- [Health impact of asbestos fibres naturally occurring in Mount Pollino area (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy)]. [Journal Article]
- EPEpidemiol Prev 2018 Mar-Apr; 42(2):142-150
- CONCLUSIONS: it is necessary to continue environmental monitoring and environmental remediation in the area with higher asbestos exposure. It is suggested to implement a permanent process of epidemiological surveillance in this same area. A communication plan with local administrators, general practitioners, school teachers, media, and the resident population at large should be realized.
- Global Asbestos Disaster. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 May 16; 15(5)
- Introduction: Asbestos has been used for thousands of years but only at a large industrial scale for about 100⁻150 years. The first identified disease was asbestosis, a type of incurable pneumoconios...
Introduction: Asbestos has been used for thousands of years but only at a large industrial scale for about 100⁻150 years. The first identified disease was asbestosis, a type of incurable pneumoconiosis caused by asbestos dust and fibres. The latest estimate of global number of asbestosis deaths from the Global Burden of Disease estimate 2016 is 3495. Asbestos-caused cancer was identified in the late 1930's but despite today's overwhelming evidence of the strong carcinogenicity of all asbestos types, including chrysotile, it is still widely used globally. Various estimates have been made over time including those of World Health Organization and International Labour Organization: 107,000⁻112,000 deaths. Present estimates are much higher. Objective: This article summarizes the special edition of this Journal related to asbestos and key aspects of the past and present of the asbestos problem globally. The objective is to collect and provide the latest evidence of the magnitude of asbestos-related diseases and to provide the present best data for revitalizing the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization Joint Program on Asbestos-related Diseases. Methods: Documentation on asbestos-related diseases, their recognition, reporting, compensation and prevention efforts were examined, in particular from the regulatory and prevention point of view. Estimated global numbers of incidence and mortality of asbestos-related diseases were examined. Results: Asbestos causes an estimated 255,000 deaths (243,223⁻260,029) annually according to latest knowledge, of which work-related exposures are responsible for 233,000 deaths (222,322⁻242,802). In the European Union, United States of America and in other high income economies (World Health Organization regional classification) the direct costs for sickness, early retirement and death, including production losses, have been estimated to be very high; in the Western European countries and European Union, and equivalent of 0.70% of the Gross Domestic Product or 114 × 10⁸ United States Dollars. Intangible costs could be much higher. When applying the Value of Statistical Life of 4 million EUR per cancer death used by the European Commission, we arrived at 410 × 10⁸ United States Dollars loss related to occupational cancer and 340 × 10⁸ related to asbestos exposure at work, while the human suffering and loss of life is impossible to quantify. The numbers and costs are increasing practically in every country and region in the world. Asbestos has been banned in 55 countries but is used widely today; some 2,030,000 tons consumed annually according to the latest available consumption data. Every 20 tons of asbestos produced and consumed kills a person somewhere in the world. Buying 1 kg of asbestos powder, e.g., in Asia, costs 0.38 United States Dollars, and 20 tons would cost in such retail market 7600 United States Dollars. Conclusions: Present efforts to eliminate this man-made problem, in fact an epidemiological disaster, and preventing exposures leading to it are insufficient in most countries in the world. Applying programs and policies, such as those for the elimination of all kind of asbestos use-that is banning of new asbestos use and tight control and management of existing structures containing asbestos-need revision and resources. The International Labor Organization/World Health Organization Joint Program for the Elimination of Asbestos-Related Diseases needs to be revitalized. Exposure limits do not protect properly against cancer but for asbestos removal and equivalent exposure elimination work, we propose a limit value of 1000 fibres/m³.
- Dosimetry of inhaled elongate mineral particles in the respiratory tract: The impact of shape factor. [Journal Article]
- TAToxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 May 05
- Inhalation exposure to some types of fibers (e.g., asbestos) is well known to be associated with respiratory diseases and conditions such as pleural plaques, fibrosis, asbestosis, lung cancer, and me...
