- Ellagic and ferulic acids protect arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity via regulating Nfe2l2, Ppargc1a and StAR expressions in testis. [Journal Article]
- TToxicology 2018 Nov 29
- Arsenic (As) - induced oxidative stress causes male reproductive toxicity apart from its other generalized systemic effects. Some phytochemicals through their antioxidant properties might help overco...
Arsenic (As) - induced oxidative stress causes male reproductive toxicity apart from its other generalized systemic effects. Some phytochemicals through their antioxidant properties might help overcome such toxic effects. The aim of the study was to elucidate the protective role of the selected phytochemicals, ellagic and ferulic acids against the As-induced reproductive toxicity. Forty two healthy male Swiss albino mice were randomly assigned to six groups (each @ n = 7). Group A served as the control, while group B received 200 ppm of As through drinking water. The group C and D mice were administered Per os (P.O) with 50 mg/kg BW of ellagic and ferulic acids, respectively on alternate days. Group E or F received 50 mg of ellagic or ferulic acid + 200 ppm of As for forty days. Ellagic and/ ferulic acid significantly reduced the accumulation of As, protein carbonylation (PC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) in addition to altering the antioxidant enzymes (CAT and SOD) activities, reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the testicular tissues. A significantly (p < 0.05) altered sperm functions (viability, functional membrane integrity, Δψm and CASA kinematics like total motility, rapid, progressive motile and type-A (STR > 80%, ALH > 2.5 µm) and testicular damage induced by the As were ameliorated (p < 0.05) by the phytochemical treatments. These phytochemicals due to their antioxidant activities were found to attenuate the As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities via regulating the expressions of Nfe2l2, StAR and Ppargc1a. The study revealed that ellagic and ferulic acids might be potential therapeutic options to protect the male reproductive system from As-poisoning.
- Alopecia and Associated Toxic Agents: A Systematic Review. [Review]
- SASkin Appendage Disord 2018; 4(4):245-260
- CONCLUSIONS: Numerous toxic agents have been implicated in alopecia, and the strength of evidence behind each agent varies. Toxic levels of thallium and colchicine have long been established to cause alopecia, as compared to agents such as botulinum toxin A and synthetic recreational drugs which have less literature describing their links to alopecia and will need further investigation to characterize their relationships to hair loss. Knowledge of typical presentations of hair loss will aid in the development of a differential diagnosis for patients presenting with alopecia.
- Homicidal poisoning in India: A short review. [Review]
- JFJ Forensic Leg Med 2018 Oct 23; 61:13-16
- This review has analysed various studies and case reports on homicide by poison from different parts of India till date. This review shows that homicidal poisoning prevalence varies from 0.3% to 3.7%...
This review has analysed various studies and case reports on homicide by poison from different parts of India till date. This review shows that homicidal poisoning prevalence varies from 0.3% to 3.7% having varied prevalence from different regions with no homicidal cases too. The poisons used in homicide were mainly organophosphates, aluminium phosphide, paraquat, and arsenic. No age-group or gender was spared and the perpetrators were first degree relatives.
- Study of the accumulation and distribution of arsenic species and association with arsenic toxicity in rats after 30 days of oral realgar administration. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 Oct 29
- CONCLUSIONS: After a single oral administration, the distribution and elimination of realgar in blood were slow, whereas it was rapidly absorbed and distributed in the liver, kidney and brain. Therefore, we recommend that realgar should not frequently used on a daily basis. Because the administration of a large dose of realgar did not display significant toxicity, we believe that the continuous administration of realgar for 30 days is safe in rats. In addition, hematology, biochemistry, and electrolyte levels and ECG should be monitored during realgar treatment. The accumulation and distribution of As species after 30 days of oral administration of realgar revealed that DMA and MMA are the main end products of As metabolism. Realgar-induced hepatotoxicity may be related to the accumulation of DMA and As(III). In addition, we speculate that nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity may occur when DMA accumulates to a certain high level.
- Living in poisoning environments: Invisible risks and human adaptation. [Journal Article]
- EAEvol Anthropol 2018; 27(5):188-196
- This article describes the hidden natural chemical contaminants present in a unique desert environment and their health consequences on ancient populations. Currently, millions of people are affected...
This article describes the hidden natural chemical contaminants present in a unique desert environment and their health consequences on ancient populations. Currently, millions of people are affected worldwide by toxic elements such as arsenic. Using data gathered from Atacama Desert mummies, we discuss long-term exposure and biocultural adaptation to toxic elements. The rivers that bring life to the Atacama Desert are paradoxically laden with arsenic and other minerals that are invisible and tasteless. High intake of these toxic elements results in severe health and behavioral problems, and even death. We demonstrate that Inca colonies, from Camarones 9 site, were significantly affected by chemical contaminants in their food and water. It appears however, some modern-day Andean populations resist the elevated levels of arsenic exposure as a result of positive selection mediated via the arsenic methyltransferase enzyme and display more tolerance to high chemical doses. This article further debate the effects of natural pollution and biocultural adaptation of past populations.
- Effective industrial regeneration of arsenic poisoning waste selective catalytic reduction catalyst: contaminants removal and activity recovery. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018; 25(34):34114-34122
- In this work, an environmental friendly industrial regeneration approach has been proposed to remove the surface poisoning and recover the catalytic activity of waste V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. Alkaline...
