- PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Cancer Institute (US): Bethesda (MD)
- This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the use of high-dose vitamin C in the treatment of people with cancer. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregiv...
This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the use of high-dose vitamin C in the treatment of people with cancer. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Editorial Boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards are made up of experts in cancer treatment and other specialties related to cancer. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made when there is new information. The date on each summary ("Date Last Modified") is the date of the most recent change. The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board.
- A fabrication method of gold coated colloidosomes and their application as targeted drug carriers. [Journal Article]
- SMSoft Matter 2018 Feb 21
- Colloidosomes have attracted considerable attention in recent years because of their potential applications in a range of industries, such as food, bioreactors and medicine. However, traditional poly...
Colloidosomes have attracted considerable attention in recent years because of their potential applications in a range of industries, such as food, bioreactors and medicine. However, traditional polymer shell colloidosomes leak low molecular weight encapsulated materials due to their intrinsic shell permeability. Here, we report aqueous core colloidosomes coated with a gold shell, which make the capsules impermeable. The shells can be ruptured using ultrasound. The gold coated colloidosomes are prepared by making an aqueous core capsule with a polymer shell and then adding HAuCl4, surfactant and l-ascorbic acid to form a second shell. We propose to use the capsules as drug carriers. The gold coated colloidosomes demonstrate a low cytotoxicity and after triggering, both encapsulated doxorubicin and broken gold fragments kill cancer cells. In addition, we set up a targeting model by modifying the gold shell colloidosomes using 4,4'-dithiodibutyric acid and crosslinking them with proteins-rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG). Label-free surface plasmon resonance was used to test the specific targeting of the functional gold shells with rabbit antigen. The results demonstrate that a new type of functional gold coated colloidosome with non-permeability, ultrasound sensitivity and immunoassay targeting could be applied to many medical applications.
- Comparative in vivo evaluation of novel formulations based on alginate and silver nanoparticles for wound treatments. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biomater Appl 2018 Jan 01; :885328218759564
- In the present study, possibilities for using novel nanocomposites based on alginate and silver nanoparticles for wound treatment were investigated in a second-degree thermal burn model in Wistar rat...
In the present study, possibilities for using novel nanocomposites based on alginate and silver nanoparticles for wound treatment were investigated in a second-degree thermal burn model in Wistar rats. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were electrochemically synthesized in alginate solutions that were further utilized to obtain the Ag/alginate solution and microfibers for subsequent in vivo studies. Daily applications of the Ag/alginate colloid solution, containing AgNPs, alginate and ascorbic acid (G3), wet Ag/alginate microfibers containing AgNPs (G5) and dry Ag/alginate microfibers containing AgNPs (G6) were compared to treatments with a commercial cream containing silver sulfadiazine (G2) and a commercial Ca-alginate wound dressing containing silver ions (G4), as well as to the untreated controls (G1). Results of the in vivo study have shown faster healing in treated wounds, which completely healed on day 19 (G4, G5 and G6) and 21 (G2 and G3) after the thermal injury, while the period for complete reepitelization of untreated wounds (G1) was 25 days. The macroscopic analysis has shown that scabs fell off between day 10 and 12 after the thermal injury induction in treated groups, whereas between day 15 and 16 in the control group. These macroscopic findings were supported by the results of histopathological analyses, which have shown enhanced granulation and reepithelization, reduced inflammation and improved organization of the extracellular matrix in treated groups without adverse effects. Among the treated groups, dressings based on Ca-alginate (G4-G6) induced enhanced healing as compared to the other two groups (G2, G3), which could be attributed to additional stimuli of released Ca2+. The obtained results indicated potentials of novel nanocomposites based on alginate and AgNPs for therapeutic applications in wound treatments.
- Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Activities by Extracts of Hyptis verticillata Jacq.: Assessment for Potential HERB-Drug Interactions. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2018 Feb 15; 23(2)
- Understanding the potential for adverse drug reactions (ADRs), from herb-drug interactions, is a key aspect of medicinal plant safety, with particular relevance for public health in countries where m...
