- MaxEnt modeling of soil-transmitted helminth infection distributions in Thailand. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2018 Aug 17
- Infections due to soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, and Strongyloides stercoralis, are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas...
Infections due to soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, and Strongyloides stercoralis, are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas in which approximately 1.5 billion people are infected. A clear understanding of the epidemiology and distribution of diseases is an important aid for control and prevention. The aim of our study was to identify the effects of environmental and climatic factors on distribution patterns of STHs and to develop a risk map for STH infections under current environmental and climate regimes in Thailand. Geographical information systems (GIS), remote sensing, and Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm software were used to determine the significant factors and to create predictive risk maps for STH infections in Thailand. The disease data from Thailand covered the years from 1969 to 2014, while environmental and climatic data were compiled from the Worldclim database, MODIS satellite imagery, Soilgrids and ISCGM. The models predicted that STHs occur mainly in southern Thailand. Mean annual precipitation was the factor most affecting the current distribution of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and S. stercoralis. Land cover class was the main predictor for distribution of S. stercoralis and important for hookworms. Altitude was the dominant factor affecting the distribution of hookworms, and mean temperature of the wettest quarter was significantly associated with A. lumbricoides distribution. A predicted distribution map of STHs to identify environmental risk factors in Thailand is presented. This work provides a model for use in STH monitoring and health planning not only in Thailand but also in other countries with similar disease conditions.
- INTESTINAL PARASITES, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN ILE-IFE, OSUN STATE, NIGERIA. [Journal Article]
- AJAfr J Infect Dis 2018; 12(2):21-28
- CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal parasites were prevalent among primary school children and use of bush or refuse dump for defeacation was a risk factor. There was no association between intestinal parasites, nutritional status and cognition.
- Assessing the Influence of Water Management and Rainfall Seasonality on Water Quality and Intestinal Parasitism in Rural Northeastern Brazil. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Trop Med 2018; 2018:8159354
- CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest that the strategies to increase water supply in the Brazilian semiarid region can be ameliorated in order to improve the quality of drinking water.
- Soil-transmitted helminth infections, anemia and undernutrition among schoolchildren in Yirgacheffee, South Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- BRBMC Res Notes 2018 Aug 13; 11(1):585
- Current data on soil-transmitted helminth infections, anemia and malnutrition that are largely neglected is vital to the control and management of them in a specific setting. This study was, therefor...
Current data on soil-transmitted helminth infections, anemia and malnutrition that are largely neglected is vital to the control and management of them in a specific setting. This study was, therefore, aimed at determining the status of the three health concerns in one of the high-risk groups, schoolchildren, in South Ethiopia.
- Dynamic changes in human-gut microbiome in relation to a placebo-controlled anthelminthic trial in Indonesia. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018; 12(8):e0006620
- CONCLUSIONS: We found that overall, albendazole does not affect the microbiome composition. However, there is an interaction between treatment and helminths as in subjects who received albendazole and remained infected there was a significant alteration in Bacteroidetes. This helminth-albendazole interaction needs to be studied further to fully grasp the complexity of the effect of deworming on the microbiome.
- Serum Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Helminth Infested Pregnant Women and Cord Blood of their Babies in Relation to Pregnancy Outcome. [Journal Article]
- NJNiger J Physiol Sci 2018 Jun 30; 33(1):51-56
- Pregnancy places a very high demand on physical, physiological and immunological responses of females,especially when aggravated by parasitic infestation. There is strong evidence that maternal infes...
