- The apoptosis in arsenic-induced oxidative stress is associated with autophagy in the testis tissues of chicken. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 May 14
- The aim of this study is to investigate whether arsenic (As) could induce testicular poisoning and influence the oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy in chickens. Seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-l...
The aim of this study is to investigate whether arsenic (As) could induce testicular poisoning and influence the oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy in chickens. Seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were divided into 4 groups which were exposed to 0, 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) for 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively. Histological and ultrastructural changes, antioxidant enzyme activity, mRNA and protein levels of apoptosis and autophagy-related genes were detected. Oxidative stress injuries were obvious in the testes exposure to As2O3, which resulted in the decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutases (SOD). Meanwhile, the changes of mRNA and protein levels of apoptosis and autophagy-related genes showed that As2O3 exposure induced enhanced testicular apoptosis and increased the levels of autophagy markers such as Microtubule associated protein light chains 3-II (LC3-II), dynein, Beclin-1, Autophagy associated gene 5 (ATG5) and ATG4B but not LC3-I and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and demonstrated the cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy. Histological and ultrastructural abnormalities confirm the changes of the above indicators. Taken together, our findings provide deeper insights into roles of excessive apoptosis and autophagy in the aggravation of testicular damage, which could contribute to a better understanding of As2O3-induced testicular poisoning in chickens.
- Two facets of world arsenic problem solution: crop poisoning restriction and enforcement of phytoremediation. [Review]
- PPlanta 2018 May 07
- CONCLUSIONS: This review provides insights into As toxicity in plants with focus on photosynthesis and sugar metabolism as important arsenic targets and simultaneously defence tools against accompanying oxidative stress. Heavy metal contamination is a great problem all over the world. Arsenic, a metalloid occurring naturally in the Earth's crust, also massively spreads out in the environment by human activities. Its accumulation in crops poses a severe health risk to humans and animals. Besides the restriction of human-caused contamination, there are two basic ways how to cope with the problem: first, to limit arsenic accumulation in harvestable parts of the crops; second, to make use of some arsenic hyperaccumulating plants for phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters. Progress in the use of both strategies depends strongly on the level of our knowledge on the physiological and morphological processes resulting from arsenic exposure. Arsenic uptake is mediated preferentially by P and Si transporters and its accumulation substantially impairs plant metabolism at numerous levels including damages through oxidative stress. Rice is a predominantly studied crop where substantial progress has been made in understanding of the mechanisms of arsenic uptake, distribution, and detoxification, though many questions still remain. Full exploitation of plant potential for soil and water phytoremediations also requires deep understanding of the plant response to this toxic metalloid. The aim of this review is to summarize data regarding the effect of arsenic on plant physiology with a focus on mechanisms providing increased arsenic tolerance and/or hyperaccumulation. The emphasis is placed on the topic unjustifiably neglected in the previous reviews - i.e., carbohydrate metabolism, tightly connected to photosynthesis, and beside others involved in plant ability to cope with arsenic-induced oxidative and nitrosative stresses.
- Aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. roots potentially attenuates arsenic induced biochemical and genotoxic effects in Wistar rats. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Tradit Complement Med 2018; 8(2):324-334
- In Africa, the fruit, leaf, seed and roots of Carica papaya Linn. are generally used to treat a variety of diseases such as malaria, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we evaluated t...
In Africa, the fruit, leaf, seed and roots of Carica papaya Linn. are generally used to treat a variety of diseases such as malaria, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the protective potentials of aqueous extract of C. papaya roots on arsenic-induced biochemical and genotoxic effects in Wistar rats. Rats were induced intraperitoneal with sodium arsenate (dissolved in distilled water at 3 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days and the animals were administered simultaneously with 200 mg/kg body weight vitamin C, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight of the C. papaya Linn. root aqueous extract once daily for three weeks. Results obtained reveals that activities of plasma 8-OHdG, serum lipids concentration, atherogenic index (AI), coronary artery index (CRI), aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin levels were elevated significantly (p < 0.05) and catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, plasma hematological profile were progressively reduced (p < 0.05) in arsenic-alone exposed rats. Significant increase in the quantity of chromosomal aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN) frequency, oxidative damages in the bone marrow cells from arsenic alone rats was observed. Though, mitotic index scores in these cells were progressively reduced (p < 0.05). In animals administered with aqueous extract of C. papaya roots and vitamin C, the altered parameters were significantly recovered towards the levels observed in normal control rats. These results suggest that aqueous C. papaya roots preparations might have therapeutic potential as a supplement that can be applied in arsenic poisoning.
