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- Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling by plasma membrane organization and endocytosis. [Review]
- TTraffic 2018 Dec 07
- The trafficking of G protein coupled-receptors (GPCRs) is one of the most exciting areas in cell biology due to recent advances demonstrating that GPCR signaling is spatially encoded. GPCRs, acting i...
The trafficking of G protein coupled-receptors (GPCRs) is one of the most exciting areas in cell biology due to recent advances demonstrating that GPCR signaling is spatially encoded. GPCRs, acting in a diverse array of physiological systems, can have differential signaling consequences depending on their subcellular localization. At the plasma membrane, GPCR organization could fine-tune the initial stages of receptor signaling by determining the magnitude of signaling and the type of effectors to which receptors can couple. This organization is mediated by the lipid composition of the plasma membrane, receptor-receptor interactions, and receptor interactions with intracellular scaffolding proteins. GPCR organization is subsequently changed by ligand binding and the regulated endocytosis of these receptors. Activated GPCRs can modulate the dynamics of their own endocytosis through changing clathrin-coated pit dynamics, and through the scaffolding adaptor protein β-arrestin. This endocytic regulation has signaling consequences, predominantly through modulation of the MAPK cascade. This review explores what is known about receptor sorting at the plasma membrane, protein partners that control receptor endocytosis, and the ways in which receptor sorting at the plasma membrane regulates downstream trafficking and signaling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- D1 dopamine receptors intrinsic activity and functional selectivity affect working memory in prefrontal cortex. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Psychiatry 2018 Dec 07
- Dopamine D1 agonists enhance cognition, but the role of different signaling pathways (e.g., cAMP or β-arrestin) is unclear. The current study compared 2-methyldihydrexidine and CY208,243, drugs with ...
Dopamine D1 agonists enhance cognition, but the role of different signaling pathways (e.g., cAMP or β-arrestin) is unclear. The current study compared 2-methyldihydrexidine and CY208,243, drugs with different degrees of both D1 intrinsic activity and functional selectivity. 2-Methyldihydrexidine is a full agonist at adenylate cyclase and a super-agonist at β-arrestin recruitment, whereas CY208,243 has relatively high intrinsic activity at adenylate cyclase, but much lower at β-arrestin recruitment. Both drugs decreased, albeit in dissimilar ways, the firing rate of neurons in prefrontal cortex sensitive to outcome-related aspects of a working memory task. 2-Methyldihydrexidine was superior to CY208,243 in prospectively enhancing similarity and retrospectively distinguishing differences between correct and error outcomes based on firing rates, enhancing the micro-network measured by oscillations of spikes and local field potentials, and improving behavioral performance. This study is the first to examine how ligand signaling bias affects both behavioral and neurophysiological endpoints in the intact animal. The data show that maximal enhancement of cognition via D1 activation occurred with a pattern of signaling that involved full unbiased intrinsic activity, or agonists with high β-arrestin activity.
- Cleavage of arrestin-3 by caspases attenuates cell death by precluding arrestin-dependent JNK activation. [Journal Article]
- CSCell Signal 2018 Dec 04
- The two non-visual subtypes, arrestin-2 and arrestin-3, are ubiquitously expressed and bind hundreds of G protein-coupled receptors. In addition, these arrestins also interact with dozens of non-rece...
The two non-visual subtypes, arrestin-2 and arrestin-3, are ubiquitously expressed and bind hundreds of G protein-coupled receptors. In addition, these arrestins also interact with dozens of non-receptor signaling proteins, including c-Src, ERK and JNK, that regulate cell death and survival. Arrestin-3 facilitates the activation of JNK family kinases, which are important players in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that arrestin-3 is specifically cleaved at Asp366, Asp405 and Asp406 by caspases during the apoptotic cell death. This results in the generation of one main cleavage product, arrestin-3-(1-366). The formation of this fragment occurs in a dose-dependent manner with the increase of fraction of apoptotic cells upon etoposide treatment. In contrast to a caspase-resistant mutant (D366/405/406E) the arrestin-3-(1-366) fragment reduces the apoptosis of etoposide-treated cells. We found that caspase cleavage did not affect the binding of the arrestin-3 to JNK3, but prevented facilitation of its activation, in contrast to the caspase-resistant mutant, which facilitated JNK activation similar to WT arrestin-3, likely due to decreased binding of the upstream kinases ASK1 and MKK4/7. The data suggest that caspase-generated arrestin-3-(1-366) prevents the signaling in the ASK1-MKK4/7-JNK1/2/3 cascade and protects cells, thereby suppressing apoptosis.
- CCR2 Signaling Selectively Regulates IFN-α: Role of β-Arrestin 2 in IFNAR1 Internalization. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Immunol 2018 Nov 30
- An integral component of the antiviral response, type I IFNs require regulation to modulate immune activation. We identify β-arrestin 2 as a key modulator of type I IFN in primary human macrophages, ...