Pregnancy places a very high demand on physical, physiological and immunological responses of females,especially when aggravated by parasitic infestation. There is strong evidence that maternal infestations with helminth haveprofound effects on immunity to helminths and other pathogens. This case-control study involved 245 pregnant women aged18-40 years (>30 weeks of gestation) recruited from three secondary level hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria. Morning stoolsamples collected from pregnant women were examine for intestinal helminths using formol-ether concentration method. Atotal of 38 participants comprising 17 Helminth Positive (HP) and 21 Helminth Negative (HN) pregnant women werepurposely selected for the study. Sera from these women (38) and their babies' cord (38) were analysed for immune factors[interleukins 6 and 8 (IL-6, IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and immunoglobulin E (IgE)] were analyzed usingELISA. Anthropometric indices [weight and height in mothers and babies and Chest Circumference (CC) in babies] weremeasured using standard methods. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics and analysed using Student t-test and Pearsoncorrelation at α0.05. Only Ascaris lumbricoides was found in the 17 (6.9%) infested pregnant women. The mean levels of IL-6 (57.8 ± 32.8 vs 52.8±39.6 pg/mL), IL-8 (24.3±3.5 vs 22.0±7.1 pg/mL) and IgE (333.3±96.6 vs 242.3±96.8 IU/mL) weresimilar in HP when compared with HN. In cord sera, IL-8 level was significantly higher in babies of HP (23.7±3.9 pg/mL)compared with babies of HN (20.1±5.9 pg/mL). The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and nutritional indices in HP had significantpositive correlation with corresponding levels in babies of HP mothers. Only CC was significantly lowered in babies of HPcompared with HN mothers. Other anthropometric indices were not significantly different. Therefore, this present studysuggests that helminth infestation may lead to strong Th2 immune responses as is reflected by the cytokine levels of mothersand babies as well as anthropometric measurements of babies of infested mothers. The outcomes of this study provide basisto deworm pregnant women during pregnancy.
- Active screening of gastrointestinal helminth infection in migrant workers in Thailand. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Int Med Res 2018 Aug 07; :300060518786911
- Objective This study aimed to detect gastrointestinal helminth infection in migrant workers in Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 403 migrant workers in the factories o...
Objective This study aimed to detect gastrointestinal helminth infection in migrant workers in Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 403 migrant workers in the factories of Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeastern Thailand during October 2016 to June 2017. Gastrointestinal helminth infections were detected by the formalin ether acetate concentration technique and microscopy. The data were analyzed using the χ2-test and logistic regression. Results The rate of gastrointestinal helminth infection was 24.07%. The most common species involved in infection was O pisthorchis viverrini (11.91%), followed by hookworm (5.46%), Trichuris trichiura (5.21%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.5%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), and Taenia spp. (0.5%). The majority of infections were found in men aged ≥40 years, married participants, uneducated participants, laborers, those who worked for 1 year, and those who had an income of 9000 to 12,000 THB. Conclusions Gastrointestinal helminth infection is still found in migrant workers. Therefore, active surveillance is required in this large group for investigating and eradicating this type of infection.
- Prevalence of helminthic infections and determinant factors among pregnant women in Mecha district, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2018 Aug 06; 18(1):373
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of helminthic infection is high in this study. Latrine utilization, hand washing habit, eating raw vegetables and bare foot were the major determinant factors for the high prevalence. Therefore, health education and improvements in sanitary infrastructure could achieve long-term and sustainable reductions in helminth prevalence.
- Complex interactions in soil-transmitted helminth co-infections from a cross-sectional study in Sri Lanka. [Journal Article]
- TRTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jul 25
- CONCLUSIONS: Associations in prevalence and egg deposition in STH species may vary, possibly indicating that effects of co-infection are species dependent. We suggest that between-species interactions that differ by species could explain these results, but further research in different populations is needed to support this theory.
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- Ascaridial Volvulus: An Uncommon Cause of Ileal Perforation. [Journal Article]
- IJIran J Med Sci 2018; 43(4):432-435
- Ascariasis is a common worm infestation in developing and under-developed countries. It is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with Ascaris eggs from faeces and is more common in places with...
Ascariasis is a common worm infestation in developing and under-developed countries. It is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with Ascaris eggs from faeces and is more common in places with poor sanitation. Almost 25% of the world population is infested by Ascaris lumbricoides. Although ascariasis is a chronic disease, it can present as acute abdomen rarely. The wandering nature of Ascaris in and out of the bowel causes various abdominal complications such as intestinal obstruction, perforation, biliary ascariasis, pancreatic ascariasis, liver abscess, appendicitis, and Meckel's diverticulitis. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication seen in children and is usually due to mechanical bowel obstruction, volvulus or intussusception. Mechanical obstruction by a bolus of worms is the most common cause of bowel obstruction. Perforation of bowel is rarely reported and it usually occurs in the diseased segment of bowel or following trauma. Perforation of an ileal volvulus secondary to ascariasis has been reported rarely. We present a 4-year-old boy who presented to the emergency room with features of bowel perforation and sepsis, after unsuccessful management for intestinal obstruction in another hospital. On laparotomy, the small bowel was teaming with Ascaris worms. Ileum showed a volvulus with closed loop obstruction and perforation. Peritoneal lavage with resection and ileostomy was done, which was closed at a later date. Anti-helminthic agents were started postoperatively and the boy recovered uneventfully.