- Prevalence, intensity and risk factors of tungiasis in Kilifi County, Kenya: I. Results from a community-based study. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017; 11(10):e0005925
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that in rural Kenya characteristics of poverty determine the occurrence and the severity of tungiasis. Intra-domiciliary transmission seems to occur regularly.
- The prevalence and association with health-related quality of life of tungiasis and scabies in schoolchildren in southern Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017; 11(8):e0005808
- CONCLUSIONS: Tungiasis is highly prevalent in schoolchildren in the part of Ethiopia where the study was conducted and is associated with a deleterious effect on quality of life. The role of footwear in both preventing and possibly exacerbating cutaneous ailments in this setting requires further study.
- Evaluation of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for sarcoptic mange diagnosis and assessment in the Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2016 Oct 21; 9(1):558
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ELISA C was an optimal test to diagnose sarcoptic mange in the Iberian ibex. Further studies characterizing immune response during the course of the disease, including spontaneous or drug induced recovery, should follow in order to better understand sarcoptic mange in Iberian ibex populations.
- [Main parasitic skin disorders]. [Review]
- RMRev Med Interne 2017; 38(1):17-27
- Cutaneous parasitic skin diseases are frequent in human pathology. There are few reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence and/or incidence of such diseases. Skin parasites are cosmopolitan but...
Cutaneous parasitic skin diseases are frequent in human pathology. There are few reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence and/or incidence of such diseases. Skin parasites are cosmopolitan but their global distribution is heterogenous; prevalence is especially high in subtropical and tropical countries. They are mainly due to arthropods (insects and mites). Many species of parasites are involved, explaining the diversity of their clinical signs. The most common are caused by ectoparasites such as scabies or pediculosis (head lice, body lice and pubic lice). Clinical signs may be related to the penetration of the parasite under the skin, its development, the inoculation of venom or allergic symptoms. Diagnosis can be easy when clinical signs are pathognomonic (e.g. burrows in the interdigital web spaces in scabies) or sometimes more difficult. Some epidemiological characteristics (diurnal or nocturnal bite, seasonality) and specific clinical presentation (single or multiple bites, linear or grouped lesions) can be a great diagnostic help. Modern non-invasive tools (dermoscopy or confocal microscopy) will play an important role in the future but the eye and experience of the specialist (dermatologist, parasitologist, infectious disease specialist or entomologist) remains for the time the best way to guide or establish a diagnosis. For most skin parasites, therapeutic proposals are rarely based on studies of high level of evidence or randomized trials but more on expert recommendations or personal experience.
- The Basophil Activation Test Is Not a Useful Screening Tool for Hymenoptera Venom-Related Anaphylaxis in Patients with Systemic Mastocytosis. [Journal Article]
- IAInt Arch Allergy Immunol 2016; 169(2):125-9
- CONCLUSIONS: The BAT is not a reliable tool for randomly screening SM patients for HVA.
- The crucial role of IL-22 and its receptor in thymus and activation regulated chemokine production and T-cell migration by house dust mite extract. [Journal Article]
- EDExp Dermatol 2016; 25(8):598-603
- House dust mite (HDM) is known as one of the factors that causes atopic dermatitis (AD). Interleukin (IL)-22 and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC) are related to skin inflammatory dise...
House dust mite (HDM) is known as one of the factors that causes atopic dermatitis (AD). Interleukin (IL)-22 and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC) are related to skin inflammatory disease and highly expressed in AD lesions. However, the effects of HDM on IL-22 production in T cells and on TARC production and IL-22Rα receptor expression in keratinocytes are unknown. To identify the role of HDM in keratinocytes and T cells, we investigated IL-22Rα expression and TARC production in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and IL-22 production in T cells treated with HDM extract as well as their roles in HDM-induced skin inflammation. HDM extract not only increased IL-22Rα expression and TARC production in HaCaT but also enhanced IL-22, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ production in T cells. The HDM extract-induced IL-22 from T cells significantly increased the production of IL-1α, IL-6 and TARC in HaCaT cells. In addition, we found that TARC produced in HDM extract-treated HaCaT induced T-cell recruitment. These results suggest that there is a direct involvement of HDM extract-induced IL-22 in TARC production and T-cell migration. Taken together, TARC production in HaCaT through the interaction between IL-22 and IL-22Rα facilitates T-cell migration. These data show one of the reasons for inflammation in the skin lesions of AD patients.
- Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Scabies Mite Provides Insight into the Genetic Diversity of Individual Scabies Infections. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016; 10(2):e0004384
- The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is an obligate parasite of the skin that infects humans and other animal species, causing scabies, a contagious disease characterized by extreme itching. Scabies ...
