- Assessment of the burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis after five years of mass drug administration for Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic filariasis in Kebbi State, Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- PEParasite Epidemiol Control 2017; 2(2):21-29
- There is a hypothesis that Mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin and albendazole for the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis could have an impact on the burden of soil-transmi...
There is a hypothesis that Mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin and albendazole for the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis could have an impact on the burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in MDA communities. We, therefore, assessed the burden of STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) infections in nine communities from 3 LGAs (two MDA local government areas (LGAs) and one control LGA) in Kebbi State, Nigeria after 5-years (2010-2015) of MDA for onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis. We also administered questionnaire to obtain demographic information and history of MDA in the past five years. The three LGAs are Bagudo (Ivermectin MDA); Zuru (Ivermectin/Albendazole MDA) and Dandi (No MDA). The study was a cross sectional survey. The total number of people that complied with provision of stool samples and questionnaire were 1357 persons; stool samples collected were examined for STH infections in the three LGAs. Zuru LGA had the highest prevalence of STH (41.89, 95% CI: 37.08-46.81) followed by Dandi LGA (24.66, 95% CI: 20.69-28.97) and Bagudo LGA (3.36, 95% CI: 1.97-5.32). Prevalence of STH infection was not significantly different among age group and sex. Geometric mean intensity per gram of infection for both A. lumbricoides and Hookworm were highest in Zuru LGA with (1.16 GMI, 95% CI: 0.97-1.36) and (1.49 GMI, 95% CI: 1.29-1.70) respectively. Treatment coverage was less than 65% from 2010 to 2013 in the intervention LGAs. The study shows that STH is still a public health problem in Zuru LGA (IVM + ALB) and requires MDA of albendazole for STH control to continue, while Dandi LGA (No MDA history) requires MDA with albendazole to scale up treatment for STH control.
- Epidemiology of intestinal parasite infections in three departments of south-central Côte d'Ivoire before the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial. [Journal Article]
- PEParasite Epidemiol Control 2018; 3(2):63-76
- Hundreds of millions of people are infected with helminths and intestinal protozoa, particularly children in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive chemotherapy is the main strategy to control ...
Hundreds of millions of people are infected with helminths and intestinal protozoa, particularly children in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive chemotherapy is the main strategy to control helminthiases. However, rapid re-infection occurs in settings where there is a lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. In August and September 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in 56 communities of three departments of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Study participants were invited to provide stool and urine samples. Stool samples were examined for helminth and intestinal protozoa infections using the Kato-Katz technique and a formalin-ether concentration method. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, practices and beliefs with regard to hygiene, sanitation and intestinal parasitic diseases were collected using a questionnaire administered to household heads. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to analyse associations between parasite infections and risk factors. Overall, 4,305 participants had complete parasitological and questionnaire data. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species (21.2%), while Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium showed prevalences below 10%. Infections with pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Giardia intestinalis) were similarly prevalent in the three departments. Hookworm infection was associated with open defecation and participants' age and sex. Entamoeba coli infection was negatively associated with the use of tap water at home (odds ratio (OR) = 0.66; p = 0.032). Disposal of garbage in close proximity to people's home was positively associated with G. intestinalis (OR = 1.30; p = 0.015). Taken together, helminth and intestinal protozoa infections affected a considerable proportion of rural dwellers in south-central Côte d'Ivoire at the onset of a cluster-randomised intervention trial. Our results will serve as baseline to monitor the effect of a package of interventions, including preventive chemotherapy, sanitation and health education on re-infection with helminths and intestinal protozoa.
- High prevalence of intestinal worms in children up to 5 years of age in Huaphan province, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). [Journal Article]
- PEParasite Epidemiol Control 2017; 2(3):114-117
- CONCLUSIONS: Such a high prevalence of helminth infection indicates that the national deworming campaign is not adequate in the remote areas, in particular in villages distant from health care centres. It is necessary to ensure the proper administration of anti-helminthics to all children and to adapt the implementation of deworming campaigns to the specificities of each province.
- [Surveillance of soil-borne nematodiasis in population in Hefei City, 2012-2015]. [Journal Article]
- ZXZhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Feb 10; 30(2):208-210
- CONCLUSIONS: From 2012 to 2015, the infection rate of soil-borne nematode infections is lower than 5% in Hefei City. The number of hookworm infection is the most. Therefore, during the "Thirteen five" period, the key point of prevention of parasitic infections is hookworm infection.
- [Survey and analysis of major human parasitic diseases in Chongqing City]. [Journal Article]
- ZXZhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Mar 02; 30(2):194-199
- CONCLUSIONS: The infection rates of major human parasites in Chongqing show an obviously decreasing tendency compared with the rates of the past twice of national surveys. In the future, the controlling practices are obliged to focus on reducing the infection rates of soil-borne parasites.
- [In silico cloning and comparative analysis of NAD1 gene in three common human parasites]. [Journal Article]
- ZXZhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Apr 25; 30(2):189-193
- CONCLUSIONS: The three NAD1 genes got from C. sinensis, A. lumbricoides and S. japonicum by in silico cloning belong to the same gene of different species, which can be widely used in the researches of heritable variation of parasites.
