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- Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases. [Review]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:1048
- Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), mainly present in immune cells, epithelial cells, and brain cells, manifests as an intracellular non-receptor enzyme that modulates inflammation and epithelial integrity. ...
Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), mainly present in immune cells, epithelial cells, and brain cells, manifests as an intracellular non-receptor enzyme that modulates inflammation and epithelial integrity. Inhibition of PDE4 is predicted to have diverse effects via the elevation of the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the subsequent regulation of a wide array of genes and proteins. It has been identified that PDE4 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of diverse pulmonary, dermatological, and severe neurological diseases. Over the past decades, numerous PDE4 inhibitors have been designed and synthesized, among which roflumilast, apremilast, and crisaborole were approved for the treatment of inflammatory airway diseases, psoriatic arthritis, and atopic dermatitis, respectively. It is regrettable that the dramatic efficacies of a drug are often accompanied by adverse effects, such as nausea, emesis, and gastrointestinal reactions. However, substantial advances have been made to mitigate the adverse effects and obtain better benefit-to-risk ratio. This review highlights the dialectical role of PDE4 in drug discovery and the disquisitive details of certain PDE4 inhibitors to provide an overview of the topics that still need to be addressed in the future.
- PDE4 Inhibition and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Novel Therapeutic Avenue. [Review]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2017 Jun 15; 18(6)
- CONCLUSIONS: In light of the similarity of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways across the gut, the skin, and joints, apremilast is likely supposed to show its efficacy also in IBD.
- Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors in Immune-mediated Diseases: Mode of Action, Clinical Applications, Current and Future Perspectives. [Review]
- CMCurr Med Chem 2017; 24(28):3054-3067
- Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 is a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), an intracellular second messenger and regulator of a wide array of g...
Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 is a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), an intracellular second messenger and regulator of a wide array of genes and proteins. Increased levels of intracellular cAMP lead to activation of genes but also to inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, involved in pro-inflammatory responses. By increasing cAMP levels, PDE4 inhibitors, such as apremilast, reduced production of pro-inflammatory TNFα, IFNγ, and IL-17 and increased production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Among PDE4 inhibitors, apremilast, roflumilast, and crisabolore have been approved for the treatment of psoriasis and PsA, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and atopic dermatitis, respectively. In a preliminary study on psoriasis and PsA we showed that at 6 months apremilast decreased IFNγ+CD3+ Th1 cells and IL- 17+CD3+ Th17 cells and increased regulatory B cells and regulatory T cells. In this review, we highlight recent findings of PDE4 inhibitors in atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, uveitis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and PsA, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, systemic sclerosis, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Given the role of cAMP as second messenger in diverse intracellular pathways, selective PDE4 inhibitors are likely to be therapeutic agents for various immune mediated diseases.
- Perturbed Mucosal Immunity and Dysbiosis Accompany Clinical Disease in a Rat Model of Spondyloarthritis. [Journal Article]
- ARArthritis Rheumatol 2016; 68(9):2151-62
- CONCLUSIONS: HLA-B27/β2 m expression in this rat model renders the host hyperresponsive to microbial antigens from infancy. Early activation of innate immunity and expansion of a mucosal Th17 signature are soon followed by dysbiosis in HLA-B27/β2 m-Tg animals. The pathologic processes of perturbed mucosal immunity and dysbiosis strongly merit further study in both prediseased and diseased populations of patients with SpA.
- Decreased Serotonin Levels and Serotonin-Mediated Osteoblastic Inhibitory Signaling in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Bone Miner Res 2016; 31(3):630-9
- Evidence suggests that serotonin is an inhibitor of bone formation. We aimed to assess: 1) serum serotonin levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a prototype bone-forming disease, compa...
Evidence suggests that serotonin is an inhibitor of bone formation. We aimed to assess: 1) serum serotonin levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a prototype bone-forming disease, compared with patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy subjects; 2) the effect(s) of TNFα blockers on serum serotonin levels in patients with AS and RA; and 3) the effect(s) of serum of AS patients on serotonin signaling. Serum serotonin levels were measured in 47 patients with AS, 28 patients with RA, and 40 healthy subjects by radioimmunoassay; t test was used to assess differences between groups. The effect of serum on serotonin signaling was assessed using the human osteoblastic cell line Saos2, evaluating levels of phospho-CREB by Western immunoblots. Serotonin serum levels were significantly lower in patients with AS compared with healthy subjects (mean ± SEM ng/mL 122.9 ± 11.6 versus 177.4 ± 24.58, p = 0.038) and patients with RA (mean ± SEM ng/mL 244.8 ± 37.5, p = 0.0004). Patients with AS receiving TNFα blockers had significantly lower serotonin levels compared with patients with AS not on such treatment (mean ± SEM ng/mL 95.8 ± 14.9 versus 149.2 ± 16.0, p = 0.019). Serotonin serum levels were inversely correlated with pCREB induction in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. Serotonin levels are low in patients with AS and decrease even further during anti-TNFα treatment. Differences in serotonin levels are shown to have a functional impact on osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. Therefore, serotonin may be involved in new bone formation in AS.