- Arsenic and Other Elemental Concentrations in Mushrooms from Bangladesh: Health Risks. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 May 04; 15(5)
- Mushroom cultivation has been increasing rapidly in Bangladesh. Arsenic (As) toxicity is widespread in the world and Bangladesh faces the greatest havoc due to this calamity. Rice is the staple food ...
Mushroom cultivation has been increasing rapidly in Bangladesh. Arsenic (As) toxicity is widespread in the world and Bangladesh faces the greatest havoc due to this calamity. Rice is the staple food in Bangladesh and among all the crops grown, it is considered to be the main cause of As poisoning to its population after drinking water. Consequently, rice straw, an important growing medium of mushrooms in Bangladesh, is known to have high As content. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the concentrations of As in mushrooms cultivated in Bangladesh and to assess the health risk as well. It also considered other elements, including Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn concentrations in mushrooms from Bangladesh. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn in mushrooms were 0.51, 0.38, 0.28, 0.01, 13.7, 0.31, 11.7, 0.12, 0.28, and 53.5, respectively. Based on the dietary intake of mushrooms, the weekly intakes of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn from mushrooms for adults were 0.0042, 0.0030, 0.0024, 0.0001, 0.1125, 0.0019, 0.1116, 0.0011, 0.0023, and 0.4734 mg, respectively. Due to the low concentrations of As and other trace elements observed in mushrooms from Bangladesh, as well as relatively lower consumption of this food in people’s diet, it can be inferred that consumption of the species of mushrooms analysed will cause no toxicological risk.
- Thymoquinone alleviates arsenic induced hippocampal toxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction by modulating mPTP in Wistar rats. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018; 102:1152-1160
- Arsenic is a pervasive environmental pollutant that is found in ground waters globally and is related to numerous morbidities in the high-risk population areas in countries including Bangladesh, Indi...
Arsenic is a pervasive environmental pollutant that is found in ground waters globally and is related to numerous morbidities in the high-risk population areas in countries including Bangladesh, India, and the USA. Arsenic exposure has been ubiquitously reported for exacerbating free radical generation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis by interfering with the mPTP functioning. Over the past decades, nutraceuticals with antioxidant properties have shown promising efficacy in arsenic poisoning. In the present study, we have examined, the protective efficacy of thymoquinone (TQ), an active component of seed oil of Nigella sativa with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity on arsenic-induced toxicity in hippocampi of Wistar rats. In our results, arsenic conditioning (10 mg/kg b.wt.; p.o.) for 8 days has caused a significant increase in intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic events. On the contrary pretreatment with TQ (2.5 and 5 mg/kg b.wt.; p.o.) inhibited arsenic-induced mitochondrial dysfunction such as lowering of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). Our results indicated that the neuroprotective efficacy of TQ in arsenic-induced stress is mediated through or in part by inhibition of mPTP opening. Demonstration of neuroprotective action of TQ provides insight into the pathogenesis of arsenic-related neuropathological morbidities.
- miR-145 via targeting ERCC2 is involved in arsenite-induced DNA damage in human hepatic cells. [Journal Article]
- TLToxicol Lett 2018 Apr 26
- Arsenic, an established human carcinogen, causes genetic toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators that participate in fundamental cellula...
Arsenic, an established human carcinogen, causes genetic toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators that participate in fundamental cellular processes. In the present investigation, we selected, as research subjects, patients with arsenic poisoning caused by burning of coal in Guizhou Province, China. For these patients, the plasma levels of miR-145 were up-regulated. In L-02 cells, arsenite, an active form of arsenic, induced up-regulation of miR-145 and down-regulation of ERCC1 and ERCC2, and caused DNA damage. For L-02 cells, transfection with an miR-145 inhibitor prevented arsenite-induced DNA damage and decreased ERCC2 levels. Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-145 regulated ERCC2 expression by targeting the 3'-UTR of ERCC2, but not that for ERCC1. The present results demonstrate that arsenite induces the over-expression of miR-145 and inhibits DNA repair via targeting ERCC2, thus promoting DNA damage. The information provides a new mechanism for arsenic-induced liver injury.
