- CD22 and CD72 cooperatively contribute to the development of the reverse Arthus reaction model. [Journal Article]J Dermatol Sci 2019; 95(1):36-43JD
- CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that CD22 and CD72 expression contribute to the development of the reverse Arthus reaction model and CD22 and CD72 might be therapeutic targets for human IC-mediated diseases.
- A preclinical study-systemic evaluation of safety on mesenchymal stem cells derived from human gingiva tissue. [Journal Article]Stem Cell Res Ther 2019; 10(1):165SC
- CONCLUSIONS: GMSCs are safe in various animal models of autoimmunity, even during active disease episodes, especially in monkeys. This study paves a solid road for future clinical trials of GMSCs in patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
- The vaccines-associated Arthus reaction. [Journal Article]Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019; :1-9HV
- The Arthus reaction is a rare adverse reaction that usually occurs after vaccination with large and more severe local reactions, belonging to type Ⅲ hypersensitivity reaction. This reaction is characterized by pain, swelling, induration (Tissue that becomes firm) and edema, even accompanied by severe necrosis or ulceration at the injection sites. However, most of mild cases generally can be cured…
The Arthus reaction is a rare adverse reaction that usually occurs after vaccination with large and more severe local reactions, belonging to type Ⅲ hypersensitivity reaction. This reaction is characterized by pain, swelling, induration (Tissue that becomes firm) and edema, even accompanied by severe necrosis or ulceration at the injection sites. However, most of mild cases generally can be cured without treatment, and only severe cases need to be treated with anti-allergy. Therefore, this adverse reaction is often ignored by people. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Chinese database (CNKI database and Wan Fang database) for published studies using the terms "Arthus reaction" or "Arthus phenomenon", combined with "vaccine", with no date or language restrictions for all publications before January 28, 2019. Only 30 cases of Arthus reaction were found, of which only one case died.4 cases of Arthus reaction post-dose-1 were reported in the review. The proportion of Arthus reaction occurred after the first, second and third injections in those case reports was 13.3%, 50.0%, and 23.3%, respectively. Arthus reaction was determined according to the clinical symptoms (The symptoms which were observed by the researchers, such as red, swelling and painful with itching at or around the injection sites). The specific causes of Arthus reaction after one dose of vaccination are not described in detail in literatures. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that the case has a pre-existing specific IgG (Such as pre-existing antibody, etc.) to cause the Arthus reaction. And 17 reported cases were observed in children younger than 6 y. In addition, we collected only 18 cases of bacterial vaccine-induced Arthus reaction and 12 cases of viral vaccines. However, there are no other data (Such as the total number and incidence rate of vaccination) in literatures, so we cannot compare statistically significant differences. At presents, no previous reviews of vaccine-induced Arthus reaction have been found. Thus, a systematic review about vaccine-associated Arthus reaction is urgently needed to deepen people's understanding and concern of this phenomenon. In this manuscript, we retrospectively reviewed the description of the discovery process and mechanisms of Arthus reaction, a description of the characteristics of Arthus reaction cases, reporting the Arthus reaction cases in China during 2010-2015, diagnostic criteria and general treatment, preventive measures of Arthus reaction, and challenges remaining to be investigated in the future.
- TLT-1-CONTROLS EARLY THROMBUS FORMATION AND STABILITY BY FACILITATING AIIBB3 OUTSIDE-IN SIGNALING IN MICE. [Journal Article]Int J Adv Res (Indore) 2018; 6(3):1143-1149IJ
- Platelets regulate inflammation as well as hemostasis. Inflammatory insults often induce hemostatic function through mechanisms that are not always understood. The triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM)-like transcript 1 (TLT-1) is an abundantly expressed platelet receptor and its deletion leads to hemorrhage and edema after lipopolysaccharide and TNF-α treatment. To define a role …
Platelets regulate inflammation as well as hemostasis. Inflammatory insults often induce hemostatic function through mechanisms that are not always understood. The triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM)-like transcript 1 (TLT-1) is an abundantly expressed platelet receptor and its deletion leads to hemorrhage and edema after lipopolysaccharide and TNF-α treatment. To define a role for TLT-1 in immune derived bleeding we used a CXCL-2 mediated local inflammatory reaction in the vessels of the cremaster muscle of treml1 -/- and wild type mice. Our whole mount immunofluorescent staining of the cremaster muscle demonstrated a 50% reduction in clot size and increased extravasation of plasma molecules in treml1 -/- mice compared to wild type. We demonstrate that the decreased clotting in treml1 -/- mice is associated with a 2X reduction in integrin β3 phosphorylation on residue Y773 after platelet activation, which is consistent with treml1 -/- mice displaying reduced outside-in signaling and smaller thrombi. We further substantiate TLT-1's role in the regulation of immune derived bleeding using the reverse arthus reaction and demonstrate TLT-1's role in thrombosis using the thromboplastin initiated and collagen/epinephrine models of pulmonary embolism. Thus, the data presented here demonstrate that TLT-1 regulates early clot formation though the stabilization of αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling.
