- Peroxynitrite Exposure of CXCL12 Impairs Monocyte, Lymphocyte and Endothelial Cell Chemotaxis, Lymphocyte Extravasation in vivo and Anti-HIV-1 Activity. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:1933
- CXCL12 is a chemotactic cytokine that attracts many different cell types for homeostasis and during inflammation. Under stress conditions, macrophages and granulocytes produce factors such as peroxyn...
CXCL12 is a chemotactic cytokine that attracts many different cell types for homeostasis and during inflammation. Under stress conditions, macrophages and granulocytes produce factors such as peroxynitrite as a consequence of their oxidative response. After short incubations of CXCL12 with peroxynitrite, the gradual nitration of Tyr7, Tyr61, or both Tyr7 and Tyr61 was demonstrated with the use of mass spectrometry, whereas longer incubations caused CXCL12 degradation. Native CXCL12 and the nitrated forms, [3-NT61]CXCL12 and [3-NT7/61]CXCL12, were chemically synthesized to evaluate the effects of Tyr nitration on the biological activity of CXCL12. All CXCL12 forms had a similar binding affinity for heparin, the G protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3. However, nitration significantly enhanced the affinity of CXCL12 for chondroitin sulfate. Internalization of CXCR4 and β-arrestin 2 recruitment to CXCR4 was significantly reduced for [3-NT7/61]CXCL12 compared to CXCL12, whereas β-arrestin 2 recruitment to ACKR3 was similar for all CXCL12 variants. [3-NT7/61]CXCL12 was weaker in calcium signaling assays and in in vitro chemotaxis assays with monocytes, lymphocytes and endothelial cells. Surprisingly, nitration of Tyr61, but not Tyr7, partially protected CXCL12 against cleavage by the specific serine protease CD26. In vivo, the effects were more pronounced compared to native CXCL12. Nitration of any Tyr residue drastically lowered lymphocyte extravasation to joints compared to native CXCL12. Finally, the anti-HIV-1 activity of [3-NT7]CXCL12 and [3-NT7/61]CXCL12 was reduced, whereas CXCL12 and [3-NT61]CXCL12 were equally potent. In conclusion, nitration of CXCL12 occurs readily upon contact with peroxynitrite and specifically nitration of Tyr7 fully reduces its in vitro and in vivo biological activities.
- [Molecular and cell biological mechanism of olfactory adaptation in Caenorhabditis elegans]. [Journal Article]
- ZDZhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2018 May 25; 47(3):307-312
- Olfactory adaptation is an important physiological function of animals, which can protect their own neurons from overstimulation, and be better to deal with all kinds of stimuli in the surrounding en...
Olfactory adaptation is an important physiological function of animals, which can protect their own neurons from overstimulation, and be better to deal with all kinds of stimuli in the surrounding environment. In this article, we discuss the neuronal basis of olfactory adaptation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Up to now, several intracellular regulatory factors have been discovered to be associated with olfactory adaptation in Caenorhabditis elegans, including cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling in the olfactory neurons AWC, OSM-9 in transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channel, arrestin ARR-1, diglyceride (DAG) pathway in G protein signaling pathways, etc. However, the neural circuits of the olfactory adaptation remains largely unknown. This paper reviews molecular and cell biological mechanism of olfactory adaptation in Caenorhabditis elegans, so as to provide reference for studies on olfactory sensation in advanced animals.
- Calcium influx mediates the chemoattractant-induced translocation of the arrestin-related protein AdcC in Dictyostelium. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Sci 2018 Sep 12
- Arrestins are key adaptor proteins that control the fate of cell-surface membrane proteins and modulate downstream signaling cascades. Dictyostelium discoideum genome encodes six arrestin-related pro...
Arrestins are key adaptor proteins that control the fate of cell-surface membrane proteins and modulate downstream signaling cascades. Dictyostelium discoideum genome encodes six arrestin-related proteins, harboring additional modules besides the arrestin domain. Here, we studied AdcB and AdcC, two homologs that contain C2 and SAM-domains. We showed that AdcC, in contrast to AdcB, responds to various stimuli (such as the chemoattractants cAMP and folate) known to induce a cytosolic calcium rise by a transient translocation to the plasma membrane and that calcium is a direct regulator of AdcC localization. This response requires the calcium-dependent membrane targeting C2 domain and the double SAM domain involved in AdcC oligomerization, revealing a mode of membrane targeting and regulation unique among members of the arrestin clan. AdcB shares several biochemical properties with AdcC including in vitro binding to anionic lipids in a calcium-dependent manner and auto-assembly as large homo-oligomers. AdcB can interact with AdcC; still its intracellular localization is insensitive to calcium. Despite their high degree of homology and common characteristics, AdcB and AdcC are therefore likely to fulfill distinct functions in amoeba.
