- Measuring EMPs in the lung what can be measured in the lung: Asbestiform minerals and cleavage fragments. [Journal Article]
- TAToxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 Jun 27
- Asbestos mineral fibers have been associated with the development of a variety of diseases in humans and experimental animals, including asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos includes s...
Asbestos mineral fibers have been associated with the development of a variety of diseases in humans and experimental animals, including asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos includes several mineral types divided into two mineral groups, serpentine and amphibole forms. Chrysotile is the serpentine mineral classified as asbestos, whereas the amphiboles include amosite, crocidolite, tremolite, actinolite and anthophyllite. There are a number of mineral fibers that occur with asbestiform morphology and that have been associated with various asbestos-induced diseases. These include the Libby amphiboles (associated with a vermiculite mine northwest of Libby, MT), erionite (in Turkey and North America), fluoro-edenite (in Sicily), and perhaps balangeroite (in Italy). In addition, each of the asbestos minerals occurs in a non-fibrous form, and these may occur as cleavage fragments that satisfy the definition for a fiber, i.e., particles with an aspect ratio of at least 3:1 and roughly parallel sides. Cleavage fragments of non-asbestiform minerals have not been associated with asbestos-induced diseases nor are these minerals regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Finally, there are a number of other mineral species which can occur in human lung samples that satisfy the definition for a fiber as given above. These similarly have not been associated with asbestos-induced diseases. All of these various minerals satisfying the definition for a fiber can be referred to as elongated mineral particles (EMP). It is the purpose of this presentation to discuss the role of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray analyzer (EDXA) in the detection and classification of EMP in human lung samples.
- WHO/ILO work-related burden of disease and injury: Protocol for systematic reviews of occupational exposure to dusts and/or fibres and of the effect of occupational exposure to dusts and/or fibres on pneumoconiosis. [Review]
- EIEnviron Int 2018 Jun 27; 119:174-185
- The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury...
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years attributable to pneumoconiosis from occupational exposure to dusts and/or fibres, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology.
- [Asbestosis and pleural plaques]. [Journal Article]
- ULUgeskr Laeger 2018 Jun 18; 180(25)
- Asbestos was used in numerous products until its total ban in Denmark in 1988. The prevalence of asbestosis and pleural plaques does not yet appear to be falling. Unfortunately the statistics are unr...
Asbestos was used in numerous products until its total ban in Denmark in 1988. The prevalence of asbestosis and pleural plaques does not yet appear to be falling. Unfortunately the statistics are unreliable due to errors in the Danish translation of the ICD-10 codes of the disease. In this review, clinical and radiologic diagnostic criteria of asbestosis and pleural plaques and recommendations for follow-up of patients are described. Typical changes on a high-resolution CT scan combined with relevant asbestos exposure is essential for the diagnosis. Asbestosis and pleural plaques are both notifiable in Denmark.
- [Work-up of asbestosis and estimation of asbestos exposure in an occupational context]. [Journal Article]
- ULUgeskr Laeger 2018 05 28; 180(22)
- Asbestosis is interstitial lung fibrosis due to inhalation of asbestos fibres. Up to the ban of import in 1986, 0.7 mil tons had been used in Denmark. The diagnosis of asbestosis is a challenge becau...
Asbestosis is interstitial lung fibrosis due to inhalation of asbestos fibres. Up to the ban of import in 1986, 0.7 mil tons had been used in Denmark. The diagnosis of asbestosis is a challenge because of long latency time and very few national occupational asbestos measurements. The cornerstone of exposure assessment is a thorough occupational history, investigation of asbestos content in products used, search for possible and relevant measurements of asbestos fibres in the air, and results of lung biopsies, if present. Although no definite lower limit of exposure can be defined, a cumulated exposure of > 10 fibre-years is a relevant measure for exposure defining the disease, as one fibre-year equals one asbestos fibre/cm3 air/occupational year.
- [Health impact of asbestos fibres naturally occurring in Mount Pollino area (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy)]. [Journal Article]
- EPEpidemiol Prev 2018 Mar-Apr; 42(2):142-150
- CONCLUSIONS: it is necessary to continue environmental monitoring and environmental remediation in the area with higher asbestos exposure. It is suggested to implement a permanent process of epidemiological surveillance in this same area. A communication plan with local administrators, general practitioners, school teachers, media, and the resident population at large should be realized.
