- Antileukemic effect of paclitaxel in combination with metformin in HL-60 cell line. [Journal Article]
- GENEGene 2018 Mar 20; 647:213-220
- Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of AML that is a mixture of hematological malignancy, characterized by a specific translocation t(15;17). The using of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) w...
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of AML that is a mixture of hematological malignancy, characterized by a specific translocation t(15;17). The using of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with arsenic trioxide (ATO) or chemotherapeutic agents or both of these agents, composes main treatment strategy of APL. While it is possible to achieve success in treatment of low-risk APL with current treatment regimens, such success is not mentioned in high-risk APL. So, it may develop new approaches for treatment regimens for high-risk APL. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of combinational of a classic anticancer agent paclitaxel and antidiabetic agent metformin on HL-60 APL cell line. The combination dose of paclitaxel and metformin was determined by WST-1 analysis. The effect of combinational dose on apoptosis was assessed in fluorescence microscope after using AnnexinV-EGFP Apoptosis and JC-1 Assay Kit. The effect of combinational dose on cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation, and signaling pathways were determined investigating gene expression changes by using real time qRT-PCR. The combinational dose of paclitaxel and metformin was determined as 4.8nM and 398.7μM for 72h, respectively. The combination dose significantly increased apoptosis for 48h. In expression changes of genes associated cell cycle, apoptosis, cytokines, co-stimulator molecules, NF-kB and MAP/MAPK pathways, TLRs (Toll-like receptors) were found to be decreased or increased to provide apoptosis or differentiation. Consequently, we suggest that the combination of paclitaxel and metformin can be used as an option assessable for development of new treatment strategies for APL.
- Human health risks and socio-economic perspectives of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh: A scoping review. [Review]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Apr 15; 150:335-343
- Arsenic contamination of drinking water, which can occur naturally or because of human activities such as mining, is the single most important public health issue in Bangladesh. Fifty out of the 64 d...
Arsenic contamination of drinking water, which can occur naturally or because of human activities such as mining, is the single most important public health issue in Bangladesh. Fifty out of the 64 districts in the country have arsenic concentration of groundwater exceeding 50µgL-1, the Bangladeshi threshold, affecting 35-77 million people or 21-48% of the total population. Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water and other dietary sources is an important public health issue worldwide affecting hundreds of millions of people. Consequently, arsenic poisoning has attracted the attention of researchers and has been profiled extensively in the literature. Most of the literature has focused on characterising arsenic poisoning and factors associated with it. However, studies examining the socio-economic aspects of chronic exposure of arsenic through either drinking water or foods remain underexplored. The objectives of this paper are (i) to review arsenic exposure pathways to humans; (ii) to summarise public health impacts of chronic arsenic exposure; and (iii) to examine socio-economic implications and consequences of arsenicosis with a focus on Bangladesh. This scoping review evaluates the contributions of different exposure pathways by analysing arsenic concentrations in dietary and non-dietary sources. The socio-economic consequences of arsenicosis disease in Bangladesh are discussed in this review by considering food habits, nutritional status, socio-economic conditions, and socio-cultural behaviours of the people of the country. The pathways of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh include drinking water, various plant foods and non-dietary sources such as soil. Arsenic affected people are often abandoned by the society, lose their jobs and get divorced and are forced to live a sub-standard life. The fragile public health system in Bangladesh has been burdened by the management of thousands of arsenicosis victims in Bangladesh.
- The evaluation of total mercury and arsenic in skin bleaching creams commonly used in Trinidad and Tobago and their potential risk to the people of the Caribbean. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Public Health Res 2017 Dec 13; 6(3):1097
- CONCLUSIONS: All the samples analysed contained significant amounts of Mercury and Arsenic and none of them can be considered safe for prolonged human use. The samples that contained Mercury levels which were lower than the USFDA limit contained Arsenic levels which exceeded the EU standard of 0 Î¼g/g in cosmetics. The popularity of these skin lightening creams in the Caribbean region places the population at elevated risk of chronic Mercury and Arsenic poisoning and possibly acute Mercury Poisoning.
- Arsenic and/or copper caused inflammatory response via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway and triggered heat shock protein responses in testis tissues of chicken. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Dec 29
- The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) on the inflammatory response, and the protective roles of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in chicken testes. Seventy-two...
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) on the inflammatory response, and the protective roles of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in chicken testes. Seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were treated with 30 mg/kg feed of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) and/or 300 mg/kg feed of copper sulfate (CuSO4) for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The histological changes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, and the expressions of Hsps and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The results showed that slight histology changes were obvious in the testis tissue exposure to treatment groups. The activity and the protein level of iNOS were increased compared to the control group. The mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory factors were increased as a whole. However, anti-inflammatory cytokines were inhibited. The mRNA and protein levels of Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 were upregulated. These results suggested that sub-chronic exposure to As and/or Cu induced testicular poisoning in chickens. Increased Hsps tried to protect chicken testis tissues from tissues damage caused by inflammation. In conclusion, testicular poisoning induced by As and/or Cu caused inflammatory response and heat shock protein response in chicken testis tissues.