- Do Progestin-Only Contraceptives Contribute to the Risk of Developing Depression as Implied by Beta-Arrestin 1 Levels in Leukocytes? A Pilot Study. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Sep 09; 15(9)
- We reported previously that reduction in beta-arrestin 1 (β-AR 1) protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMC) significantly correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms in...
We reported previously that reduction in beta-arrestin 1 (β-AR 1) protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMC) significantly correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms in reproductive women. In this pilot study, we used β-AR 1 protein levels in PBMC as a marker for developing depressive symptoms and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) scores to assess potential mood-related side effects of oral contraceptive use for routine birth control among women. We evaluated 29 women in this study. We enrolled the participants in three groups: Estrogen-progestin combination-oral contraceptives (COC, n = 10), progestin-only contraceptives (POC, n = 12), and non-hormonal or no contraceptives (NC, n = 7). We determined the β-AR 1 protein levels in PBMCs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that women in the POC group had significantly higher HAM-D scores compared to those in the COC (p < 0.0004) and NC (p < 0.004). The levels of β-AR 1 protein were significantly attenuated in women in the POC group compared to women in the NC group (p = 0.03). Our findings suggest that the use of POC is a potential risk factor for developing depressive symptoms.
- Cannabidiol skews biased agonism at cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors with smaller effect in CB1-CB2 heteroreceptor complexes. [Journal Article]
- BPBiochem Pharmacol 2018 Sep 05
- Currently, biased agonism is at the center stage of drug development approaches. We analyzed effects of a battery of cannabinoids plus/minus cannabidiol (CBD) in four functional parameters (cAMP leve...
Currently, biased agonism is at the center stage of drug development approaches. We analyzed effects of a battery of cannabinoids plus/minus cannabidiol (CBD) in four functional parameters (cAMP levels, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), β-arrestin recruitment and label-free/DMR) in HEK-293T cells expressing cannabinoid receptors, CB1 or CB2, or CB1-CB2 heteroreceptor complexes. In all cases two natural agonists plus two selective synthetic agonists were used. Furthermore, the effect of cannabidiol, at a dose (100 nM) that does not allow significant binding to the orthosteric center of either receptor, was measured. From the huge amount of generated data, we would like to highlight that the two psychotropic molecules (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC and CP-55940) showed similar bias in CB1R and that the bias of THC was particularly relevant toward MAPK pathway. Furthermore, THC did not activate the Gi protein coupled to CB2R. Interestingly, the biased agonism was reduced when assays were performed in cells expressing the two receptors, thus suggesting that the heteromer allows less functional selectivity. In terms of cannabidiol action, the phytocannabinoid altered the functional responses, likely by allosteric means, and modified potency, agonist IC50/EC50 values and biased agonism in qualitative and/or quantitative different ways depending on the agonist. The effect of cannabidiol on anandamide actions on both cannabinoid receptors was particularly noteworthy as was significantly different from that of other compounds. Results are a compendium of data on biased agonism on cannabinoid receptors in the absence and presence of cannabidiol. In addition, for the first time, GPCR biased agonism is characterized in an heteromeric context.
- T cell microvilli constitute immunological synaptosomes that carry messages to antigen-presenting cells. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2018 Sep 07; 9(1):3630
- Microvilli on T cells have been proposed to survey surfaces of antigen-presenting cells (APC) or facilitate adhesion under flow; however, whether they serve essential functions during T cell activati...
Microvilli on T cells have been proposed to survey surfaces of antigen-presenting cells (APC) or facilitate adhesion under flow; however, whether they serve essential functions during T cell activation remains unclear. Here we show that antigen-specific T cells deposit membrane particles derived from microvilli onto the surface of cognate antigen-bearing APCs. Microvilli carry T cell receptors (TCR) at all stages of T cell activation and are released as large TCR-enriched, T cell microvilli particles (TMP) in a process of trogocytosis. These microvilli exclusively contain protein arrestin-domain-containing protein 1, which is directly involved in membrane budding and, in combination with vacuolar protein-sorting-associated protein 4, transforms large TMPs into smaller, exosome-sized TMPs. Notably, TMPs from CD4+ T cells are enriched with LFA-2/CD2 and various cytokines involved in activating dendritic cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that T cell microvilli constitute "immunological synaptosomes" that carry T cell messages to APCs.
- Discovery of New Allosteric Modulators of the Urotensinergic System through Substitution of the Urotensin II-Related Peptide (URP) Phenylalanine Residue. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Chem 2018 Sep 19
- Urotensin II (UII) and urotensin II-related peptide (URP) are functionally selective, suggesting that these two hormones might play distinct physiological role through different interactions with the...