Understanding the potential for adverse drug reactions (ADRs), from herb-drug interactions, is a key aspect of medicinal plant safety, with particular relevance for public health in countries where medicinal plant use is highly prevalent. We undertook an in-depth assessment of extracts of Hyptis verticillata Jacq., via its impact on activities of key cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 3A4 and 2D6), its antioxidant properties (determined by DPPH assays) and chemical characterisation (using LC-MS). The dried plant aqueous extract demonstrated potent inhibition of the activities of CYPs 1A1 (7.6 µg/mL), 1A2 (1.9 µg/mL), 1B1 (9.4 µg/mL) and 3A4 (6.8 µg/mL). Further analysis of other crude extracts demonstrated potent inhibition of CYP1A2 activity for a dried plant ethanol extract (1.5 µg/mL), fresh plant ethanol extract (3.9 µg/mL), and moderate activity for a fresh plant aqueous extract (27.8 µg/mL). All four extracts demonstrated strong antioxidant activity, compared to the positive control (ascorbic acid, 1.3 µg/mL), with the dried plant ethanol extract being the most potent (1.6 µg/mL). Analysis of the dried plant aqueous extract confirmed the identity of seven phytochemicals, five lignans and two triterpenes. Individual screening of these phytochemicals against the activity of CYP1A2 identified yatein as a moderate inhibitor (71.9 μM), likely to contribute to the plant extract's potent bioactivity. Further analysis on the impact of this plant on key drug metabolizing enzymes in vivo appears warranted for likely ADRs, as well as furthering development as a potential chemopreventive agent.
- The Interaction of N-Acetylcysteine and Serum Transferrin Promotes Bacterial Biofilm Formation. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2018 Feb 15; 45(4):1399-1409
- CONCLUSIONS: NAC used intravenously or in the presence of blood increases bacterial biofilm formation rather than inhibits it.
- Ascorbic acid ameliorates lead-induced apoptosis in the cerebellar cortex of developing rats. [Journal Article]
- BRBrain Res 2018 Feb 17
- We investigated the effects of the gestational administration of lead (Pb) and ascorbic acid on cerebellar development. Pregnant female rats were randomly assigned to the control, Pb, or Pb plus asco...
We investigated the effects of the gestational administration of lead (Pb) and ascorbic acid on cerebellar development. Pregnant female rats were randomly assigned to the control, Pb, or Pb plus ascorbic acid (PA) groups; six offspring per cage were randomly selected for analysis. Compared to the control group, fewer Purkinje cells were observed in the Pb-exposed pups at postnatal day 21. However, co-administrating Pb and ascorbic acid inhibited the Pb-induced reduction in Purkinje cells. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, which detected DNA fragmentation in the dying cells, showed more TUNEL-positive cells in the Pb group, while co-treatment with Pb and ascorbic acid mitigated the Pb-induced cellular degeneration. Using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, we additionally found that Pb exposure induced a rise in the apoptotic factor Bax in the cerebellum, while Pb plus ascorbic acid treatment ameliorated this Bax induction. Since, Pb competes with the iron in the cell and the accumulation of free iron triggers oxidative stress, we performed iron staining, which revealed that ascorbic acid prevented the Pb-induced rises in iron-reactive cells and iron-reactivity. The anti-oxidant enzyme manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase showed change patterns that were similar to those of iron in the cerebellum. Finally, the pups' blood Pb levels were highest in the Pb group but were reduced in the PA group. Our findings suggest that ascorbic acid effectively ameliorates Pb-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in the cerebellum. The present results imply that ascorbic acid treatment during pregnancy may protect against Pb-mediated developmental impairments in the cerebellum.
- Effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, selenium, or their combination in linseed oil-enriched diets on the oxidative status in broilers. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Feb 15
- A trial was conducted to investigate whether, and if so to what extent, the combined supplementation of vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium was superior to their sole supplementation concerning the ox...
A trial was conducted to investigate whether, and if so to what extent, the combined supplementation of vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium was superior to their sole supplementation concerning the oxidative stress induced by a high n-3 dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake in broilers. Four hundred 21-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were allocated to 5 experimental groups fed the following linseed oil (5%)-enriched finisher diets: Cont (no supplement), +E (200 IU vitamin E/kg feed), +C (250 mg vitamin C/kg feed), +Se (0.2 mg selenium/kg feed), or +ECSe (concentrations as in the sole supplementation, combined). Analyses of malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin C, and α- and γ-tocopherols in plasma, antioxidant capacity of water- (ACW) and lipid- (ACL) soluble compounds in serum, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in whole blood were performed. In breast muscle, analyses of MDA, α- and γ-tocopherols, ACW, selenium, and fatty acid (FA) composition were carried out. Birds fed the combination of antioxidants showed reduced average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) and, as +E, lower MDA and γ-tocopherol, together with raised α- tocopherol levels in plasma and lower MDA and raised α- tocopherol levels in breast muscle compared to the control. The combination of antioxidants in the +ECSe group raised GPx activity in whole blood compared to the control. In conclusion, results indicated that vitamin E is the most effective antioxidant to alleviate oxidative stress caused by high dietary PUFA and that the supplementation with additional vitamin C and selenium did not have clear synergistic effect.