- Prostaglandin E2-induced IL-23p19 subunit is regulated by cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and C/AATT enhancer-binding protein β in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Chem 2012 Oct 26; 287(44):36922-35
- We reported previously that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) up-regulates IL-23 in vitro in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and in vivo in models of collagen-induced arthritis and inflammatory bowel disea...
We reported previously that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) up-regulates IL-23 in vitro in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and in vivo in models of collagen-induced arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease, leading to preferential Th17 development and activity. There is very little information on the molecular mechanisms involved in the PGE2-induced up-regulation of Il23a gene expression. In this study we investigated the signaling pathways and transcription factors involved in the stimulatory effect of PGE2. Although PGE2 does not induce IL-23p19 expression by itself, it synergizes with both extra- and intracellular Toll-like receptor ligands and with inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα. We established that the effect of PGE2 in conjunction with either LPS or TNFα is mediated through the EP4 receptor and the cAMP-dependent activation of both protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC). Using the EP4 agonist PGE(1)OH in conjunction with TNFα, we found that PKA-induced phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein ((P)CREB) and EPAC-induced phosphorylation of C/AATT enhancer-binding protein β ((P)C/EBPβ) mediate the stimulatory effect of PGE2 on IL-23p19 expression. This is the first report of CREB and C/EBPβ involvement in Il23a promoter activation. Mutation within the putative CREB and C/EBP sites combined with in vivo DNA binding (ChIP) assays identified the distal CREB site (-1125) and the two proximal C/EBP sites (-274 and -232) as essential for PKA-activated CREB and EPAC-activated C/EBPβ-induced IL-23p19 expression.
- In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of Polygonum hydropiper methanol extract. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2012 Jan 31; 139(2):616-25
- CONCLUSIONS: Ph-ME exerts strong anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing Src/Syk/NF-κB and IRAK/AP-1/CREB pathways, which contribute to its major ethno-pharmacological role as an anti-gastritis remedy.
- The anti-inflammatory target A(3) adenosine receptor is over-expressed in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and Crohn's disease. [Journal Article]
- CICell Immunol 2009; 258(2):115-22
- The Gi protein associated A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) was recently defined as a novel anti-inflammatory target. The aim of this study was to look at A(3)AR expression levels in peripheral blood ...
The Gi protein associated A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) was recently defined as a novel anti-inflammatory target. The aim of this study was to look at A(3)AR expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases and to explore transcription factors involved receptor expression. Over-expression of A(3)AR was found in PBMCs derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis and Crohn's disease compared with PBMCs from healthy subjects. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated the presence of DNA binding sites for nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) in the A(3)AR gene promoter. Up-regulation of NF-kappaB and CREB was found in the PBMCs from patients with RA, psoriasis and Crohn's disease. The PI3K-PKB/Akt signaling pathway, known to regulate both the NF-kappaB and CREB, was also up-regulated in the patients' PBMCs. Taken together, NF-kappaB and CREB are involved with the over-expression of A(3)AR in patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases. The receptor may be considered as a specific target to combat inflammation.
- Human Th17 cell clones and natural immune responses. [Review]
- AIAllergol Int 2008; 57(2):135-40
- Immunomodulators such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and forskolin change the nature of dendritic cells (DCs) to induce Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively, thereby designated Th1 or Th2 adjuvants. Recent ...
Immunomodulators such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and forskolin change the nature of dendritic cells (DCs) to induce Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively, thereby designated Th1 or Th2 adjuvants. Recent studies showed that Th17-inducing activity can be carried by certain polysaccharides such as beta-glucan derived from Candia albicans. Such activities can be scrutinized by using MLR, cAMP and possibly, differential expression of Notch ligand isoforms. In this review article, we also introduce an effective method to establish human Th17 cell clones and a transcriptome analysis using human Th subpopulations. In vivo relevance to human Th17 responses is discussed.
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- Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors and inflammatory bowel disease: emerging therapies in inflammatory bowel disease. [Review]
- EOExpert Opin Investig Drugs 2007; 16(9):1489-506
- Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC) are common, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) characterized by episodes of life-altering symptoms such as diarrhea, bleeding, fecal urgency and in...
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC) are common, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) characterized by episodes of life-altering symptoms such as diarrhea, bleeding, fecal urgency and incontinence, abdominal pain and cramps, and fever lasting weeks to months at a time. Existing treatments are 5-aminosalicyclates or immunosuppressants, but long-term control of IBD is a major problem for a large number of patients. Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a key enzyme in cell homeostasis and inflammation and its inhibition has been useful in diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. This review focuses on the role of oxidative stress in IBD and the PDE4 inhibitor OPC-6535 (tetomilast), an investigational agent for the treatment of UC. The authors detail the clinical development of the compound and report and provide insight into some of the unpublished data from the recently completed multicenter Phase III trials in UC.