The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is an obligate parasite of the skin that infects humans and other animal species, causing scabies, a contagious disease characterized by extreme itching. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where co-infection of epidermal scabies lesions by Group A Streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus is thought to be responsible for the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We collected and separately sequenced mite DNA from several pools of thousands of whole mites from a porcine model of scabies (S. scabiei var. suis) and two human patients (S. scabiei var. hominis) living in different regions of northern Australia. Our sequencing samples the mite and its metagenome, including the mite gut flora and the wound micro-environment. Here, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the scabies mite. We developed a new de novo assembly pipeline based on a bait-and-reassemble strategy, which produced a 14 kilobase mitochondrial genome sequence assembly. We also annotated 35 genes and have compared these to other Acari mites. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used these to infer the presence of six haplogroups in our samples, Remarkably, these fall into two closely-related clades with one clade including both human and pig varieties. This supports earlier findings that only limited genetic differences may separate some human and animal varieties, and raises the possibility of cross-host infections. Finally, we used these mitochondrial haplotypes to show that the genetic diversity of individual infections is typically small with 1-3 distinct haplotypes per infestation.
- Skin lesions in returning travellers. [Review]
- IMInt Marit Health 2015; 66(3):173-80
- Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destin...
Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers.
- Evaluation of an ELISA using recombinant Ssλ20ΔB3 antigen for the serological diagnosis of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in domestic and wild rabbits. [Journal Article]
- VPVet Parasitol 2015 Dec 15; 214(3-4):315-21
- An ELISA, based on the Sarcoptes scabiei Ssλ20ΔB3 inmunodominant antigen, was evaluated for the detection of antibodies to S. scabiei in experimentally infested (n=10), farm (n=109), and wild (n=78) ...
An ELISA, based on the Sarcoptes scabiei Ssλ20ΔB3 inmunodominant antigen, was evaluated for the detection of antibodies to S. scabiei in experimentally infested (n=10), farm (n=109), and wild (n=78) rabbit sera. The S. scabiei antigen Ssλ20ΔB3, a major structural protein present over the entire mite's body, was produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified for its use in the ELISA. The resulting ELISA showed, in experimentally infested domestic rabbits, detectable specific antibody responses (IgG) above the cut off level from week three post-infestation indicating that the assay is able to detect positive rabbits very early during the course of the infestation. The ELISA was validated on a panel of 109 domestic breeding rabbit sera collected from 26 Spanish farms, of which 41 were obtained from rabbits with skin lesions compatible with sarcoptic mange, 26 with skin lesions compatible with psoroptic mange, and 42 from unexposed individuals from mange-free farms. The ELISA in this group was characterized by 95% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and a high degree of repeatability. In the psoroptic mange compatible lesions group, included in the study as control group for cross-reactivity with the closely related mite Psoroptes cuniculi, cross-reacting antibodies to Ssλ20ΔB3 S. scabiei antigen were detected in 42.30% of the rabbit sera. However, mean% OD values of the sarcoptic-mange group (55.61 ± 39.20%) were significantly higher (p<0.001) than OD values of the psoroptic-mange (3.64% ± 5.4%) and also of the free-mange (0.21% ± 0.67%) groups. In addition, the ELISA was also evaluated in serum samples obtained from both naturally infested and non-infested wild rabbits from Mallorca Island. The sensitivity of the assay for this group was 100% (4 out of the 4 rabbits with sarcoptic mange compatible lesions and presence of S. scabiei mites were seropositive) and the specificity was 90% (67 out of 74 wild rabbits without detectable mange lesions were seronegative). Although, the total number of tested samples from experimentally infested, farm and wild rabbits was limited, our study showed that the ELISA is able to differentiate between infested and non-infested animals in all tested groups with very high sensitivity and specificity indicating that recombinant Ssλ20ΔB3 is a reliable diagnostic antigen. This assay might be a cost-effective tool for detecting the presence of mangy animals and therefore helping prevent spread of mange among domestic rabbits, reducing potential transmission from female breeding rabbits to other farms, and detecting infestation with sarcoptic mange in the wild.
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- [Management of skin lesions in returning travelers]. [Journal Article]
- RPRev Prat 2015; 65(4):497-501
- Dermatoses in returning travellers are common. These dermatoses are mainly infectious, the most common being bacterial infections of cosmopolitan origin (cellulitis, pyoderma and abcess). Others derm...
Dermatoses in returning travellers are common. These dermatoses are mainly infectious, the most common being bacterial infections of cosmopolitan origin (cellulitis, pyoderma and abcess). Others dermatoses are environmental diseases such as sunburns, arthropod-related reactions and superficial injuries. The most common tropical skin disease is hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans but treating physicians may also face patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, tungiasis, or myiasis. Also some systemic infections can be associated with skin manifestations. The most useful treatments in this setting are oral antihistamines, topical steroids, antibiotics effective against bacterial skin infection, booster for tetanus immunization, and rabies vaccination in case of animal exposure.