In this work, an environmental friendly industrial regeneration approach has been proposed to remove the surface poisoning and recover the catalytic activity of waste V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. Alkaline treatment and acid wash are combined for the waste catalyst regeneration process, which is applied for the arsenic and alkali metal removal, respectively. The crystal structure was well maintained as anatase phase and the surface area was increased during the regeneration, which is favorable for the following active component addition step and regenerated process. The XPS results illustrated that the surface contaminants (arsenic and sodium) were removed and V(IV) was loaded on the regenerated catalyst. Based on the deNOx evaluations, the catalytic activity of the regenerated sample is increased to the level of commercial fresh catalyst. The present industrial regeneration process provides a promising method for the comprehensive recovery of waste catalyst and further understanding in the field of secondary resource recycle.
- Fluoride activates microglia, secretes inflammatory factors and influences synaptic neuron plasticity in the hippocampus of rats. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotoxicology 2018; 69:108-120
- Epidemiological studies have reported that highly fluoridated drinking water may significantly decrease the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of exposed children. It is thought that synaptic plasticity is t...
Epidemiological studies have reported that highly fluoridated drinking water may significantly decrease the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of exposed children. It is thought that synaptic plasticity is the basis of learning and memory skills in developing children. However, the effect on synaptic plasticity by activated microglia induced via fluoride treatment is less clear. Our previous research showed that fluoride ions activated microglia which then released pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, hippocampal-dependent memory status was evaluated in rat models sub-chronically exposed to fluoride in their drinking water. Microglial activation in the hippocampus was examined using immunofluorescence staining and the expression of synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), Long-term potentiation (LTP) and the expression of Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methy-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR2 as well as N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NMDAR2β of exposed rats. We found that fluoride exposure activated microglia and increased the expression of DAP12 and TREM2, as well as promoted pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion via ERK/MAPK and P38/MAPK signal pathways. Furthermore fluoride depressed LTP and decreased PSD-95 protein levels as well as expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors GluR2 and NMDAR2β. We concluded that the role of fluoride on synaptic plasticity may be associated with neuroinflammation induced by microglia.
- [Pollution and Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Associated with the Operation of Former Toroku Mine in Takachiho Town, Miyazaki Prefecture]. [Journal Article]
- NENihon Eiseigaku Zasshi 2018; 73(3):275-276
- Japan has laws in place that are intended to reduce health risks from environmental pollution, including air pollution. On the basis of the "polluters pay" principle, these laws are designed to suppo...
Japan has laws in place that are intended to reduce health risks from environmental pollution, including air pollution. On the basis of the "polluters pay" principle, these laws are designed to support pollution victims. In Miyazaki Prefecture, people were chronically exposed to arsenic in Takachiho Town as a result of the operation of Toroku Mine. As a result of this pollution, the Miyazaki Prefectural Government has provided annual health checkups for residents since 1973. The examination consists of the following: blood test, urine test, body measurement, CT scan, respiratory test, hearing test, taste test, olfactory test, eye exam, neurological exam, internal exam, and skin exam. Test results are entered into the electronic database for chronic arsenic poisoning. In order to maintain public awareness of the danger of environmental pollution, we are engaging in a project to inform the public of our history of pollution and environmental restoration efforts. We also hope to help other Asian countries that are suffering from arsenic contamination of groundwater by providing support for trainees that are participating in JICA projects.
- A review on arsenic carcinogenesis: Epidemiology, metabolism, genotoxicity and epigenetic changes. [Review]
- RTRegul Toxicol Pharmacol 2018; 99:78-88
- Long-term exposure to arsenic (inorganic arsenic) is a world-wide environmental health concern. Arsenic is classified as the Group 1 human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cance...
Long-term exposure to arsenic (inorganic arsenic) is a world-wide environmental health concern. Arsenic is classified as the Group 1 human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Epidemiological studies have established a strong association between inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure in drinking water and an increased incidence of cancer including bladder, liver, lung, prostate, and skin cancer. iAs also increases the risk of other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes. The molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis of iAs remain poorly defined, several mechanisms have been proposed, including genotoxicity, altered cell proliferation, oxidative stress, changes to the epigenome, disturbances of signal transduction pathways, cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation. In this article, we will summarize current knowledge on the mechanisms of arsenic carcinogenesis and focus on integrating all these issues to garner a broader perspective.
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- The Largest Mass Poisoning in History: Arsenic Contamination of Well Water in Bangladesh. [Journal Article]
- SSkinmed 2018; 16(4):265-267
- Arsenic is a naturally occurring compound that is widely distributed in trace quantities in the environment. Levels toxic to humans have been found contaminating certain regions of the world and thei...
Arsenic is a naturally occurring compound that is widely distributed in trace quantities in the environment. Levels toxic to humans have been found contaminating certain regions of the world and their groundwater, leading to deleterious effects. In fact, an estimated 150 million people are affected by arsenic contamination worldwide.1 Arsenic poisoning leads to several adverse health effects, including cancer of the lung, bladder, and kidney, neurologic disorders, cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus.2 Skin lesions are a common manifestation of arsenic poisoning. Early findings include diffuse or spotted melanosis, leukomelanosis, and depigmentation. Years of chronic arsenic poisoning can lead to acral keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.3.