- Poisoned Wine: Regulation, Chemical Analyses, and Spanish-French Trade in the 1930s. [Journal Article]
- AAmbix 2018 Apr 16; :1-23
- This paper describes the resources, scientific spaces, and experts involved in the study of a mass poisoning caused by the drinking of arsenic-contaminated wine exported from Spain to France in 1932....
This paper describes the resources, scientific spaces, and experts involved in the study of a mass poisoning caused by the drinking of arsenic-contaminated wine exported from Spain to France in 1932. Local and international periodicals record the poisoning of 300 French sailors, and stressed the commercial implications of the case. We discuss the reports prepared by different experts (mainly physicians, agricultural engineers, and customs chemists). Their work was not limited to preparing technical publications or chemical analyses; they also actively defended the quality of their local wine, and played a major role in the discussions regarding the regulation of the international wine market in the 1930s, when new standards regarding the analysis of wine were being considered. Curiously, this well-publicised case of mass poisoning did not have any noticeable consequences in the international regulation of wine. This absence of subsequent regulatory action and the role of experts are central topics of the paper.
- Poisoning histories in the Italian renaissance: The case of Pico Della Mirandola and Angelo Poliziano. [Historical Article]
- JFJ Forensic Leg Med 2018; 56:83-89
- Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Angelo Poliziano were two of the most important humanists of the Italian Renaissance. They died suddenly in 1494 and their deaths have been for centuries a subject o...
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Angelo Poliziano were two of the most important humanists of the Italian Renaissance. They died suddenly in 1494 and their deaths have been for centuries a subject of debate. The exhumation of their remains offered the opportunity to study the cause of their death through a multidisciplinary research project. Anthropological analyses, together with documentary evidences, radiocarbon dating and ancient DNA analysis supported the identification of the remains attributed to Pico. Macroscopic examination did not reveal paleopathological lesions or signs related to syphilis. Heavy metals analysis, carried out on bones and mummified tissues, showed that in Pico's remains there were potentially lethal levels of arsenic, supporting the philosopher's poisoning theory reported by documentary sources. The arsenic concentrations obtained from analysis of Poliziano's remains, are probably more related to an As chronic exposure or diagenetic processes rather than poisoning.
- [Analysis of Arsenic Compounds in Blood and Urine by HPLC-ICP-MS]. [Journal Article]
- FYFa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018; 34(1):37-43
- CONCLUSIONS: This study has established an analysis method for detecting 6 common arsenic compounds in blood and urine, which can be used to detect the arsenic compounds in the blood and urine from arsenic poisoning cases as well as the patients under arsenic treatment.
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- Phosphate starvation response controls genes required to synthesize the phosphate analog arsenate. [Journal Article]
- EMEnviron Microbiol 2018; 20(5):1782-1793
- Environmental arsenic poisoning affects roughly 200 million people worldwide. The toxicity and mobility of arsenic in the environment is significantly influenced by microbial redox reactions, with ar...
Environmental arsenic poisoning affects roughly 200 million people worldwide. The toxicity and mobility of arsenic in the environment is significantly influenced by microbial redox reactions, with arsenite (AsIII ) being more toxic than arsenate (AsV ). Microbial oxidation of AsIII to AsV is known to be regulated by the AioXSR signal transduction system and viewed to function for detoxification or energy generation. Here, we show that AsIII oxidation is ultimately regulated by the phosphate starvation response (PSR), requiring the sensor kinase PhoR for expression of the AsIII oxidase structural genes aioBA. The PhoRB and AioSR signal transduction systems are capable of transphosphorylation cross-talk, closely integrating AsIII oxidation with the PSR. Further, under PSR conditions, AsV significantly extends bacterial growth and accumulates in the lipid fraction to the apparent exclusion of phosphorus. This could spare phosphorus for nucleic acid synthesis or triphosphate metabolism wherein unstable arsenic esters are not tolerated, thereby enhancing cell survival potential. We conclude that AsIII oxidation is logically part of the bacterial PSR, enabling the synthesis of the phosphate analog AsV to replace phosphorus in specific biomolecules or to synthesize other molecules capable of a similar function, although not for total replacement of cellular phosphate.