- Ascariasis-Hepatobiliary and pancreatic involvement. [Journal Article]
- NMNatl Med J India 1991 Jul-Aug; 4(4):189-190
- Schistosomiasis Induces Persistent DNA Methylation and Tuberculosis-Specific Immune Changes. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Immunol 2018 May 11
- Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, determine immune cell phenotype. To understand the epigenetic alterations induced by helminth coinfections, we evaluated the longitudinal effect of asc...
Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, determine immune cell phenotype. To understand the epigenetic alterations induced by helminth coinfections, we evaluated the longitudinal effect of ascariasis and schistosomiasis infection on CD4+ T cell DNA methylation and the downstream tuberculosis (TB)-specific and bacillus Calmette-Guérin-induced immune phenotype. All experiments were performed on human primary immune cells from a longitudinal cohort of recently TB-exposed children. Compared with age-matched uninfected controls, children with active Schistosoma haematobium and Ascaris lumbricoides infection had 751 differentially DNA-methylated genes, with 72% hypermethylated. Gene ontology pathway analysis identified inhibition of IFN-γ signaling, cellular proliferation, and the Th1 pathway. Targeted real-time quantitative PCR after methyl-specific endonuclease digestion confirmed DNA hypermethylation of the transcription factors BATF3, ID2, STAT5A, IRF5, PPARg, RUNX2, IRF4, and NFATC1 and cytokines or cytokine receptors IFNGR1, TNFS11, RELT (TNF receptor), IL12RB2, and IL12B (p < 0.001; Sidak-Bonferroni). Functional blockage of the IFN-γ signaling pathway was confirmed, with helminth-infected individuals having decreased upregulation of IFN-γ-inducible genes (Mann-Whitney p < 0.05). Hypomethylation of the IL-4 pathway and DNA hypermethylation of the Th1 pathway was confirmed by Ag-specific multidimensional flow cytometry demonstrating decreased TB-specific IFN-γ and TNF and increased IL-4 production by CD4+ T cells (Wilcoxon signed-rank p < 0.05). In S. haematobium-infected individuals, these DNA methylation and immune phenotypic changes persisted at least 6 mo after successful deworming. This work demonstrates that helminth infection induces DNA methylation and immune perturbations that inhibit TB-specific immune control and that the duration of these changes are helminth specific.
- Analysis of the causes of the seizure and destruction of carcasses and organs in a slaughterhouse in central Italy in the 2010-2016 period. [Journal Article]
- IJItal J Food Saf 2018 Mar 31; 7(1):6899
- Meat safety and hygiene are fundamental issues for producers and endusers. To achieve these goals, the inspection of carcasses and organs at slaughter is critical. The results of post-mortem inspecti...
Meat safety and hygiene are fundamental issues for producers and endusers. To achieve these goals, the inspection of carcasses and organs at slaughter is critical. The results of post-mortem inspection are the basis for planning preventive measures against consumer risks and for limiting economic losses. In this retrospective study, the causes of the seizure and destruction of carcasses and organs were analysed at a slaughterhouse in central Italy from 2010 to 2016. 436,646 slaughtered animals were taken into consideration, for a total of 61,799 seizures (73.29% pigs, 23.87% cattle, 2.77% sheep and 0.07% horses). The organs or groups of organs that most frequently showed lesions in pigs were liver (72.38%), heart (10.77%) and pluck (10.20%); in cattle, lungs (64.86%), liver (31.20%) and stomachs (11.63%); in sheep, liver (77.15%), pluck (18.70%) and lung (3.80%); in horses, liver (75.56%), kidney (68.89%) and lung (31.11%). Among the diagnoses, parasitic diseases of the liver (ascariasis and distomatosis) were especially frequent in all species, followed by pericarditis and polyserositis in pigs and diseases affecting the respiratory system in cattle. The data obtained show that postmortem inspection is of fundamental importance for limiting risks for the consumer and ensuring meat safety. It is also evident, even more than ten years after the coming into force of the so-called hygiene package regulations, that the slaughterhouse can still act as an epidemiological observatory to provide the data needed for the development of plans for the control and eradication of the most frequent diseases in the area.
- Gastrointestinal: An unusual cause of biliary colic: Biliary ascariasis. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 33(5):975
- Biliary ascariasis presenting with gangrenous perforation of the gall bladder: report of a case and brief review of literature. [Journal Article]
- TDTrop Doct 2018 Jan 01; :49475518768103
- The most common cause of gallbladder perforation is calculous cholecystitis. Rarer causes include trauma, iatrogenic injuries, biliary stasis and gall bladder ischemia. We report a case of gall bladd...
The most common cause of gallbladder perforation is calculous cholecystitis. Rarer causes include trauma, iatrogenic injuries, biliary stasis and gall bladder ischemia. We report a case of gall bladder gangrene with perforation, secondary to extensive ascariasis. A 45-year-old woman presented with acute intestinal obstruction and jaundice. She had abdominal distension and right hypochondrial tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed dilated bowel loops and ultrasonogram showed worms in the small intestine and biliary tree. On exploration, a bolus of worms 2 feet proximal to the ileocaecal junction was found causing obstruction. Worms were also present in the bile duct and gallbladder causing gangrene and perforation. She underwent cholecystectomy, bile-duct exploration and enterotomy. However, she died on the third postoperative day of overwhelming sepsis. Enteric complications of ascaris leading to bowel obstruction are well-known. Hepatobiliary complications such as cholangitis and obstructive jaundice are rare. However, such an extreme degree of infestation leading to gangrene and perforation of the gall bladder is extremely rare.
