- Resensitization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by amoxapine, an FDA-approved antidepressant. [Journal Article]
- HHeliyon 2018; 4(1):e00501
- The rapid increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a global healthcare crisis. Non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals that have attained approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration h...
The rapid increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a global healthcare crisis. Non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals that have attained approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration have the potential to be repurposed as bacterial resistance-modifying agents and therefore could become valuable resources in our battle against antibiotic-resistant microbes. Amoxapine is a tetracyclic antidepressant used in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Here we demonstrate the ability of amoxapine to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain ATCC 43300 to oxacillin in both agar diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Amoxapine also reduced the bacterial cleavage of nitrocefin in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that it may exert its adjuvant effects through reduction of beta-lactamase activity.
- Insulin Signaling Deficiency Produces Immobility in Caenorhabditis elegans That Models Diminished Motivation States in Man and Responds to Antidepressants. [Journal Article]
- MNMol Neuropsychiatry 2017; 3(2):97-107
- Defects in insulin signaling have been reported in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, which also share certain negative symptoms such as avolition, anhedonia, and apathy. These symptoms ref...
Defects in insulin signaling have been reported in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, which also share certain negative symptoms such as avolition, anhedonia, and apathy. These symptoms reflect diminished motivational states, which have been modeled in rodents as increased immobility in the forced swimming test. We have discovered that loss-of-function mutations in the insulin receptor (daf-2) and syntaxin (unc-64) genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, brief food deprivation, and exposure to DMSO produce immobility and avolition in non-dauer adults. The animals remain responsive to external stimuli; however, they fail to forage and will remain in place for >12 days or until they die. Their immobility can be prevented with drugs used to treat depression and schizophrenia and that reduce immobility in the forced swimming test. This includes amitriptyline, amoxapine, clozapine, and olanzapine, but not benzodiazepines and haloperidol. Recovery experiments confirm that immobility is induced and maintained by excessive signaling via serotonergic and muscarinic cholinergic pathways. The immobility response described here represents a potential protophenotype for avolition/anhedonia in man. This work may provide clues about why there is a significant increase in depression in patients with diabetes and suggest new therapeutic pathways for disorders featuring diminished motivation as a prominent symptom.
- Combating Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens with Host-Directed Nonantibiotic Therapeutics. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018; 62(1)
- Earlier, we reported that three Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, trifluoperazine (TFP; an antipsychotic), amoxapine (AXPN; an antidepressant), and doxapram (DXP; a breathing stimulant), i...
Earlier, we reported that three Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, trifluoperazine (TFP; an antipsychotic), amoxapine (AXPN; an antidepressant), and doxapram (DXP; a breathing stimulant), identified from anin vitromurine macrophage cytotoxicity screen, provided mice with 40 to 60% protection against pneumonic plague when administered at the time of infection for 1 to 3 days. In the present study, the therapeutic potential of these drugs against pneumonic plague in mice was further evaluated when they were administered at up to 48 h postinfection. While the efficacy of TFP was somewhat diminished as treatment was delayed to 24 h, the protection of mice with AXPN and DXP increased as treatment was progressively delayed to 24 h. At 48 h postinfection, these drugs provided the animals with significant protection (up to 100%) against challenge with the agent of pneumonic or bubonic plague when they were administered in combination with levofloxacin. Likewise, when they were used in combination with vancomycin, all three drugs provided mice with 80 to 100% protection from fatal oralClostridium difficileinfection when they were administered at 24 h postinfection. Furthermore, AXPN provided 40 to 60% protection against respiratory infection withKlebsiella pneumoniaewhen it was administered at the time of infection or at 24 h postinfection. Using the samein vitrocytotoxicity assay, we identified an additional 76/780 nonantibiotic drugs effective againstK. pneumoniaeForAcinetobacter baumannii, 121 nonantibiotic drugs were identified to inhibit bacterium-induced cytotoxicity in murine macrophages. Of these 121 drugs, 13 inhibited the macrophage cytotoxicity induced by two additional multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains. Six of these drugs decreased the intracellular survival of all threeA. baumanniistrains in macrophages. These results provided further evidence of the broad applicability and utilization of drug repurposing screening to identify new therapeutics to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens of public health concern.
- Specific Patient Features Affect Antiepileptic Drug Therapy Decisions: Focus on Gender, Age, and Psychiatric Comorbidities. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Pharm Des 2017; 23(37):5639-5648
- CONCLUSIONS: A careful evaluation of the patient variables analysed in the present review is useful to personalize and optimize AED therapy.
- Amoxapine Demonstrates Incomplete Inhibition of β-Glucuronidase Activity from Human Gut Microbiota. [Journal Article]
- SDSLAS Discov 2018; 23(1):76-83
- Amoxapine has been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase. This study aims to explore the factors causing unsatisfactory efficacy of amoxapine in alleviating CPT-11...