- Global Asbestos Disaster. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 May 16; 15(5)
- CONCLUSIONS: Present efforts to eliminate this man-made problem, in fact an epidemiological disaster, and preventing exposures leading to it are insufficient in most countries in the world. Applying programs and policies, such as those for the elimination of all kind of asbestos use-that is banning of new asbestos use and tight control and management of existing structures containing asbestos-need revision and resources. The International Labor Organization/World Health Organization Joint Program for the Elimination of Asbestos-Related Diseases needs to be revitalized. Exposure limits do not protect properly against cancer but for asbestos removal and equivalent exposure elimination work, we propose a limit value of 1000 fibres/m³.
- Dosimetry of inhaled elongate mineral particles in the respiratory tract: The impact of shape factor. [Journal Article]
- TAToxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 May 05
- Inhalation exposure to some types of fibers (e.g., asbestos) is well known to be associated with respiratory diseases and conditions such as pleural plaques, fibrosis, asbestosis, lung cancer, and me...
Inhalation exposure to some types of fibers (e.g., asbestos) is well known to be associated with respiratory diseases and conditions such as pleural plaques, fibrosis, asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. In recent years, attention has expanded to other types of elongate mineral particles (EMPs) that may share similar geometry with asbestos fibers but which may differ in mineralogy. Inhalability, dimensions and orientation, and density are major determinants of the aerodynamic behavior for fibers and other EMPs; and the resultant internal dose is recognized as being the critical link between exposure and pathogenesis. Insufficient data are available to fully understand the role of specific physicochemical properties on the potential toxicity across various types of fiber materials. While additional information is required to assess the potential health hazards of EMPs, dosimetry models are currently available to estimate the initially deposited internal dose, which is an essential step in linking airborne exposures to potential health risks. Based on dosimetry model simulations, the inhalability and internal dose of EMPs were found to be greater than that of spherical particles having the same mass or volume. However, the complexity of the dependence of internal dose on EMPs dimensions prevented a straightforward formulation of the deposition-dimension (length or diameter) relationship. Because health outcome is generally related to internal dose, consideration of the factors that influence internal dose is important in assessing the potential health hazards of airborne EMPs.
- Review on the adverse health effects of asbestiform antigorite, a non-regulated asbestiform serpentine mineral. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ind Med 2018; 61(7):625-630
- CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence supports a need for an update to existing regulations to include unregulated asbestiform antigorite, similar to regulatory measures taken for asbestos.
- Evaluation of airborne asbestos exposure from routine handling of asbestos-containing wire gauze pads in the research laboratory. [Journal Article]
- RTRegul Toxicol Pharmacol 2018; 96:135-141
- Three independently conducted asbestos exposure evaluations were conducted using wire gauze pads similar to standard practice in the laboratory setting. All testing occurred in a controlled atmospher...
Three independently conducted asbestos exposure evaluations were conducted using wire gauze pads similar to standard practice in the laboratory setting. All testing occurred in a controlled atmosphere inside an enclosed chamber simulating a laboratory setting. Separate teams consisting of a laboratory technician, or technician and assistant simulated common tasks involving wire gauze pads, including heating and direct wire gauze manipulation. Area and personal air samples were collected and evaluated for asbestos consistent with the National Institute of Occupational Safety Health method 7400 and 7402, and the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) method. Bulk gauze pad samples were analyzed by Polarized Light Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy to determine asbestos content. Among air samples, chrysotile asbestos was the only fiber found in the first and third experiments, and tremolite asbestos for the second experiment. None of the air samples contained asbestos in concentrations above the current permissible regulatory levels promulgated by OSHA. These findings indicate that the level of asbestos exposure when working with wire gauze pads in the laboratory setting is much lower than levels associated with asbestosis or asbestos-related lung cancer and mesothelioma.
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- On the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma: A necropsy-based study of 171 cases (1997-2016). [Journal Article]
- TTumori 2018 Apr 01; :300891618765538
- CONCLUSIONS: Autopsies confirmed 169/171 cases, including cases that would not be considered as certain based on diagnosis in life. Radiologic imaging, cytologic examination of pleural effusions, or both combined had low sensitivity but high positive predictive value: when they are positive, proceeding to thoracoscopy should be justified. MPM has been correctly diagnosed even without immunohistochemistry. The prevalence of pleural plaques and asbestosis was high due to severity of asbestos exposures in these cases.