- Selected aspects of helminth infections Schistosoma sp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis in individuals diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection [Journal Article]
- PEPrzegl Epidemiol 2018; 72(3):349-361
- Co-infections of HIV and other pathogens constitute an important clinical and epidemiological problem. Many studies have played attention to opportunistic co-infections due to the fact that they are ...
Co-infections of HIV and other pathogens constitute an important clinical and epidemiological problem. Many studies have played attention to opportunistic co-infections due to the fact that they are used as an indicator for development of AIDS and are present on the all continents. However, in HIV-infected patients helminth infections, which are not aetiologic agents of opportunistic infections, are becoming more and more important.Prevalence of helminth infection depends on parasite species, environmental and socio-economic factors, therefore the results of published research mainly refer to populations of patients in developing countries and endemic regions. In many cases, pathogenetic mechanisms of these co-infections are not fully recognized, and the obtained results are ambiguous. Thus we performed literature review concerning the course and implications of co-infections with three selected helminth species, of different tissue/organ tropism (Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma sp.), in patients with HIV infection.
- Soil-transmitted Helminth infection in the Tiko Health District, South West Region of Cameroon: a post-intervention survey on prevalence and intensity of infection among primary school children. [Journal Article]
- PAPan Afr Med J 2018; 30:74
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested a low prevalence of STH infection which could be explained by the prior deworming of children, modification in environmental and behavioral factors. Questions on effectiveness of annual mass deworming in achieving STH elimination targets need to be investigated further.
- Prevalence of enteric parasitic infections among people living with HIV in Abeokuta, Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- PAPan Afr Med J 2018; 30:66
- CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of opportunistic parasitic infection was significantly correlated with diarrhea, low CD4+ count and ART naïve individuals in the study. These findings re-emphasize the need for early diagnosis of opportunistic parasites and appropriate intervention among PLWHA.
- An unusual finding of obstructive jaundice-a case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- OMOxf Med Case Reports 2018; 2018(11):omy088
- Biliary ascariasis is a tropical infectious disease, endemic in regions such as the Far East, Indian subcontinent and parts of the Middle East. The responsible organism is the Ascaris lumbricoides wo...
Biliary ascariasis is a tropical infectious disease, endemic in regions such as the Far East, Indian subcontinent and parts of the Middle East. The responsible organism is the Ascaris lumbricoides worm. This case study presents a 54-year-old British Caucasian female patient, admitted with a 1-week history of generalized abdominal pain. Ultrasound scan of the abdomen showed a collapsed and abnormal image of the gallbladder. Further imaging for better visualization by magnetic resonance cholangiography showed a 6 cm linear structure in the gallbladder. The morphology was characteristic of gallbladder ascariasis. Detailed history revealed that 6 months ago she had travelled to Turkey. Stool cultures confirmed the presence of ascaris eggs. She was treated conservatively with a 500 mg stat dose of Mebendazole. She was followed up in 6 weeks showing complete resolution of her symptoms.
- Ascaris lumbricoides and its almost deadly complication. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Surg Case Rep 2018; 2018(10):rjy262
- Parasitic infections are still a burden in developing countries. The lack of sanitation and hygiene measures can result in an increase in morbidity and mortality due to parasitic infections. Surgery ...
Parasitic infections are still a burden in developing countries. The lack of sanitation and hygiene measures can result in an increase in morbidity and mortality due to parasitic infections. Surgery may be needed to treat serious complications caused by some of these parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common parasites and although infections are usually mild, severe complications, although rare, still exist. We present a case of a patient from the Ecuadorean Amazon region with limited access to drinking water. She presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain and a mass in the abdomen. After surgery, a mass with a perforation due to Ascaris was discovered. After discharge and due to lack of follow up and self-care, she became infected again, this time making her prognosis more complex and her clinical presentation more difficult. However, after proper clinical and surgical management, patient fully recovered.
- Knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to soil contamination by Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- PEParasite Epidemiol Control 2018; 3(4):e00075
- Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, the four major Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and also Strongyloides stercoralis infect humans worldwide. M...
Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, the four major Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and also Strongyloides stercoralis infect humans worldwide. Most studies on Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) carried out in Ibadan were faecal examination based while relatively few soil examination based studies were carried out mostly around school premises using limited number of sampling locations. This study was therefore designed to assess the level of soil contamination with STH and associated risk factors in the eleven local government areas of Ibadan. A total of 1980 soil samples were purposively collected monthly, between January and December 2017, from toilet areas, refuse dump sites, house vicinities, playgrounds, roadsides/walk ways, and examined for the presence of parasite eggs or larvae using automated analysis of light microscopy images by computer. Well-structured questionnaires were administered to 620 consenting participants to obtain information on the Knowledge of STH infections, Attitudes and Practices towards the infections. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21, Chi-square and ANOVA were used in the analysis at p < 0.05. Out of soil samples examined, 1087 (54.9%) had at least one species of parasite. The prevalence of hookworm was 74.5% followed by 50.2% and 37.2% for Strongyloides species larvae and adult respectively, and 25.1% for Ascaris species. The highest prevalence was observed in the refuse dump (74.2%) followed by toilet area (36.5%) while the lowest was at house vicinities (1.6%). Fifty-seven percent of the respondents use pit latrine while 20.6% still practice open defecation. A high transmission risk was observed as large percentage (66.8%) of the respondents showed inadequate knowledge of how to avoid STH infections. Moreover, 64.0% and 25.2% reported that they often walk barefooted and suck fingers respectively. The high prevalence of parasitic contamination of soil observed in the present study and the high proportion of respondent with inadequate knowledge of how to prevent transmission of STH pose a high risk of re-infections in the study area even after treatment. Therefore there is a need for proper education on parasite transmission in the area.
- Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Anemia in Schoolchildren from Corn Island Archipelago (RAAS, Nicaragua). [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Oct 08
- The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in schoolchildren from Corn Islands (Nicaragua) were examined to detect mono- or poly-STH infected children, measuring diffe...
The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in schoolchildren from Corn Islands (Nicaragua) were examined to detect mono- or poly-STH infected children, measuring different intensity levels, and to elucidate measurably increased odds of being anemic. A total of 341 stool samples provided by 2- to 15-year-old children were examined using a concentration technique and a Kato-Katz slide. Intensity of infection was expressed as eggs per gram (epg) of feces to classify light, moderate, or heavy intensity infection. A finger-prick blood sample was obtained from each student in the field. Soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 54.3%, with Trichuris trichiura as the most prevalent species (48.9%). The combination T. trichiura/Ascaris lumbricoides (12.6%) was the most common. When T. trichiura or A. lumbricoides appeared as a single infection, light or moderate intensity infections were seen, whereas when multiple species were identified, heavy infections were present. Anemia was detected in those with any kind of STH infection (42.7%), with statistically significant differences (P = 0.004) when compared with uninfected individuals (28.2%). Polyparasite infection with one parasite species at moderate intensity and the other parasite species at light intensity or absent was found to be a significant factor for the odds of being anemic (odds ratio = 2.07). The present study reveals a high level of STH transmission requiring a deworming control program in Corn Islands and pointing to the need of improving the education and sanitary conditions of the population to avoid environmental contamination and reinfection.
- Spatial distribution and populations at risk of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura co-infections and infection intensity classes: an ecological study. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Oct 03; 11(1):535
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided epidemiological evidence to highlight national priority areas for controlling co-infections and high intensity infections in the Philippines. Our maps could assist more geographically targeted interventions to reduce the risk of STH-associated morbidity in the Philippines.
- Intestinal parasitosis and associated factors among diabetic patients attending Arba Minch Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- BRBMC Res Notes 2018 Oct 01; 11(1):689
- Local assessment of the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infections and associated factors among diabetic patients helps for good prognosis of diabetes. Hospital based cross-sectional study was cond...
Local assessment of the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infections and associated factors among diabetic patients helps for good prognosis of diabetes. Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 215 diabetic patients. A structured questionnaire was used to capture data about socio-demographic characteristics, clinical history and factors associated with intestinal parasitosis. Stool samples were collected and processed by direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration and modified ziehl-Neelson staining techniques. All data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 20.
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- Molecular archaeoparasitology identifies cultural changes in the Medieval Hanseatic trading centre of Lübeck. [Journal Article]
- PBProc Biol Sci 2018 Oct 03; 285(1888)
- Throughout history, humans have been afflicted by parasitic worms, and eggs are readily detected in archaeological deposits. This study integrated parasitological and ancient DNA methods with a large...
Throughout history, humans have been afflicted by parasitic worms, and eggs are readily detected in archaeological deposits. This study integrated parasitological and ancient DNA methods with a large sample set dating between Neolithic and Early Modern periods to explore the utility of molecular archaeoparasitology as a new approach to study the past. Molecular analyses provided unequivocal species-level parasite identification and revealed location-specific epidemiological signatures. Faecal-oral transmitted nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura) were ubiquitous across time and space. By contrast, high numbers of food-associated cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum and Taenia saginata) were restricted to medieval Lübeck. The presence of these cestodes and changes in their prevalence at approximately 1300 CE indicate substantial alterations in diet or parasite availability. Trichuris trichiura ITS-1 sequences grouped into two clades; one ubiquitous and one restricted to medieval Lübeck and Bristol. The high sequence diversity of T.tITS-1 detected in Lübeck is consistent with its importance as a Hanseatic trading centre. Collectively, these results introduce molecular archaeoparasitology as an artefact-independent source of historical evidence.