- Schistosomiasis Induces Persistent DNA Methylation and Tuberculosis-Specific Immune Changes. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Immunol 2018 May 11
- Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, determine immune cell phenotype. To understand the epigenetic alterations induced by helminth coinfections, we evaluated the longitudinal effect of asc...
Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, determine immune cell phenotype. To understand the epigenetic alterations induced by helminth coinfections, we evaluated the longitudinal effect of ascariasis and schistosomiasis infection on CD4+ T cell DNA methylation and the downstream tuberculosis (TB)-specific and bacillus Calmette-Guérin-induced immune phenotype. All experiments were performed on human primary immune cells from a longitudinal cohort of recently TB-exposed children. Compared with age-matched uninfected controls, children with active Schistosoma haematobium and Ascaris lumbricoides infection had 751 differentially DNA-methylated genes, with 72% hypermethylated. Gene ontology pathway analysis identified inhibition of IFN-γ signaling, cellular proliferation, and the Th1 pathway. Targeted real-time quantitative PCR after methyl-specific endonuclease digestion confirmed DNA hypermethylation of the transcription factors BATF3, ID2, STAT5A, IRF5, PPARg, RUNX2, IRF4, and NFATC1 and cytokines or cytokine receptors IFNGR1, TNFS11, RELT (TNF receptor), IL12RB2, and IL12B (p < 0.001; Sidak-Bonferroni). Functional blockage of the IFN-γ signaling pathway was confirmed, with helminth-infected individuals having decreased upregulation of IFN-γ-inducible genes (Mann-Whitney p < 0.05). Hypomethylation of the IL-4 pathway and DNA hypermethylation of the Th1 pathway was confirmed by Ag-specific multidimensional flow cytometry demonstrating decreased TB-specific IFN-γ and TNF and increased IL-4 production by CD4+ T cells (Wilcoxon signed-rank p < 0.05). In S. haematobium-infected individuals, these DNA methylation and immune phenotypic changes persisted at least 6 mo after successful deworming. This work demonstrates that helminth infection induces DNA methylation and immune perturbations that inhibit TB-specific immune control and that the duration of these changes are helminth specific.
- Disentangling complex parasite interactions: Protection against cerebral malaria by one helminth species is jeopardized by co-infection with another. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 May 10; 12(5):e0006483
- Multi-species interactions can often have non-intuitive consequences. However, the study of parasite interactions has rarely gone beyond the effects of pairwise combinations of species, and the outco...
Multi-species interactions can often have non-intuitive consequences. However, the study of parasite interactions has rarely gone beyond the effects of pairwise combinations of species, and the outcomes of multi-parasite interactions are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of co-infection by four gastrointestinal helminth species on the development of cerebral malaria among Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients. We characterized associations among the helminth parasite infra-community, and then tested for independent (direct) and co-infection dependent (indirect) effects of helminths on cerebral malaria risk. We found that infection by Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were both associated with direct reductions in cerebral malaria risk. However, the benefit of T. trichiura infection was halved in the presence of hookworm, revealing a strong indirect effect. Our study suggests that the outcome of interactions between two parasite species can be significantly modified by a third, emphasizing the critical role that parasite community interactions play in shaping infection outcomes.
- Genetic Diversity of Ascaris in China Assessed Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Parasitol 2018; 56(2):175-181
- The giant roundworm Ascaris infects pigs and people worldwide and causes serious diseases. The taxonomic relationship between Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides is still unclear. The purpose of th...
The giant roundworm Ascaris infects pigs and people worldwide and causes serious diseases. The taxonomic relationship between Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides is still unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of 258 Ascaris specimens from humans and pigs from 6 sympatric regions in Ascaris-endemic regions of China using existing simple sequence repeat data. The microsatellite markers showed a high level of allelic richness and genetic diversity in the samples. Each of the populations demonstrated excess homozygosity (Ho<He, Fis>0). According to a genetic differentiation index (Fst=0.0593), there was a high-level of gene flow in the Ascaris populations. A hierarchical analysis on molecular variance revealed remarkably high levels of variation within the populations. Moreover, a population structure analysis indicated that Ascaris populations fell into 3 main genetic clusters, interpreted as A. suum, A. lumbricoides, and a hybrid of the species. We speculated that humans can be infected with A. lumbricoides, A. suum, and the hybrid, but pigs were mainly infected with A. suum. This study provided new information on the genetic diversity and population structure of Ascaris from human and pigs in China, which can be used for designing Ascaris control strategies. It can also be beneficial to understand the introgression of host affiliation.
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- Diagnostic performance of direct wet mount microscopy in detecting intestinal helminths among pregnant women attending ante-natal care (ANC) in East Wollega, Oromia, Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- BRBMC Res Notes 2018 May 04; 11(1):276
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of direct wet mount microscopy compared to formalin ether concentration (FEC) technique in detecting intestinal helminths in pregnant ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of direct wet mount microscopy compared to formalin ether concentration (FEC) technique in detecting intestinal helminths in pregnant women.