Amoxapine has been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase. This study aims to explore the factors causing unsatisfactory efficacy of amoxapine in alleviating CPT-11-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in mice and to predict the outcomes in humans. Amoxapine (100 µM) exhibited poor and varied inhibition on β-glucuronidase activity in gut microbiota from 10 healthy individuals and their pool (pool, 11.9%; individuals, 3.6%-54.4%) with IC50>100 µM and potent inhibition toward E. coli β-glucuronidase (IC50= 0.34 µM). p-Nitrophenol formation from p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucuronide by pooled and individual gut microbiota fitted classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, showing similar affinity (Km= 113-189 µM) but varied catalytic capability (Vmax= 53-556 nmol/h/mg). Interestingly, amoxapine showed distinct inhibitory effects (8.7%-100%) toward β-glucuronidases of 13 bacterial isolates (including four Enterococcus, three Streptococcus, two Escherichia, and two Staphylococcus strains; gus genes belonging to OTU1, 2 or 21) regardless of their genetic similarity or bacterial origin. In addition, amoxapine inhibited the growth of pooled and individual gut microbiota at a high concentration (6.3%-30.8%, 200 µM). Taken together, these findings partly explain the unsatisfactory efficacy of amoxapine in alleviating CPT-11-induced toxicity and predict a poor outcome of β-glucuronidase inhibition in humans, highlighting the necessity of using a human gut microbiota community for drug screening.
- Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions. [Journal Article]
- SPSaudi Pharm J 2017; 25(5):744-749
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.
- A tricyclic antidepressant, amoxapine, reduces amyloid-β generation through multiple serotonin receptor 6-mediated targets. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 Jul 10; 7(1):4983
- Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major and devastating neurodegenerative disease, and the amyloid-β (Aβ) hypothesis is still the central theory for AD pathogenesis. Meanwhile, another major mental illne...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major and devastating neurodegenerative disease, and the amyloid-β (Aβ) hypothesis is still the central theory for AD pathogenesis. Meanwhile, another major mental illness, depression, is one of the risk factors for AD. From a high-throughput screening (HTS), amoxapine, a typical secondary amine tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), was identified to reduce Aβ production. A follow-up investigation on antidepressants showed that most of the TCAs harbour similar activity. Previous studies have indicated that TCAs improve cognitive function in AD mouse models as well as in preliminary clinical data; however, the underlying mechanism is controversial, and the effect on Aβ is elusive. Thus, we developed a secondary screening to determine the molecular target of amoxapine, and serotonin receptor 6 (HTR6) was identified. Knockdown of HTR6 reduced the amoxapine's effect, while the HTR6 antagonist SB258585 mimicked the activity of amoxapine. Further mechanistic study showed that amoxapine and SB258585 reduced Aβ generation through multiple HTR6-mediated targets, including β-arrestin2 and CDK5. Taken together, our study suggests that amoxapine, though no longer a first-line drug for the treatment of depression, may be beneficial for AD and further structural modification of TCAs may lead to desirable therapeutic agents to treat both AD and depression.
- Randomized Crossover Trial of Amoxapine Versus Vitamin B12 for Retrograde Ejaculation. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- IBInt Braz J Urol 2017 May-Jun; 43(3):496-504
- CONCLUSIONS: Amoxapine may be an effective, safe and well-tolerated therapy for RE.
- Simultaneous quantification of loxapine, loxapine N-oxide, amoxapine, 8-hydroxyloxapine and 7-hydroxyloxapine in human plasma using LC-MS/MS. [Clinical Trial, Phase I]
- JCJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2017 Mar 01; 1046:87-97
- Loxapine is an antipsychotic medication used for the treatment of schizophrenia. In vivo, loxapine is metabolized to multiple metabolites. A high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectr...
Loxapine is an antipsychotic medication used for the treatment of schizophrenia. In vivo, loxapine is metabolized to multiple metabolites. A high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of loxapine and 4 of its metabolites, loxapine N-oxide, amoxapine (N-desmethyl loxapine), 8-hydroxyloxapine and 7-hydroxyloxapine, in human plasma to support regulated clinical development. During method development, several technical challenges such as poor chromatography, separation of structural isomers, and inadequate sensitivity were met and overcome. The final method utilized micro-elution solid phase extraction (SPE) to extract plasma samples (100μL), and the resulting extracts were analyzed using reversed phase LC-MS/MS using a turbo-ionspray interface in positive ionization mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The method was fully validated according to the current regulatory guidance for bioanalysis over the calibration curve range 0.0500-50.0ng/mL for all analytes using 1/x2-weighted linear regression analysis. Based on three separate runs, the between-run precision and inter-day precision for all five analytes at all concentrations, including the LLOQ (lower limit of quantitation) quality control at 0.0500ng/mL, varied from 0.0% to 13.8%, while the accuracy ranged from 86.4% to 109.3% of nominal. The extraction recoveries of loxapine and the four metabolites were above 80%. Various forms of short-term and long-term stability were established in both solutions and matrix, including the stability of loxapine and the four metabolites in human plasma for up to 260days of storage at -20°C. This method has been used to support a regulated clinical study, which included the successful execution of incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) testing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published methodology in which these five analytes were quantified with a single extraction and injection.
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- Inhibitory Effects of Antidepressants on Acetylcholine-Induced Contractions in Isolated Guinea Pig Urinary Bladder Smooth Muscle. [Journal Article]
- PPharmacology 2017; 99(1-2):89-98
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in addition to tricyclics, some relatively novel antidepressants such as mirtazapine can induce voiding impairment, attributed to diminished UBSM contractility from the inhibition of muscarinic receptors in the UBSM.