Urotensin II (UII) and urotensin II-related peptide (URP) are functionally selective, suggesting that these two hormones might play distinct physiological role through different interactions with their cognate receptor UT. Hypothesizing that the Phe3 residue of URP, which is also present in UII, is a key-element of its specific UT activation, we evaluated the impact of its replacement by non-natural amino acids in URP. Each compound was evaluated for its ability to bind UT, induce rat aortic ring contraction, and activate Gq, G12, and β-arrestin 1 signaling pathways. Such modifications impaired contractile efficacy, reflected by a reduced aptitude to activate G12 in URP but not in the truncated but equipotent UII4-11. Moreover, we have identified two structurally different UT modulators: [d-Phe(pI)3]URP and [Bip3]URP, which exert a probe-dependent action against UII and URP. These compounds should help us understand the specific roles of these hormones as well as guide further therapeutic development.
- Therapeutic Targeting of Endosomal G-Protein-Coupled Receptors. [Review]
- TPTrends Pharmacol Sci 2018 Sep 01
- G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are conventionally considered to function at the plasma membrane, where they detect extracellular ligands and activate heterotrimeric G proteins that transmit intr...
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are conventionally considered to function at the plasma membrane, where they detect extracellular ligands and activate heterotrimeric G proteins that transmit intracellular signals. Consequently, drug discovery efforts have focused on identification of agonists and antagonists of cell surface GPCRs. However, β-arrestin (ARR)-dependent desensitization and endocytosis rapidly terminate G protein signaling at the plasma membrane. Emerging evidence indicates that GPCRs can continue to signal from endosomes by G-protein- and βARR-dependent processes. By regulating the duration and location of intracellular signaling events, GPCRs in endosomes control critically important processes, including gene transcription and ion channel activity. Thus, GPCRs in endosomes, in addition to at the cell surface, have emerged as important therapeutic targets.
- Designer Approaches for G Protein-Coupled Receptor Modulation for Cardiovascular Disease. [Review]
- JBJACC Basic Transl Sci 2018; 3(4):550-562
- The new horizon for cardiac therapy may lie beneath the surface, with the downstream mediators of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activity. Targeted approaches have shown that receptor activation m...
The new horizon for cardiac therapy may lie beneath the surface, with the downstream mediators of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activity. Targeted approaches have shown that receptor activation may be biased toward signaling through G proteins or through GPCR kinases (GRKs) and β-arrestins, with divergent functional outcomes. In addition to these canonical roles, numerous noncanonical activities of GRKs and β-arrestins have been demonstrated to modulate GPCR signaling at all levels of receptor activation and regulation. Further, research continues to identify novel GRK/effector and β-arrestin/effector complexes with distinct impacts on cardiac function in the normal heart and the diseased heart. Coupled with the identification of once orphan receptors and endogenous ligands with beneficial cardiovascular effects, this expands the repertoire of GPCR targets. Together, this research highlights the potential for focused therapeutic activation of beneficial pathways, with simultaneous exclusion or inhibition of detrimental signaling, and represents a new wave of therapeutic development.
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- Specific oxylipins enhance vertebrate hematopoiesis via the receptor GPR132. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 09 11; 115(37):9252-9257
- Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are lipid-derived signaling molecules with cardioprotective and vasodilatory actions. We recently showed that 11,12-EET enhances hematopoietic induction and engraftme...
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are lipid-derived signaling molecules with cardioprotective and vasodilatory actions. We recently showed that 11,12-EET enhances hematopoietic induction and engraftment in mice and zebrafish. EETs are known to signal via G protein-coupled receptors, with evidence supporting the existence of a specific high-affinity receptor. Identification of a hematopoietic-specific EET receptor would enable genetic interrogation of EET signaling pathways, and perhaps clinical use of this molecule. We developed a bioinformatic approach to identify an EET receptor based on the expression of G protein-coupled receptors in cell lines with differential responses to EETs. We found 10 candidate EET receptors that are expressed in three EET-responsive cell lines, but not expressed in an EET-unresponsive line. Of these, only recombinant GPR132 showed EET-responsiveness in vitro, using a luminescence-based β-arrestin recruitment assay. Knockdown of zebrafish gpr132b prevented EET-induced hematopoiesis, and marrow from GPR132 knockout mice showed decreased long-term engraftment capability. In contrast to high-affinity EET receptors, GPR132 is reported to respond to additional hydroxy-fatty acids in vitro, and we found that these same hydroxy-fatty acids enhance hematopoiesis in the zebrafish. We conducted structure-activity relationship analyses using both cell culture and zebrafish assays on diverse medium-chain fatty acids. Certain oxygenated, unsaturated free fatty acids showed high activation of GPR132, whereas unoxygenated or saturated fatty acids had lower activity. Absence of the carbon-1 position carboxylic acid prevented activity, suggesting that this moiety is required for receptor activation. GPR132 responds to a select panel of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids to enhance both embryonic and adult hematopoiesis.