- Enhancement of cancer invasion and growth via the C5a-C5a receptor system: Implications for cancer promotion by autoimmune diseases and association with cervical cancer invasion. [Journal Article]Oncol Lett 2019; 17(1):913-920OL
- Autoimmune diseases are caused by immune complex-induced activation of the complement system and subsequent inflammation. Recent studies have revealed an association between autoimmune diseases and worse survival in patients with cancer; however, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. The C5a-C5a receptor (C5aR) system has been shown to enhance cancer activity and recruit myeloid-derived supp…
Autoimmune diseases are caused by immune complex-induced activation of the complement system and subsequent inflammation. Recent studies have revealed an association between autoimmune diseases and worse survival in patients with cancer; however, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. The C5a-C5a receptor (C5aR) system has been shown to enhance cancer activity and recruit myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that suppress the anti-tumor immune response. The Arthus reaction is inflammation caused by complement system activation by the immune complex and thus is a model of autoimmune diseases. To explore the effect of the Arthus reaction on cancer progression, mouse cancer cells were inoculated in syngeneic mouse skin, where the Arthus reaction was induced simultaneously. The Arthus reaction enhanced invasion and tumor growth of C5aR-positive cancer cells, but not control cells, and induced MDSC recruitment. Intravenous injection of C5a-stimulated C5aR-positive cancer cells into nude mice resulted in more lung nodules than injection of nontreated C5aR-positive cells and C5a-stimulated C5aR-negative cells, supporting C5a-C5aR-mediated enhancement of cancer growth. C5aR expression in uterine cervical carcinoma stage I cells, which invade into the deeper tissues, was significantly higher than that in CIN3 cells, which remain in the epithelium. These results indicate that cancer promotion by the C5a-C5aR system may underlie poor prognosis in cancer patients with autoimmune diseases, particularly in patients with C5aR-positive cancer, and may be associated with cervical cancer invasion. The enhancement of cancer cell invasion and growth by the C5a-C5aR system suggests that this system is a possible target of cancer therapy.
- StatPearls: Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions [BOOK]StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)BOOK
- Hypersensitivity reactions (HR) are immune responses that are exaggerated or inappropriate against an antigen or allergen. Coombs and Gell classified hypersensitivity reactions into four forms. Type I, type II, and type III hypersensitivity reactions are known as immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) because occur within 24 hours. Antibodies including IgE, IgM, and IgG mediate them. Type …
Hypersensitivity reactions (HR) are immune responses that are exaggerated or inappropriate against an antigen or allergen. Coombs and Gell classified hypersensitivity reactions into four forms. Type I, type II, and type III hypersensitivity reactions are known as immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) because occur within 24 hours. Antibodies including IgE, IgM, and IgG mediate them. Type I or Anaphylactic Response Anaphylactic Responseis mediated by IgE antibodies that are produced by the immune system in response to environmental proteins (allergens) such as pollens, animal danders or dust mites. These antibodies (IgE) bind to mast cells and basophils, which contain histamine granules that are released in the reaction and cause inflammation. Type I hypersensitivity reactions can be seen in bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, food allergy, allergic conjunctivitis, and anaphylactic shock. Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency because can lead to an acute, life-threatening respiratory failure. It is an IgE-mediated process. It is the most severe form of an allergic reaction, where mast cells suddenly release a large amount of histamine and later on leukotrienes. In severe cases intense bronchospasm, laryngeal edema, cyanosis, hypotension, and shock are present. Allergic bronchial asthma Allergic bronchial asthma is an atopic disease, characterized by bronchospasm. It may also be a chronic inflammatory disease. In its etiology, and environmental factors along with a genetic background play an important role. The diagnosis is dependent on history and examination. In allergic bronchial asthma, IgE is elevated, and sputum eosinophilia is common. Epidemiologically, a positive skin prick test or specific IgE are risk factors for asthma. Allergic rhinitis Allergic rhinitis is another atopic disease where histamine and leukotrienes are responsible for rhinorrhea, sneezing and nasal obstruction. Allergens are similar to those found in bronchial asthma. Nasal polyps may be seen in chronic rhinitis. Allergic conjunctivitis Allergic conjunctivitis presents with rhinitis and is IgE-mediated. Itching and eye problems including watering, redness, and swelling always occur. Food allergy One must differentiate food allergy (IgE-mediated) from food intolerance that can be cause for a variety of etiology including malabsorption and celiac disease. It is more frequent in children as seen in cow's milk allergy. Food allergy symptoms mostly affect the respiratory tract, the skin, and the gut. Skin prick tests are helpful to test for food allergens that can trigger severe reactions, e.g., peanuts, eggs, fish, and