- Effects of in ovo administration of L-ascorbic acid on broiler hatchability and its influence on the effects of pre-placement holding time on broiler quality characteristics,. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Feb 15
- The current study was conducted to determine the possible effects of the in ovo administration of different dosages of L-ascorbic acid (AA) to broiler hatching eggs on hatchability and its potential ...
The current study was conducted to determine the possible effects of the in ovo administration of different dosages of L-ascorbic acid (AA) to broiler hatching eggs on hatchability and its potential for reducing the adverse effects of delayed placement.A total of 702 broiler hatching eggs was hand-injected at 17 d of incubation (DOI) with 100 μL of sterile saline (0.85%) alone or containing 0.5, 1.5, 4.5, or 13.5 mg AA. Hatchability was recorded every 5 h from 480 h to 505 hours. Results showed that AA injection did not affect embryo BW as percentage of set egg weight or yolk sac weight as percentage of embryo weight at 19.5 DOI. The hatching time of all embryos that received an AA in ovo injection was between 480 and 495 h of incubation, and significantly fewer embryos hatched before 480 h in comparison to non-injected controls. Hatchability (above 92% in all groups) was not significantly affected by injection treatment. However, fertile eggs injected with saline containing 4.5 mg AA had the highest hatchability. At 21 DOI, hatching BW as a percentage of set egg weight and yolk sac weight as a percentage of BW were numerically higher in AA injection groups. An in ovo injection of AA at a 13.5 mg/egg level resulted in a numerically higher BW as a percentage of set egg weight. The in ovo injection of AA did not reduce the adverse effects of a 48-hour posthatch pre-placement holding time on BW or on yolk sac absorption. Overall, in ovo injection of L-ascorbic acid (0.5 to 13.5 mg/egg) into fertile broiler hatching eggs at 17 DOI did not negatively affect hatchability or embryo development, and did not prevent the negative effects of a 48-hour posthatch holding time on BW and yolk sac absorption. The range of tolerance as well as the optimal dosage of in ovo-injected AA warrants future study.
- Self-assembled Collagen-Fibrin Hydrogel Reinforces Tissue Engineered Adventitia Vessels Seeded with Human Fibroblasts. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Feb 19; 8(1):3294
- Efforts for tissue engineering vascular grafts focuses on the tunica media and intima, although the tunica adventitia serves as the primary structural support for blood vessels. In surgery, during en...
Efforts for tissue engineering vascular grafts focuses on the tunica media and intima, although the tunica adventitia serves as the primary structural support for blood vessels. In surgery, during endarterectomies, surgeons can strip the vessel, leaving the adventitia as the main strength layer to close the vessel. Here, we adapted our recently developed technique of forming vascular tissue rings then stacking the rings into a tubular structure, to accommodate human fibroblasts to create adventitia vessels in 8 days. Collagen production and fibril cross-linking was augmented with TGF-β and ascorbic acid, significantly increasing tensile strength to 57.8 ± 3.07 kPa (p = 0.008). Collagen type I gel was added to the base fibrin hydrogel to further increase strength. Groups were: Fibrin only; 0.7 mg/ml COL; 1.7 mg/ml COL; and 2.2 mg/ml COL. The 0.7 mg/ml collagen rings resulted in the highest tensile strength at 77.0 ± 18.1 kPa (p = 0.015). Culture periods of 1-2 weeks resulted in an increase in extracellular matrix deposition and significantly higher failure strength but not ultimate tensile strength. Histological analysis showed the 0.7 mg/ml COL group had significantly more, mature collagen. Thus, a hydrogel of 0.7 mg/ml collagen in fibrin was ideal for creating and strengthening engineered adventitia vessels.
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- Sensitive, selective, disposable electrochemical dopamine sensor based on PEDOT-modified laser scribed graphene. [Journal Article]
- BBBiosens Bioelectron 2018 Feb 13; 107:184-191
- The fabrication of a novel, and highly selective electrochemical sensor based on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) modified laser scribed graphene (LSG), and detection of dopamine (DA) in th...
The fabrication of a novel, and highly selective electrochemical sensor based on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) modified laser scribed graphene (LSG), and detection of dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) is described. LSG electrodes were produced with a 3-dimensional macro-porous network and large electrochemically-active surface area via direct laser writing on polyimide sheets. PEDOT was electrodeposited on the LSG electrode, and the physical properties of the obtained films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction microanalysis (EDAX). The modified electrodes were applied for the determination of DA in the presence of AA and UA using cyclic voltammetry (CV), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques. The linear range for dopamine detection was found to be 1-150 µM with a sensitivity of 0.220 ± 0.011 µA μM-1and a detection limit of 0.33 µM; superior values to those obtained without PEDOT. For the first time, PEDOT-modified LSG have been fabricated and assessed for high-performance dopamine sensing using cost-effective, disposable electrodes, with potential for development in further sensing applications.