- Asbestos-Related Disorders in Germany: Background, Politics, Incidence, Diagnostics and Compensation. [Review]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Jan 16; 15(1)
- There was some limited use of asbestos at end of the 19th century in industrialized countries including Germany, but its consumption dramatically increased after World War II. The increase in use and...
There was some limited use of asbestos at end of the 19th century in industrialized countries including Germany, but its consumption dramatically increased after World War II. The increase in use and exposure was followed by the discovery of high numbers of asbestos-related diseases with a mean latency period of about 38 years in Germany. The strong socio-political pressure from the asbestos industry, its affiliated scientists and physicians has successfully hindered regulatory measures and an asbestos ban for many years; a restrictive stance that is still being unravelled in compensation litigation. This national experience is compared with the situation in other industrialized countries and against the backdrop of the constant efforts of the WHO to eliminate asbestos-related diseases worldwide.
- Temporal Patterns of Exposure to Asbestos and Risk of Asbestosis: An Analysis of a Cohort of Asbestos Textile Workers. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Occup Environ Med 2018 Jan 12
- CONCLUSIONS: The risk of asbestosis death strongly declines in the decades after cessation of the exposure.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.
- Biological responses to asbestos inhalation and pathogenesis of asbestos-related benign and malignant disease. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Investig Med 2018 Jan 06
- Asbestos comprises a group of fibrous minerals that are naturally occurring in the environment. Because of its natural properties, asbestos gained popularity for commercial applications in the late 1...
Asbestos comprises a group of fibrous minerals that are naturally occurring in the environment. Because of its natural properties, asbestos gained popularity for commercial applications in the late 19th century and was used throughout the majority of the 20th century, with predominant use in the construction, automotive, and shipbuilding industries. Asbestos has been linked to a spectrum of pulmonary diseases, such as pleural fibrosis and plaques, asbestosis, benign asbestos pleural effusion, small cell lung carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and malignant mesothelioma. There are several mechanisms through which asbestos can lead to both benign and malignant disease, and they include alterations at the chromosomal level, activation of oncogenes, loss of tumor suppressor genes, alterations in cellular signal transduction pathways, generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and direct mechanical damage to cells from asbestos fibers. While known risk factors exist for the development of asbestos-related malignancies, there are currently no effective means to determine which asbestos-exposed patients will develop malignancy and which will not. There are also no established screening strategies to detect asbestos-related malignancies in patients who have a history of asbestos exposure. In this article, we present a case that highlights the different biological responses in human hosts to asbestos exposure.
- Polyvinylidene Fluoride Alters Inflammatory Responses by Activation-induced Cell Death in Macrophages. [Journal Article]
- INImmune Netw 2017; 17(6):402-409
- Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials that have been employed in generating diverse materials. We previously reported that CNTs induce cell death in macrophages, possibly via asbestosis. Therefor...
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials that have been employed in generating diverse materials. We previously reported that CNTs induce cell death in macrophages, possibly via asbestosis. Therefore, we generated CNT-attached polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which is an established polymer in membrane technology, and then examined whether CNT-attached PVDF is immunologically safe for medical purposes compared to CNT alone. To test this, we treated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages (RAW cells) with CNT-attached PVDF and analyzed the production of nitric oxide (NO), a potent proinflammatory mediator, in these cells. RAW cells treated with CNT-attached PVDF showed reduced NO production in response to lipopolysaccharide. However, the same treatment also decreased the cell number suggesting that this treatment can alter the homeostasis of RAW cells. Although cell cycle of RAW cells was increased by PVDF treatment with or without CNTs, apoptosis was enhanced in these cells. Taken together, these results indicate that PVDF with or without CNTs modulates inflammatory responses possibly due to activation-induced cell death in macrophages.
- Chest physician-reported, work-related, long-latency respiratory disease in Great Britain. [Journal Article]
- EREur Respir J 2017; 50(6)
- Much of the current burden of long-latency respiratory disease (LLRD) in Great Britain is attributed to historical asbestos exposure. However, continuing exposure to other agents, notably silica, als...
Much of the current burden of long-latency respiratory disease (LLRD) in Great Britain is attributed to historical asbestos exposure. However, continuing exposure to other agents, notably silica, also contributes to disease burden. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of work-related LLRD reported by chest physicians in Great Britain, including variations by age, gender, occupation and suspected agent.LLRD incidence and incidence rate ratios by occupation were estimated (1996-2014). Mesothelioma cases by occupation were compared with proportional mortality ratios.Cases were predominantly in men (95%) and 92% of all cases were attributed to asbestos. Annual average incidence rates (males) per 100 000 were: benign pleural disease, 7.1 (95% CI 6.0-8.2); mesothelioma, 5.4 (4.8-6.0); pneumoconiosis, 1.9 (1.7-2.2); lung cancer, 0.8 (0.6-1.0); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 0.3 (0.2-0.4). Occupations with a particularly high incidence of LLRD were miners and quarrymen (COPD), plumbers and gas fitters (asbestosis), and shipyard and dock workers (all other categories). There was a clear concordance between cases of SWORD mesothelioma and proportional mortality ratios by occupation.Occupationally caused LLRD continues to contribute to a significant disease burden. Many cases are attributable to past exposure to agents such as asbestos and silica, but the potential for occupational exposures persists.
- Characterization of pulmonary responses in mice to asbestos/asbestiform fibers using gene expression profiles. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Toxicol Environ Health A 2018; 81(4):60-79
- Humans exposed to asbestos and/or asbestiform fibers are at high risk of developing many lung diseases including asbestosis, lung cancer, and malignant mesothelioma. However, the disease-causing pote...