- Parasite allergens. [Journal Article]
- MIMol Immunol 2018 Mar 24
- Human IgE against helminths is a normal component of the whole protective response elicitesd during infection, when specific IgE to a great number of antigens is produced; however, few of those IgE b...
Human IgE against helminths is a normal component of the whole protective response elicitesd during infection, when specific IgE to a great number of antigens is produced; however, few of those IgE binding components are actually allergens. In general, considering the strong Th2/IgE responses during helminth infections is intriguing that they are not usually associated with allergic symptoms, which probably (but not exclusively) depends on parasite-induced immunomodulation. However, allergic manifestations have been described during some helminth infections such as ascariasis, strongyloidiasis, anisakiasis and hydatidosis. In addition, there is evidence that helminthiases (e.g. ascariasis) can increase symptoms in allergic patients. Furthermore, allergic reactions during anti-helminth vaccination have been observed, a problem that also could be associated to the future use of parasite derived immunomodulators. Therefore, identification and characterization of helminth allergens is a matter of increasing research and a great number of IgE binding antigens have been found (www.allergen.org and www.allergome.org). Here we describe only a small group of them, for which allergenic activity (the ability to induce IgE mediated inflammation) have been clinical or experimentally demonstrated. Ascaris lumbricoides tropomyosin (Asc l 3) has strong allergenic activity; in the Tropics it has been associated with asthma and asthma severity, suggesting clinical relevance. In addition, due to its cross reactivity with mite tropomyosins this allergen could influence house dust mite (HDM) allergy diagnosis. Characterized Ascaris allergens also include the polyprotein As s 1 (ABA-1) and the Glutathione transferase As l 13. Other helminth allergens include Anisakis simplex Ani s 1, Ani s 4, Ani s 7 and Ani s 9; Necator americanus NaASP2q and Nacal1 and Schistosoma mansoni SmVAL4 and Sm22.6. Future work on helminth IgE binding antigens will help to understand several aspects of allergenicity and allergenic activity, among them the increasing finding of IgE binding molecules that not induce allergic symptoms.
- [Investigation of major parasitic diseases and related knowledge, attitude and practice among rural residents in Liyang City]. [Journal Article]
- ZXZhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2017 Sep 27; 30(1):72-75
- CONCLUSIONS: The infection rate of major parasitic diseases among the rural residents in Liyang City is low, and the awareness rate of knowledge on preventing parasitic diseases is also low. Therefore, the health education on the prevention and control of parasitic diseases should be strengthened to guide them to develop good hygiene, diet and farming habits. The environmental sanitation should be continuously improved to block the endemic of parasitic infection.
- EUS of pancreatic ascariasis. [Journal Article]
- AJArab J Gastroenterol 2018; 19(1):47-48
- Ascaris is a common cause of acute pancreatitis in developing countries. The mechanism of ascariasis induced acute pancreatitis include obstruction of papilla of Vater, invasion of common bile duct, ...
Ascaris is a common cause of acute pancreatitis in developing countries. The mechanism of ascariasis induced acute pancreatitis include obstruction of papilla of Vater, invasion of common bile duct, or pancreatic duct (PD). PD ascariasis is a rare diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasound is a highly accurate method to diagnose the aetiology of idiopathic acute pancreatitis with reference to biliary and pancreatic ascariasis. Treatment usually consist of endoscopic removal of worms with dormia basket or forceps on side viewing endoscopy. Ascaris induced pancreatitis is generally mild and worm extraction is associated with rapid relief of symptoms. We present a case of PD ascariasis diagnosed on endoscopic ultrasound.
- A Worm Hole: Liver Abscess in Ascariasis. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Med 2018 Mar 05
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- Molecular analysis of human- and pig-derived Ascaris in Honduras. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Helminthol 2018 Mar 05; :1-5
- Ascaris sp. is a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) significantly affecting the health of human and swine populations. Health inequities and poverty, with resulting deficiencies in water, sanitation and...
Ascaris sp. is a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) significantly affecting the health of human and swine populations. Health inequities and poverty, with resulting deficiencies in water, sanitation and hygiene, are directly associated with Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in humans. Resource constraints also lead to small-scale livestock production under unsanitary conditions. Free-ranging pigs, for instance, are exposed to a number of infectious agents, among which Ascaris suum is one of the most common. Under these conditions, close proximity between people and pigs can result in cross-contamination; that is, pigs harbouring human Ascaris and vice versa. Moreover, the potential interbreeding between these two Ascaris species has been demonstrated. The present study analysed Ascaris worms obtained from children and pigs in Honduras. Adult worms were collected from stool samples of children after pharmacological treatment, and from pigs' intestines after slaughter for commercial purposes at a local abattoir. A nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and digested with a restriction enzyme in order to separate putative human- and pig-derived Ascaris isolates. PCR products were also sequenced, and cladograms were constructed. All parasites isolated from children showed the typical human-derived genotype of Ascaris, whereas 91% of parasites from pigs showed the expected pig-derived genotype. Cross-infections between hosts were not demonstrated in this study. Nine per cent of pig-derived worms showed a restriction band pattern highly suggestive of a hybrid human-pig Ascaris genotype. These results contribute to the understanding of ascariasis epidemiology and its zoonotic potential in a highly endemic region.