- Administration of low-molecular-weight heparin in patients with two or more unsuccessful IVF/ICSI cycles: a multicenter cohort study. [Journal Article]
- GEGynecol Endocrinol 2018 Feb 21; :1-5
- To compare the effects of the administration of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in subfertile patients with two or more unsuccessful IVF/ICSI cycles. In this six-center two-arm retrospective coho...
To compare the effects of the administration of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in subfertile patients with two or more unsuccessful IVF/ICSI cycles. In this six-center two-arm retrospective cohort study, the study population (230 women) underwent a GnRH-antagonist protocol and was classified into two groups, according to the couse of LMWH or not. Groups were compared regarding the clinical and IVF/ICSI cycle characteristics and reproductive outcomes, whereas clinical pregnancy and miscarriage constituted the primary endpoints. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the potential predictors of clinical pregnancy, miscarriage and live birth rates using the Enter method. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the two study groups with regard neither to clinical pregnancy and miscarriage rates (33/133 vs. 20/97, p = .456 and 15/133 vs. 9/97, p = .624, respectively), nor to the secondary outcomes preset for this study (all p values >.05). Logistic regression revealed that age of the woman and ICSI and dose of gonadotrophins used were predictors of clinical pregnancy and live birth, respectively. In conclusion, there is no evidence to support the standard addition of LMWH in patients with two or more unsuccessful IVF/ICSI cycles.
- Epididymal sperm from Spix's yellow-toothed cavies sperm successfully cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk. [Journal Article]
- ARAnim Reprod Sci 2018 Feb 15
- As a non-threatened hystricognath rodent species, Spix's yellow-toothed cavies can be used as a model for the development of assisted reproductive techniques for the conservation of closely related s...
As a non-threatened hystricognath rodent species, Spix's yellow-toothed cavies can be used as a model for the development of assisted reproductive techniques for the conservation of closely related species. The objective was to establish a functional protocol for cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from these cavies. Twelve sexually mature males, ∼2 y old and weighing ∼300 g, were euthanized. Sperm were recovered by retrograde flushing of the vas deferens and cauda epididymis with Tris extender. Thereafter, sperm were extended in Tris plus 20% egg yolk, with 3%, 6% or 9% glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), placed in 0.25 mL straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Sperm concentration, motility (using computer-assisted sperm analysis; CASA), plasma membrane integrity, osmotic response, morphology and sperm binding-ability were determined in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. For most sperm endpoints, glycerol was a more desirable cryoprotectant than DMSO. Data (mean ± SEM) were similar with use of 3%, 6%, and 9% glycerol (P > 0.05) in osmotic response (40.66 ± 6.3%, 42.5 ± 7.1%, and 39.5 ± 5.0% respectably), and membrane integrity (55.17 ± 5.5%, 68.4 ± 4.1%, and 59.1 ± 4.9% respectably). Among concentrations assessed, the use of 6% glycerol resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) post-thaw values for total motility (60.9 ± 4.4%), rapid subpopulation motility (27.7 ± 3.1%) and sperm-binding capability (227.0 ± 20.2). In conclusion, epididymal sperm from the Spix's yellow-toothed cavies (G. spixii) are optimally cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk.
- A Biochemical Approach to Detect Oxidative Stress in Infertile Women Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology Procedures. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Feb 16; 19(2)
- Oxidative stress plays a major role in critical biological processes in human reproduction. However, a reliable and biologically accurate indicator of this condition does not yet exist. On these base...