Humans exposed to asbestos and/or asbestiform fibers are at high risk of developing many lung diseases including asbestosis, lung cancer, and malignant mesothelioma. However, the disease-causing potential and specific metabolic mechanisms and pathways associated with various asbestos/asbestiform fiber exposures triggering different carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic outcomes are still largely unknown. The aim of this this study was to investigate gene expression profiles and inflammatory responses to different asbestos/asbestiform fibers at the acute/sub-acute phase that may be related to delayed pathological outcomes observed at later time points. Mice were exposed to asbestos (crocidolite, tremolite asbestos), asbestiform fibers (erionite), and a low pathogenicity mineral fiber (wollastonite) using oropharyngeal aspiration. Similarities in inflammatory and tissue damage responses, albeit with quantitative differences, were observed at day 1 and 7 post treatment. Exposure to different fibers induced significant changes in regulation and release of a number of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Comparative analysis of changes in gene regulation in the lung on day 7 post exposure were interpretable in the context of differential biological responses that were consistent with histopathological findings at days 7 and 56 post treatment. Our results noted differences in the magnitudes of pulmonary responses and gene regulation consistent with pathological alterations induced by exposures to four asbestos/asbestiform fibers examined. Further comparative mechanistic studies linking early responses with the long-term endpoints may be instrumental to understanding triggering mechanisms underlying pulmonary carcinogenesis, that is lung cancer versus mesothelioma.
- High-resolution CT of the lungs: Indications and diagnosis. [Review]
- DDuodecim 2017; 133(6):549-56
- High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a method of examination which is more precise than chest 2-rat in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases of the lung tissue and the airways. Modern CT ...
High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a method of examination which is more precise than chest 2-rat in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases of the lung tissue and the airways. Modern CT equipment enables a volume HRCT scan covering the whole lung tissue. HRCT slices can also be constructed from contrast-enhanced CT scans of the chest of the whole body. HRCT of the lungs can be applied to the diagnosis of both acute and more chronic diffuse diseases of the lung tissue and the airways. The best-known indications for HRCT include idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. High-resolution computed tomography has also become established in the diagnostics of pneumoconiosis, such as asbestosis. More acute indications for HRCT include various inflammations, drug reactions and diffuse alveolar injury. Medical history plays a central role in the interpretation of lung HRCT, because a finding in imaging examination is often unspecific. A good test requisition is therefore important.
- Tort Law--Expert Testimony in Asbestos Litigation--District of South Carolina Holds the Every Exposure Theory Insufficient to Demonstrate Specific Causation Even If Legal Conclusions are Scientifically Sound.--Haskins v. 3m Co., Nos. 2:15-cv-02086, 3:15-cv-02123, 2017 WL 3118017 (D.S.C. July 21, 2017). [Journal Article]
- HLHarv Law Rev 2017; 131(2):658-65
- Plasma Fibulin-3 as a Potential Biomarker for Patients with Asbestos-Related Diseases in the Han Population. [Journal Article]
- DMDis Markers 2017; 2017:1725354
- Fibulin-3 has been reported as a potential biomarker for mesothelioma. However, little is known about the diagnostic efficacies of fibulin-3 for asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) in China. This study ...
Fibulin-3 has been reported as a potential biomarker for mesothelioma. However, little is known about the diagnostic efficacies of fibulin-3 for asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) in China. This study was to investigate the utility of fibulin-3 for asbestos exposure and ARDs. A total of 430 subjects were recruited from Southeast China, including healthy individuals, asbestos-exposed (AE) individuals, and patients with pleural plaques (PP), asbestosis, and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Plasma fibulin-3 was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Linear regression analyses were applied to explore the influencing factors of fibulin-3. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the cutoff values. The median fibulin-3 level of subjects in the mesothelioma group was higher than that in other groups. Subjects in the asbestosis group had higher median fibulin-3 level than those in the control group. A higher fibulin-3 level was found in the group with ≥10 years of asbestos exposure as compared with control groups. The AUCs of fibulin-3 for distinguishing MPM subjects from control, AE, PP, and asbestosis subjects were 0.92, 0.88, 0.90, and 0.81, respectively. Our study provided evidence that fibulin-3 could be a potential biomarker for the early screening of MPM, but not of other nonmalignant ARDs in Chinese populations.
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- Metal load assessment in patient pulmonary lavages: towards a comprehensive mineralogical analysis including the nano-sized fraction. [Journal Article]
- NNanotoxicology 2017 Nov - Dec; 11(9-10):1211-1224
- Mineralogical analyses of clinical samples have been proved useful to identify causal relationship between exposure to airborne particles and pulmonary diseases. The most striking example is asbestos...
Mineralogical analyses of clinical samples have been proved useful to identify causal relationship between exposure to airborne particles and pulmonary diseases. The most striking example is asbestosis where the assessment of asbestos bodies in patient lung samples has allowed defining values specific of pathologies. However, this type of analyses only considers the micro-sized fraction of the particles, neglecting the specific impact of nano-sized particles which have been otherwise shown to be reactive and able to induce biological effects. Similarly, in nanotoxicology, the mineralogical analysis of pulmonary fluids could be used as an indicator of exposure to inhaled nanoparticles and could help investigations on the relationship between exposure to these nanoparticles and lung diseases. We designed this study first to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this approach, then to get a clear picture of the metals present, and in what form, in patient lungs and finally to determine if indeed it is worth investigating separately the micro, sub-micro and nano fractions. Broncho-alveolar lavages were recovered from 100 patients suffering from interstitial lung diseases. A protocol was specifically developed to isolate three fractions containing respectively microparticles, sub-microparticles and nanoparticles with ions. The metal content in each fraction was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Results showed significant differences between the three fractions in terms of metal load confirming that the separate analysis of the fractions is relevant. It also means that the assessment of the micro-sized fraction alone, as commonly done in clinical practice, only gives a partial view of the mineralogical analysis.