- Acetyl-l-carnitine attenuates arsenic-induced liver injury by abrogation of mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and apoptosis in rats. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Dec 12; 58:11-20
- Industrial and agricultural developments in recent years have resulted in the excessive discharge of arsenic into the environment, making arsenic toxicity a major worldwide concern. Oxidative stress ...
Industrial and agricultural developments in recent years have resulted in the excessive discharge of arsenic into the environment, making arsenic toxicity a major worldwide concern. Oxidative stress is considered the primary mechanism for arsenic toxicity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate acetyl-l-carnitine's (ALC) protective ability against the arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were distributed randomly into 5 groups of 8 rats each: control, arsenic (5 mg/kg) and arsenic plus ALC (5 mg/kg; 100, 200, 300 mg/kg). The animals were gavaged for 21 consecutive days. Liver tissue samples were extracted 24 h after the last treatment and were later analyzed for biochemical and histological alterations. The arsenic-induced oxidative damage was confirmed by elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation byproduct, as well as depletion in physiological antioxidant content such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Furthermore, alterations in mitochondrial functions including a significant decrease of mitochondrial outer membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation increase, mitochondrial swelling, release of cytochrome c and consequent activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and initiation of apoptosis, was observed following arsenic administration. Moreover, the inflammation was confirmed by the overexpression of inflammatory mediators such as NF-ĸB and IL-1 and IL-6. The present study demonstrated that ALC ameliorates arsenic-induced oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, inflammation and histological damage. ALC's protective features against arsenic hepatotoxicity may be due to this agent's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as its stabilizing effects on mitochondrial function.
- MicroRNA-191, regulated by HIF-2α, is involved in EMT and acquisition of a stem cell-like phenotype in arsenite-transformed human liver epithelial cells. [Journal Article]
- TVToxicol In Vitro 2017 Dec 24; 48:128-136
- Inorganic arsenic is widely distributed in the environment, and epidemiologic data show a strong association between arsenic exposure and risk of liver cancer. An understanding of the mechanisms unde...
Inorganic arsenic is widely distributed in the environment, and epidemiologic data show a strong association between arsenic exposure and risk of liver cancer. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying development of liver cancer and metastasis would be useful in reducing the incidence and mortality of liver cancer. MicroRNAs (miRs) act as regulators in liver cancer. Here, we show that acute or chronic exposure of human liver epithelial L-02 cells to arsenite increased expression of miR-191. There were decreased levels of BASP-1 and E-cadherin and increased levels of WT-1 and N-cadherin, indicating that arsenite induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, arsenite increased EpCAM and CD90 mRNA levels, showing the acquisition of stem cell-like properties by these cells. Suppression of miR-191 resulted in repression of EMT and reduced expression of stem-cell markers. Further, a miR-191 inhibitor blocked spheroid formation and production of side population cells. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that miR-191 was a target of HIF-2α, and inhibition of miR-191 decreased the neoplastic and metastatic properties of arsenite-transformed L-02 cells. Thus, in arsenite-transformed liver epithelial cells, transcriptional activation of the miR-191 promoter by HIF-2α is involved in EMT and in the acquisition of a stem cell-like phenotype.
- Inhibition of STAT3/VEGF/CDK2 axis signaling is critically involved in the antiangiogenic and apoptotic effects of arsenic herbal mixture PROS in non-small lung cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2017 Nov 24; 8(60):101771-101783
- Despite the antitumor effects of asrsenic trioxide (As2O3), tetraarsenic hexoxide (As4O6 or PR) and tetraarsenic tetrasulfide (As4S4) in several cancers, their adverse poisoning, toxicity and resista...
Despite the antitumor effects of asrsenic trioxide (As2O3), tetraarsenic hexoxide (As4O6 or PR) and tetraarsenic tetrasulfide (As4S4) in several cancers, their adverse poisoning, toxicity and resistance are still hot issues for effective cancer therapy. Here, antitumor mechanism of arsenic herbal mixture PROS including PR and OS (Oldenlandia diffusa and Salvia miltiorrhiza extract) was elucidated in non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLCs), since PR alone showed resistant cytotoxicity in NSCLCs compared to other cancers. PROS exerted significant cytotoxicity, induced sub-G1 phase and S phase arrest, increased apoptotic bodies, and attenuated the expression of pro-PARP, Bcl-2, Cyclin E, Cyclin A, CDK2, E2F1, p-Src, p-STAT3, p-ERK, p-AKT, COX-2 and SOCS-1 in A549 and H460 cells along with disrupted binding of STAT3 with CDK2 or VEGF. Notably, PROS inhibited VEGF induced proliferation, migration and tube formation in HUVECs and suppressed angiogenesis in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay via reduced phosphorylation of VEGFR2, Src and STAT3. Consistently, PROS reduced the growth of H460 cells implanted in BALB/c athymic nude mice via inhibition of STAT3, and VEGF and activation of caspase 3. Overall, these findings suggest that PROS exerts antiangiogenic and apoptotic effects via inhibition of STAT3/ VEGF/ CDK2 axis signaling as a potent anticancer agent for lung cancer treatment.