An integral component of the antiviral response, type I IFNs require regulation to modulate immune activation. We identify β-arrestin 2 as a key modulator of type I IFN in primary human macrophages, an essential component of the innate immune response. β-Arrestin 2 was selectively activated by CCL2/CCR2 signaling, which induced a decrease in IFN-α, but not IFN-β expression. Small interfering RNA knockdown of β-arrestin 2 demonstrated its role in IFNAR1 internalization, as well as STAT1 and IRF3 activation. As a result, cytokine responses were not propagated following HIV infection and TLR3 activation. However, remnants of IFN signaling remained intact, despite β-arrestin 2 activation, as IFN-β, IFN-γ, IFN-λ1, IRF7, TRAIL, and MxA expression were sustained. Similar effects of β-arrestin 2 on IFN signaling occurred in hepatocytes, suggesting that arrestins may broadly modulate IFN responses in multiple cell types. In summary, we identify a novel role of β-arrestin 2 as an integral regulator of type I IFN through its internalization of IFNAR1 and a subsequent selective loss of downstream IFN signaling.
- Beta-Arrestin1 Prevents Preeclampsia by Downregulation of Mechanosensitive AT1-B2 Receptor Heteromers. [Journal Article]
- CellCell 2018 Nov 20
- Preeclampsia is the most frequent pregnancy-related complication worldwide with no cure. While a number of molecular features have emerged, the underlying causal mechanisms behind the disorder remain...
Preeclampsia is the most frequent pregnancy-related complication worldwide with no cure. While a number of molecular features have emerged, the underlying causal mechanisms behind the disorder remain obscure. Here, we find that increased complex formation between angiotensin II AT1 and bradykinin B2, two G protein-coupled receptors with opposing effects on blood vessel constriction, triggers symptoms of preeclampsia in pregnant mice. Aberrant heteromerization of AT1-B2 led to exaggerated calcium signaling and high vascular smooth muscle mechanosensitivity, which could explain the onset of preeclampsia symptoms at late-stage pregnancy as mechanical forces increase with fetal mass. AT1-B2 receptor aggregation was inhibited by beta-arrestin-mediated downregulation. Importantly, symptoms of preeclampsia were prevented by transgenic ARRB1 expression or a small-molecule drug. Because AT1-B2 heteromerization was found to occur in human placental biopsies from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, specifically targeting AT1-B2 heteromerization and its downstream consequences represents a promising therapeutic approach.
- Ocean Acidification Impairs Foraging Behavior by Interfering With Olfactory Neural Signal Transduction in Black Sea Bream, Acanthopagrus schlegelii. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Physiol 2018; 9:1592
- In recent years, ocean acidification (OA) caused by oceanic absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) has drawn worldwide concern over its physiological and ecological effects on marine organi...
In recent years, ocean acidification (OA) caused by oceanic absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) has drawn worldwide concern over its physiological and ecological effects on marine organisms. However, the behavioral impacts of OA and especially the underlying physiological mechanisms causing these impacts are still poorly understood in marine species. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of elevated pCO2 on foraging behavior, in vivo contents of two important neurotransmitters, and the expression of genes encoding key modulatory enzymes from the olfactory transduction pathway were investigated in the larval black sea bream. The results showed that larval sea breams (length of 4.71 ± 0.45 cm) reared in pCO2 acidified seawater (pH at 7.8 and 7.4) for 15 days tend to stall longer at their acclimated zone and swim with a significant slower velocity in a more zigzag manner toward food source, thereby taking twice the amount of time than control (pH at 8.1) to reach the food source. These findings indicate that the foraging behavior of the sea bream was significantly impaired by ocean acidification. In addition, compared to a control, significant reductions in the in vivo contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and Acetylcholine (ACh) were detected in ocean acidification-treated sea breams. Furthermore, in the acidified experiment groups, the expression of genes encoding positive regulators, the olfaction-specific G protein (Golf) and the G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) and negative regulators, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) and arrestin in the olfactory transduction pathway were found to be significantly suppressed and up-regulated, respectively. Changes in neurotransmitter content and expression of olfactory transduction related genes indicate a significant disruptive effect caused by OA on olfactory neural signal transduction, which might reveal the underlying cause of the hampered foraging behavior.
- Functional selectivity profiling of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor using pathway-wide BRET signaling sensors. [Journal Article]
- SSSci Signal 2018 Dec 04; 11(559)
- G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important therapeutic targets that exhibit functional selectivity (biased signaling), in which different ligands or receptor variants elicit distinct downstrea...