Inhalation exposure to some types of fibers (e.g., asbestos) is well known to be associated with respiratory diseases and conditions such as pleural plaques, fibrosis, asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. In recent years, attention has expanded to other types of elongate mineral particles (EMPs) that may share similar geometry with asbestos fibers but which may differ in mineralogy. Inhalability, dimensions and orientation, and density are major determinants of the aerodynamic behavior for fibers and other EMPs; and the resultant internal dose is recognized as being the critical link between exposure and pathogenesis. Insufficient data are available to fully understand the role of specific physicochemical properties on the potential toxicity across various types of fiber materials. While additional information is required to assess the potential health hazards of EMPs, dosimetry models are currently available to estimate the initially deposited internal dose, which is an essential step in linking airborne exposures to potential health risks. Based on dosimetry model simulations, the inhalability and internal dose of EMPs were found to be greater than that of spherical particles having the same mass or volume. However, the complexity of the dependence of internal dose on EMPs dimensions prevented a straightforward formulation of the deposition-dimension (length or diameter) relationship. Because health outcome is generally related to internal dose, consideration of the factors that influence internal dose is important in assessing the potential health hazards of airborne EMPs.
- Review on the adverse health effects of asbestiform antigorite, a non-regulated asbestiform serpentine mineral. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ind Med 2018 May 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence supports a need for an update to existing regulations to include unregulated asbestiform antigorite, similar to regulatory measures taken for asbestos.
- Evaluation of airborne asbestos exposure from routine handling of asbestos-containing wire gauze pads in the research laboratory. [Journal Article]
- RTRegul Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Apr 30; 96:135-141
- Three independently conducted asbestos exposure evaluations were conducted using wire gauze pads similar to standard practice in the laboratory setting. All testing occurred in a controlled atmospher...
Three independently conducted asbestos exposure evaluations were conducted using wire gauze pads similar to standard practice in the laboratory setting. All testing occurred in a controlled atmosphere inside an enclosed chamber simulating a laboratory setting. Separate teams consisting of a laboratory technician, or technician and assistant simulated common tasks involving wire gauze pads, including heating and direct wire gauze manipulation. Area and personal air samples were collected and evaluated for asbestos consistent with the National Institute of Occupational Safety Health method 7400 and 7402, and the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) method. Bulk gauze pad samples were analyzed by Polarized Light Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy to determine asbestos content. Among air samples, chrysotile asbestos was the only fiber found in the first and third experiments, and tremolite asbestos for the second experiment. None of the air samples contained asbestos in concentrations above the current permissible regulatory levels promulgated by OSHA. These findings indicate that the level of asbestos exposure when working with wire gauze pads in the laboratory setting is much lower than levels associated with asbestosis or asbestos-related lung cancer and mesothelioma.
- On the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma: A necropsy-based study of 171 cases (1997-2016). [Journal Article]
- TTumori 2018 Apr 01; :300891618765538
- CONCLUSIONS: Autopsies confirmed 169/171 cases, including cases that would not be considered as certain based on diagnosis in life. Radiologic imaging, cytologic examination of pleural effusions, or both combined had low sensitivity but high positive predictive value: when they are positive, proceeding to thoracoscopy should be justified. MPM has been correctly diagnosed even without immunohistochemistry. The prevalence of pleural plaques and asbestosis was high due to severity of asbestos exposures in these cases.
- [Diffuse Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma with Secondary Liver Invasion Diagnosed Using Laparoscopy - A Case Report]. [Journal Article]
- GTGan To Kagaku Ryoho 2018; 45(3):449-453
- A 69-year-old man with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and fever was referred to our hospital. He had a history of asbestosis exposure. Computed tomography(CT)revealed a mass at the right subhepa...
A 69-year-old man with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and fever was referred to our hospital. He had a history of asbestosis exposure. Computed tomography(CT)revealed a mass at the right subhepatic space, and an antibiotic was administered after a diagnosis of an abdominal abscess. However, the patient did not respond to the treatment, and finally, exploratory laparoscopy was performed. A sheet of combined white nodules surrounding the right lobe of the liver was found, and the mass was continuous with the covering particles. Biopsy of the mass and immunohistochemical examination was performed. The resulting diagnosis was diffuse epithelial malignant peritoneal mesothelioma(MPM). Postoperative systematic chemotherapy of pemetrexed and cisplatin was administered. Laparoscopy was useful to evaluate the distribution of the MPM, which led to adequate therapeutic determination.
