particular, PINK 1 is related to mitophagy and cellular protection from mitochondrial dysfunction, which might play important roles in AD pathogenesis and represent a potential therapeutic target.
- Ameliorative effect of alendronate against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced alteration in neurobehavioral, neuroinflammation and biochemical parameters with emphasis on Aβ and BACE-1. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotoxicology 2018 Nov 24; 70:122-134
- Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent age related neurodegenerative disorder manifested by progressive cognitive decline and neuronal loss in the brain, yet precise etiopathology of majority...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent age related neurodegenerative disorder manifested by progressive cognitive decline and neuronal loss in the brain, yet precise etiopathology of majority of sporadic or late-onset AD cases is unknown. AD is associated with various pathological events such as Aβ deposition due to BACE-1 induced cleavage of APP, neuroinflammation, increased cholesterol synthesis, cholinergic deficit and oxidative stress. It was found that bone drug, alendronate (ALN) that cross blood brain barrier inhibits brain cholesterol synthesis and AChE enzyme activity. As cholesterol modifying agents have been supposed to alter AD like pathologies, the current study was designed to investigate the possible neuroprotective and therapeutic potential of ALN against ICV STZ induced experimental sporadic AD (SAD) in mice in a non-cholesterol dependent manner, using donepezil (5 mg/kg) as a reference standard. The preliminary study was done by molecular modelling to identify the binding affinity of ALN with BACE-1 in silico. The prevention of cognitive impairment in mice induced by ICV STZ (3 mg/kg) infused on first and third day, by ALN (1.76 mg/kg p.o.) administered for 15 consecutive days was assessed through Spontaneous Alternation Behavior (SAB) and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Additionally, the protective effect of ALN was also observed by the reversal of altered levels of Aβ1-42, BACE-,1 neuroinflammatory cytokines, AChE activity and oxidative stress markers (except TBARS) in ICV-STZ infused mice. However, the findings of the present study imply the therapeutic potential of ALN against SAD-like complications.
- Synthesis and biological evaluation of new N-benzylpyridinium-based benzoheterocycles as potential anti-Alzheimer's agents. [Journal Article]
- BCBioorg Chem 2018 Nov 13; 83:559-568
- A novel series of benzylpyridinium-based benzoheterocycles (benzimidazole, benzoxazole or benzothiazole) were designed as potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibito...
A novel series of benzylpyridinium-based benzoheterocycles (benzimidazole, benzoxazole or benzothiazole) were designed as potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors. The title compounds 4a-q were conveniently synthesized via condensation reaction of 1,2-phenylenediamine, 2-aminophenol or 2-aminothiophenol with pyridin-4-carbalehyde, followed by N-benzylation using various benzyl halides. The results of in vitro biological assays revealed that most of them, especially 4c and 4g, had potent anticholinesterase activity comparable or more potent than reference drug, donepezil. The kinetic study demonstrated that the representative compound 4c inhibits AChE in competitive manner. According to the ligand-enzyme docking simulation, compound 4c occupied the active site at the vicinity of catalytic triad. The compounds 4c and 4g were found to be inhibitors of Aβ self-aggregation as well as AChE-induced Aβ aggregation. Meanwhile, these compounds could significantly protect PC12 cells against H2O2-induced injury and showed no toxicity against HepG2 cells. As multi-targeted structures, compounds 4c and 4g could be considered as promising candidate for further lead developments to treat Alzheimer's disease.
- Cobalt-catalyzed difluoroalkylation of tertiary aryl ketones for facile synthesis of quaternary alkyl difluorides. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2018 11 23; 9(1):4951
- The selective incorporation of gem-difluoroalkyl groups into biologically active molecules has long been used as an efficient strategy for drug design and discovery. However, the catalytic C(sp3)-CF2...
The selective incorporation of gem-difluoroalkyl groups into biologically active molecules has long been used as an efficient strategy for drug design and discovery. However, the catalytic C(sp3)-CF2 bond-forming cross-coupling reaction for selective incorporation of difluoromethylene group into diverse alkyl chains, especially more sterically demanding secondary and tertiary functionalized alkanes, still remains as a major challenge. Herein, we describe a cobalt-catalyzed difluoroalkylation of tertiary aryl ketones for facile synthesis of quaternary alkyl difluorides, which exhibited high efficiency, broad scope and mild conditions. The synthetic utility of this method is demonstrated by late-stage difluoroalkylation of donepezil, a well-known acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used to treat the Alzheimer's disease. Preliminary mechanistic investigations indicate that a difluoroalkyl radical is involved in a Co(I)/Co(III) catalytic cycle. This cobalt-catalyzed fluoroalkylation thus offers insights into an efficient way for the synthesis of fluoroalkylated bioactive molecules for drug discovery.
- The high efficacy of muscarinic M4 receptor in D1 medium spiny neurons reverses striatal hyperdopaminergia. [Journal Article]
- NNeuropharmacology 2018 Nov 22; 146:74-83
- The opposing action of dopamine and acetylcholine has long been known to play an important role in basal ganglia physiology. However, the quantitative analysis of dopamine and acetylcholine signal in...
The opposing action of dopamine and acetylcholine has long been known to play an important role in basal ganglia physiology. However, the quantitative analysis of dopamine and acetylcholine signal interaction has been difficult to perform in the native context because the striatum comprises mainly two subtypes of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) on which these neuromodulators exert different actions. We used biosensor imaging in live brain slices of dorsomedial striatum to monitor changes in intracellular cAMP at the level of individual MSNs. We observed that the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine decreases cAMP selectively in the MSN subpopulation that also expresses D1 dopamine receptors, an action mediated by the M4 muscarinic receptor. This receptor has a high efficacy on cAMP signaling and can shut down the positive cAMP response induced by dopamine, at acetylcholine concentrations which are consistent with physiological levels. This supports our prediction based on theoretical modeling that acetylcholine could exert a tonic inhibition on striatal cAMP signaling, thus supporting the possibility that a pause in acetylcholine release is required for phasic dopamine to transduce a cAMP signal in D1 MSNs. In vivo experiments with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil and tacrine, as well as with the positive allosteric modulators of M4 receptor VU0152100 and VU0010010 show that this effect is sufficient to reverse the increased locomotor activity of DAT-knockout mice. This suggests that M4 receptors could be a novel therapeutic target to treat hyperactivity disorders.
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- Intracerebroventricular injection of resveratrol ameliorated Aβ-induced learning and cognitive decline in mice. [Journal Article]
- MBMetab Brain Dis 2018 Nov 20
- Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural plant polyphenol compound which consists in red grape skins and wine in general. Plenty of previous studies have shown that resveratrol has neuroprotective effects. The...
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural plant polyphenol compound which consists in red grape skins and wine in general. Plenty of previous studies have shown that resveratrol has neuroprotective effects. The primary object of this research was to study the effects of RSV on improving the cognitive function and neurodegeneration in the mouse model of Alzheimer's disease induced by Aβ1-42, and the possible mechanism about targeting on Sirt1, which results in attenuating inflammatory response and mitochondrial dysfunction. We established the AD model of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ1-42 and it was observed that the significant decrease in alternately of Y Maze and the quadrant dwell time percentage of Morris water maze test. Furthermore, there were significant upregulations of AMPK/ PGC-1α and downregulations of NF-κB/ IL-1β/ NLRP3 signaling pathways in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in AD mice. The treatments with RSV and Donepezil could significantly ameliorate all the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by Aβ1-42. It also noticeably improved the histopathological changes in the hippocampus and cortex. The results suggested that RSV might protect against cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration induced by Aβ1-42, and serve as a potential agent in treatment of AD.