milk. Atopic eczema Atopic eczema is an IgE-mediated disease that affects the skin and has an immunopathogenesis very similar to that of allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis, which are present in more than half of the diseased. Radioallergosorbent (RAST) may reveal the specificity of the IgE antibody involved but has little help in management. Drug allergy Drugs may cause allergic reactions by any mechanism of hypersensitivity. For example, penicillin may cause anaphylaxis, which is IgE-mediated but must responses be trivial. Penicillin cross-reacts with other semisynthetic penicillins including monobactams and carbapenems and may also cross-react with other antibiotics such as cephalosporins. Type II or Cytotoxic-Mediated Response IgG and IgM mediate cytotoxic-mediated response against cell surface and extracellular matrix proteins. The immunoglobulins involved in this type of reaction damages cells by activating the complement system or by phagocytosis. Type II hypersensitivity reactions can be seen in immune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and autoimmune neutropenia. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) ITP is an autoimmune disorder that occurs at any age. Phagocytes destroy sensitized platelets in the peripheral blood. Clinically, it manifests by thrombocytopenia with shortened platelet survival and increased marrow megakaryocytes. Sudden onset of petechiae and bleeding from the gums, nose, bowel, and urinary tract occurs. Bleeding can accompany infections, drug reactions, malignancy and other autoimmune disorders such as thyroid disease and SLE. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) There are two types of immune hemolytic anemia: IgG-mediated (warm AIHA) and IgM-mediated (cold AIHA). The warm type may be idiopathic autoimmune or secondary to other diseases such as malignancy affecting the lymphoid tissues. The cold type may be idiopathic or secondary to infections such as Epstein-Barr virus. The primary clinical sign of the two is jaundice. The laboratory diagnosis is made by a positive Coombs test, which identifies immunoglobulins and C3 on red blood cells. Autoimmune neutropenia Autoimmune neutropenia may be present with bacterial and fungal infections, or it may occur alone or with autoimmune diseases (SLE, RA, autoimmune hepatitis), infections and lymphoma. Bone marrow examination is needed if neutropenia is severe. For associated autoimmune disorders, an autoimmune antibody panel is necessary (ANA, ENA, and dsDNA). Hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis) The maternal immune system suffers an initial sensitization to the fetal Rh+ red blood cells during birth, when the placenta tears away. The first child escapes disease but the mother, now sensitized, will be capable of causing a hemolytic reaction against a second Rh+ fetus, which develops anemia and jaundice once the maternal IgG crosses the placenta. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies to post-synaptic acetylcholine receptors that interfere with the neuromuscular transmission. It is characterized by extreme muscular fatigue, double vision, bilateral ptosis, deconjugate eye movements, difficulty swallowing, and weakness in upper arms. Babies born to myasthenic mothers can have transient muscle weakness due to pathogenic IgG antibodies that cross the placenta. Goodpasture syndrome Goodpasture syndrome is a type II hypersensitivity reaction characterized by the presence of nephritis in association with lung hemorrhage. In most patients, it is caused by cross-reactive autoantigens that are present in the basement membranes of the lung and kidney. A number of patients with this problem exhibit antibodies to collagen type IV, which is an important component of basement membranes. Pemphigus Pemphigus causes a severe blistering disease that affects the skin and mucous membranes. The sera of patients with pemphigus have antibodies against desmoglein-1 and desmoglein-3, which are components of desmosomes, which form junctions between epidermal cells. Pemphigus is strongly linked to HLA-DR4 (DRB1*0402), which is a molecule that presents one of the autoantigens involved in the immunopathogenesis of this disease (desmoglein-3). Type III or Immunocomplex Reactions These are also mediated by IgM and IgG antibodies that react with soluble antigens forming antigen-antibody complexes. The complement system becomes activated and releases chemotactic agents that attract neutrophils and cause inflammation and tissue damage as seen in vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. Type III hypersensitivity reactions can classically be seen in serum sickness and Arthus reaction. Serum sickness Serum sickness can be induced with massive injections of foreign antigen. Circulating immune complexes infiltrate the blood vessel walls and tissues, causing an increased vascular permeability and leading to inflammatory processes such as vasculitis and arthritis. It was a complication of anti-serum prepared in animals to which some individuals produced antibodies to the foreign protein. It was also experienced in the treatment with antibiotics such as penicillin. Arthus reaction Arthus reaction is a local reaction seen when a small quantity of antigens is injected into the skin repeatedly until detectable levels of antibodies (IgG) are present. If the same antigen is inoculated, immune complexes develop at the mentioned local site and in the endothelium of small vessels. This reaction is characterized by the presence of marked edema and hemorrhage, depending on the administered dose of the foreign antigen.
- Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Signaling Maintains Endothelial Cell Barrier Function and Protects Against Immune Complex-Induced Vascular Injury. [Journal Article]Arthritis Rheumatol 2018; 70(11):1879-1889AR
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that S1P1 signaling in ECs modulates vascular responses to IC deposition. S1P1 agonists and ApoM-Fc enhance the EC barrier, limit leukocyte escape from capillaries, and provide protection against inflammatory injury. The S1P/S1P1 axis is a newly identified target to attenuate tissue responses to IC deposition and mitigate end-organ damage.
- Exacerbated Immune Complex-Mediated Vascular Injury in Mice with Heterozygous Deficiency of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor through Upregulation of Fcγ Receptor III Expression on Macrophages. [Journal Article]J Invest Dermatol 2018; 138(10):2195-2204JI
- Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which was discovered as a receptor for environmental concomitants, plays an important role widely in the immune system. In this study, we assessed AhR involvement in immune-complex-mediated vascular injury by examining the reverse-passive Arthus reaction in AhR heterozygous knockout (AhR+/-) mice. In the cutaneous Arthus reaction, dermal edema was severer in AhR+/…
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which was discovered as a receptor for environmental concomitants, plays an important role widely in the immune system. In this study, we assessed AhR involvement in immune-complex-mediated vascular injury by examining the reverse-passive Arthus reaction in AhR heterozygous knockout (AhR+/-) mice. In the cutaneous Arthus reaction, dermal edema was severer in AhR+/- mice than in wild-type mice. The number of infiltrating neutrophils and mRNA expression levels of CXC chemokine ligand 1 and IL-6 were also increased in AhR+/- mice. Similarly, in the peritoneal Arthus reaction, infiltration of neutrophils was increased in AhR+/- mice. Peritoneal macrophages from AhR+/- mice expressed higher levels of Fcγ receptor III and produced higher levels of CXC chemokine ligand 1 and IL-6 after immune complex treatment. In addition, AhR occupied the promoter regions of Fcγ receptor III gene in peritoneal macrophages in a ligand-dependent manner. Depletion of macrophages reduced the cutaneous Arthus reaction in AhR+/- mice, and adoptive transfer of AhR+/- mice macrophages into wild-type mice exacerbated the peritoneal Arthus reaction. Furthermore, AhR expression was decreased and Fcγ receptor III expression was increased in CD14+ monocytes in peripheral blood from patients with immune-complex-mediated vasculitis compared with those from healthy controls. These results suggest that downregulation of AhR is associated with the exacerbation of immune-complex-mediated vascular injury.
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- Vascular fibrinoid necrosis in the urinary bladder of ketamine abusers: A new finding that may provide a clue to the pathogenesis of ketamine-induced vesicopathy. [Case Reports]Low Urin Tract Symptoms 2019; 11(2):O221-O223LU
- Two 31-year-old women who had abused ketamine, 1 for 8 years and 1 for 5 years, presented with ketamine-induced vesicopathy with urinary frequency, decreased bladder capacity, and detrusor overactivity. An enterocystoplasty was performed in both cases. The pathology of the urinary bladders in both women showed ulcerative cystitis and fibrinoid necrosis of vessels; the latter was confirmed by Mass…
Two 31-year-old women who had abused ketamine, 1 for 8 years and 1 for 5 years, presented with ketamine-induced vesicopathy with urinary frequency, decreased bladder capacity, and detrusor overactivity. An enterocystoplasty was performed in both cases. The pathology of the urinary bladders in both women showed ulcerative cystitis and fibrinoid necrosis of vessels; the latter was confirmed by Masson trichrome staining. Fibrinoid necrosis of vessels is a kind of immune complex-mediated vasculitis that induces the release of inflammatory mediators, with subsequent thrombosis, ischemic injury, and eventual tissue necrosis in localized areas, the so-called Arthus reaction. The new finding of fibrinoid necrosis in the urinary bladders of ketamine abusers may provide a new clue to the pathogenesis of ketamine-induced vesicopathy.