- Acetyl-L-Carnitine Attenuates Arsenic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hippocampal Mitochondrial Dysfunction. [Journal Article]
- BTBiol Trace Elem Res 2017 Nov 30
- Augmentation of mitochondrial oxidative stress through activating a series of deadly events has implicated as the main culprit of arsenic toxicity and therapeutic approaches based on improving mitoch...
Augmentation of mitochondrial oxidative stress through activating a series of deadly events has implicated as the main culprit of arsenic toxicity and therapeutic approaches based on improving mitochondrial function hold a great promise for attenuating the arsenic-induced toxicity. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) through balancing the coenzyme A (CoA)/acyl-CoA ratio plays an important role in mitochondrial metabolism and thereby can help protect hippocampal neurons from oxidative damage. In the present study, we aimed to explore the effect of arsenic interactions on the mitochondrial function in the hippocampus of rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups of control (distilled water), sodium arsenite (NaAsO2, 20 mg/kg), and co-treatment of NaAsO2with various doses of ALC in three groups (100, 200, 300 mg/kg) and were treated orally for 21 consecutive days. Our results point out that arsenic exposure caused oxidative stress in rats' hippocampus, which led to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial swelling, the collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and release of cytochrome c. It also altered Bcl-2/Bax expression ratio and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities. Furthermore, arsenic exposure via activation of NF-κB and microglia increased inflammation. ALC could concentration-dependently counteract the arsenic-induced oxidative stress, modulate the antioxidant defense capacity, and improve mitochondrial functions. In addition, ALC decreased the expression of both death-associated proteins and of inflammatory markers. These findings indicate that ALC improved the arsenic-induced hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction which underlines the importance of ALC in providing a possible therapeutic strategy for the prevention of arsenic-induced neurodegeneration.
- Effects of Nrf2 deficiency on arsenic metabolism in mice. [Journal Article]
- TAToxicol Appl Pharmacol 2017 Dec 15; 337:111-119
- Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a known toxicant and carcinogen. Worldwide arsenic exposure has become a threat to human health. The severity of arsenic toxicity is strongly correlated with the speed of a...
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a known toxicant and carcinogen. Worldwide arsenic exposure has become a threat to human health. The severity of arsenic toxicity is strongly correlated with the speed of arsenic metabolism (methylation) and clearance. Furthermore, oxidative stress is recognized as a major mechanism for arsenic-induced toxicity. Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key regulator in cellular adaptive antioxidant response, is clearly involved in alleviation of arsenic-induced oxidative damage. Multiple studies demonstrate that Nrf2 deficiency mice are more vulnerable to arsenic-induced intoxication. However, what effect Nrf2 deficiency might have on arsenic metabolism in mice is still unknown. In the present study, we measured the key enzymes involved in arsenic metabolism in Nrf2-WT and Nrf2-KO mice. Our results showed that basal transcript levels of glutathione S-transferase omega 2 (Gsto2) were significantly higher and GST mu 1 (Gstm1) lower in Nrf2-KO mice compared to Nrf2-WT control. Arsenic speciation and methylation rate in liver and urine was then studied in mice treated with 5mg/kg sodium arsenite for 12h. Although there were some alterations in arsenic metabolism enzymes between Nrf2-WT and Nrf2-KO mice, the Nrf2 deficiency had no significant effect on arsenic methylation. These results suggest that the Nrf2-KO mice are more sensitive to arsenic than Nrf2-WT mainly because of differences in adaptive antioxidant detoxification capacity rather than arsenic methylation capacity.
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- Forensic Features of Clothing-Related Deaths: Historical and Cultural Aspects. [Historical Article]
- AJAm J Forensic Med Pathol 2017; 38(4):318-322
- Clothing may both cause death and contribute to ongoing lethal mechanisms by a variety of quite disparate mechanisms. The manner of death may be accidental, suicidal, or homicidal. Accidental deaths ...
Clothing may both cause death and contribute to ongoing lethal mechanisms by a variety of quite disparate mechanisms. The manner of death may be accidental, suicidal, or homicidal. Accidental deaths include burning from clothing catching on fire, strangulation from clothing tangling in vehicle wheels or exposed machinery, and drowning. Entanglement of clothing in machinery may also result in significant injuries, which are not uncommon in farming communities. Excessive clothing, or its absence, may significantly alter body temperature, and hanging from clothing is a feature in the young or in mentally or physically handicapped adults, or in adults who are intoxicated with alcohol or drugs. In previous years, potentially lethal amounts of arsenic were present in clothing and accessories from dyes. Clothing may also be used to form nooses or to pad ropes in suicides and may be used in cases of strangulation, suffocation, or choking in homicides. The contribution of clothing to mortality has changed over the years with changes in fashions and in manufacturing techniques. Geographical differences in clothing-related deaths persist because of variable social and cultural practices and legislative frameworks.