- Asbestosis is prevalent in a variety of construction industry trades. [Journal Article]
- NPNPJ Prim Care Respir Med 2018 Apr 03; 28(1):11
- A diagnosis of asbestosis, which is a long-latency, fibrotic lung disease, has implications for the patient in terms of prognosis, treatment and compensation. Identifying and quantifying asbestos exp...
A diagnosis of asbestosis, which is a long-latency, fibrotic lung disease, has implications for the patient in terms of prognosis, treatment and compensation. Identifying and quantifying asbestos exposure is difficult without a detailed occupational history, and the threshold dose of asbestos required to cause asbestosis is not well understood. We reviewed all cases of asbestosis diagnosed between 2001 and 2016 at the Birmingham Regional NHS Occupational Lung Disease Service to determine the industries and occupations most frequently implicated in causation, in order to help clinicians identify where asbestosis might enter the differential diagnosis for a patient with chronic respiratory symptoms. A variety of construction trades were frequently reported including carpenters and joiners, pipe fitters, laggers, labourers, painters and shop fitters. Traditionally heavily exposed occupations such as shipbuilding were not commonly seen.
- Asbestos exposure biomarkers in the follow-up of asbestos-exposed workers. [Journal Article]
- IHInd Health 2018 Feb 26
- Health surveillance of asbestos exposed workers should be stratified according to the exposure level. Unfortunately there is a lack of information regarding asbestos exposure in many working places a...
Health surveillance of asbestos exposed workers should be stratified according to the exposure level. Unfortunately there is a lack of information regarding asbestos exposure in many working places and markers of asbestos exposure are often needed. The aim of the study was to assess the reliability of different dose and effect biomarkers in the follow up of asbestos-exposed workers.Mineralogical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as a biomarker of asbestos fibre burden was performed in a population of 307 male subjects occupationally exposed to asbestos. Using nonparametric statistical methods 8 variables were analyzed with respect to asbestos-related diseases and working sectors. The existence of a relationship between serum soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRP) and asbestos exposure levels was also investigated. Concentrations of amphiboles, chrysotile and asbestos bodies in BALF were higher in patients with asbestosis as well as in railway industry workers. A correlation between the onset of non malignant asbestos-related diseases and the levels of SRMP concentration was not found. This study confirms that fibre concentration in BALF may be considered as a reliable biomarker of previous asbestos exposure, whereas SRMP does not appear to be influenced by asbestos exposure levels.
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- Australia's Ongoing Legacy of Asbestos: Significant Challenges Remain Even after the Complete Banning of Asbestos Almost Fifteen Years Ago. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Feb 23; 15(2)
- The most effective way of reducing the global burden of asbestos-related diseases is through the implementation of asbestos bans and minimising occupational and non-occupational exposure to respirabl...
The most effective way of reducing the global burden of asbestos-related diseases is through the implementation of asbestos bans and minimising occupational and non-occupational exposure to respirable asbestos fibres. Australia's asbestos consumption peaked in the 1970s with Australia widely thought to have had among the highest per-capita asbestos consumption level of any country. Australia's discontinuation of all forms of asbestos and asbestos-containing products and materials did not occur at a single point of time. Crocidolite consumption ceased in the late 1960s, followed by amosite consumption stopping in the mid 1980s. Despite significant government reports being published in 1990 and 1999, it was not until the end of 2003 that a complete ban on all forms of asbestos (crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile) was introduced in Australia. The sustained efforts of trade unions and non-governmental organisations were essential in forcing the Australian government to finally implement the 2003 asbestos ban. Trade unions and non-government organisations continue to play a key role today in monitoring the government's response to Australian asbestos-related disease epidemic. There are significant challenges that remain in Australia, despite a complete asbestos ban being implemented almost fifteen years ago. The Australian epidemic of asbestos-related disease has only now reached its peak. A total of 16,679 people were newly diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma between 1982 and 2016, with 84% of cases occurring in men. There has been a stabilisation of the age-standardised malignant mesothelioma incidence rate in the last 10 years. In 2016, the incidence rate per 100,000 was 2.5 using the Australian standard population and 1.3 using the Segi world standard population. Despite Australia's complete asbestos ban being in place since 2003, public health efforts must continue to focus on preventing the devastating effects of avoidable asbestos-related diseases, including occupational and non-occupational groups who are potentially at risk from exposure to respirable asbestos fibres.