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important therapeutic targets that exhibit functional selectivity (biased signaling), in which different ligands or receptor variants elicit distinct downstream signaling. Understanding all the signaling events and biases that contribute to both the beneficial and adverse effects of GPCR stimulation by given ligands is important for drug discovery. Here, we report the design, validation, and use of pathway-selective bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) biosensors that monitor the engagement and activation of signaling effectors downstream of G proteins, including protein kinase C (PKC), phospholipase C (PLC), p63RhoGEF, and Rho. Combined with G protein and β-arrestin BRET biosensors, our sensors enabled real-time monitoring of GPCR signaling at different levels in downstream pathways in both native and engineered cells. Profiling of the responses to 14 angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) ligands enabled the clustering of compounds into different subfamilies of biased ligands and showed that, in addition to the previously reported functional selectivity between Gαq and β-arrestin, there are also biases among G protein subtypes. We also demonstrated that biases observed at the receptor and G protein levels propagated to downstream signaling pathways and that these biases could occur through the engagement of different G proteins to activate a common effector. We also used these tools to determine how naturally occurring AT1R variants affected signaling bias. This suite of BRET biosensors provides a useful resource for fingerprinting biased ligands and mutant receptors and for dissecting functional selectivity at various levels of GPCR signaling.
- (3R, 3'R)-Zeaxanthin protects the retina from photo-oxidative damage via modulating the inflammation and visual health molecular markers. [Journal Article]
- COCutan Ocul Toxicol 2018 Dec 04; :1-23
- CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that OMX is a potent substance that can be used to protect photoreceptor cell degeneration in the retina exposed to intense light.
- Differential Effects of Posttranslational Modifications of CXCL8/Interleukin-8 on CXCR1 and CXCR2 Internalization and Signaling Properties. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 27; 19(12)
- CXCL8 or interleukin (IL)-8 directs neutrophil migration and activation through interaction with CXCR1 and CXCR2 that belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Naturally occurring ...
CXCL8 or interleukin (IL)-8 directs neutrophil migration and activation through interaction with CXCR1 and CXCR2 that belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Naturally occurring posttranslational modifications of the NH₂-terminal region of CXCL8 affect its biological activities, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partially understood. Here, we studied the implications of site-specific citrullination and truncation for the signaling potency of CXCL8. Native CXCL8(1-77), citrullinated [Cit5]CXCL8(1-77) and the major natural isoform CXCL8(6-77) were chemically synthesized and tested in internalization assays using human neutrophils. Citrullinated and truncated isoforms showed a moderately enhanced capacity to induce internalization of CXCR1 and CXCR2. Moreover, CXCL8-mediated activation of Gαi-dependent signaling through CXCR1 and CXCR2 was increased upon modification to [Cit5]CXCL8(1-77) or CXCL8(6-77). All CXCL8 variants promoted recruitment of β-arrestins 1 and 2 to CXCR1 and CXCR2. Compared to CXCL8(1-77), CXCL8(6-77) showed an enhanced potency to recruit β-arrestin 2 to both receptors, while for [Cit5]CXCL8(1-77) only the capacity to induce β-arrestin 2 recruitment to CXCR2 was increased. Both modifications had no biasing effect, i.e., did not alter the preference of CXCL8 to activate either Gαi-protein or β-arrestin-dependent signaling through its receptors. Our results support the concept that specific chemokine activities are fine-tuned by posttranslational modifications.
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- Sustained Melanopsin Photoresponse Is Supported by Specific Roles of β-Arrestin 1 and 2 in Deactivation and Regeneration of Photopigment. [Journal Article]
- CRCell Rep 2018 Nov 27; 25(9):2497-2509.e4
- Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are indispensable for non-image-forming visual responses that sustain under prolonged illumination. For sustained si...
Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are indispensable for non-image-forming visual responses that sustain under prolonged illumination. For sustained signaling of ipRGCs, the melanopsin photopigment must continuously regenerate. The underlying mechanism is unknown. We discovered that a cluster of Ser/Thr sites within the C-terminal region of mammalian melanopsin is phosphorylated after a light pulse. This forms a binding site for β-arrestin 1 (βARR1) and β-arrestin 2. β-arrestin 2 primarily regulates the deactivation of melanopsin; accordingly, βαrr2-/- mice exhibit prolonged ipRGC responses after cessation of a light pulse. β-arrestin 1 primes melanopsin for regeneration. Therefore, βαrr1-/- ipRGCs become desensitized after repeated or prolonged photostimulation. The lack of either β-arrestin attenuates ipRGC response under prolonged illumination, suggesting that β-arrestin 2-mediated deactivation and β-arrestin 1-dependent regeneration of melanopsin function in sequence. In conclusion, we discovered a molecular mechanism by which β-arrestins regulate different aspects of melanopsin photoresponses and allow ipRGC-sustained responses under prolonged illumination.