Oxidative stress plays a major role in critical biological processes in human reproduction. However, a reliable and biologically accurate indicator of this condition does not yet exist. On these bases, the aim of this study was to assess and compare the blood and follicular fluid (FF) redox status of 45 infertile subjects (and 45 age-matched controls) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), and explore possible relationships between the assessed redox parameters and IVF outcomes. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production, assessed by flow cytometry analysis in blood leukocytes and granulosa cells, significantly increased (p < 0.05) in infertile patients. Also, oxidative stress markers-ThioBarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS) as an index of lipid peroxidation, and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) to account for total antioxidant capacity, both assayed by fluorometric procedures-in blood and FF were significantly (p < 0.001) modified in infertile patients compared to the control group. Moreover, a significant correlation between blood redox markers and FF redox markers was evident. An ORAC/TBARS ratio, defined as the redox index (RI), was obtained in the plasma and FF of the patients and controls. In the patients, the plasma RI was about 3.4-fold (p < 0.0001) lower than the control, and the FF RI was about six-fold (p < 0.0001) lower than the control. Interestingly, both the plasma RI and FF RI results were significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the considered outcome parameters (metaphase II, fertilization rate, and ongoing pregnancies). Given the reported findings, a strict monitoring of redox parameters in assisted reproductive techniques and infertility management is recommended.
- Sperm retrieval by microdissection testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in nonobstructive azoospermic patients with Klinefelter syndrome. [Journal Article]
- AAndrologia 2018 Feb 20
- Klinefelter syndrome is the most frequent chromosomal abnormality in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia. The development of advanced assisted reproductive techniques, such as testicular sperm e...
Klinefelter syndrome is the most frequent chromosomal abnormality in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia. The development of advanced assisted reproductive techniques, such as testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, has provided the possibility of biological fathering in nonobstructive azoospermic patients with Klinefelter syndrome. We aimed to evaluate our sperm retrieval rate by microdissection testicular sperm extraction and to analyse the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in these patients. Medical records of 110 nonobstructive azoospermic patients with Klinefelter syndrome were retrospectively reviewed. We found that the sperm retrieval rate by microdissection testicular sperm extraction is lower than published reports on other types of secretory azoospermia. The statistical analyses yielded that age, FSH and testosterone levels as predictive factors for successful sperm retrieval.
- Early fetal reduction to twin versus prophylactic cervical cerclage for triplet pregnancies conceived with assisted reproductive techniques. [Journal Article]
- TJTaiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018; 57(1):95-99
- CONCLUSIONS: Early transvaginal reduction of triplets to twins leads to improved obstetric outcomes as it decreases prematurity and its related neonatal morbidities and mortality without increase in the miscarriage rate. Early fetal reduction seems to be better than continuation of triplet pregnancies with prophylactic placement of cervical cerclage.
- Long term effects of ART: what do animals tell us? [Review]
- MRMol Reprod Dev 2018 Feb 19
- Early stages of mammalian embryonic development are now known to be very sensitive to their microenvironment, with long term effects on fetal, postnatal and adult health, thus extending to these earl...
Early stages of mammalian embryonic development are now known to be very sensitive to their microenvironment, with long term effects on fetal, postnatal and adult health, thus extending to these early stages the concept of Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DoHaD). In this scientific context, and with 3% of births in developed countries, safety of Assisted Reproductive Techniques procedures becomes a matter of concern. Besides, embryo technologies in domestic mammals, using huge number of embryos, do not seem to evidence heavy impacts on adult phenotypes. This paper first discusses what can or cannot be concluded from farm animal data, then develops long term effects of ART procedures (ovarian stimulation, in vitro fertilization and embryo culture) evidenced in model species (mainly mouse model). Recent literature demonstrates both individual and cumulative effects of each ART procedure on fetal and postnatal phenotypes. In a second part, because they are sources for further perturbations, immediate effects of ART on early embryo phenotypes at the cellular and molecular levels are described in both farm animals and model species. Mechanistic hypotheses supporting these ART induced phenotypic alterations are subsequently considered. Finally, taking into account interspecies differences in the mechanisms likely to be involved, the relevance of results obtained in animal models for human ART are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Review: The potential of seminal fluid mediated paternal-maternal communication to optimise pregnancy success. [Journal Article]
- AAnimal 2018 Feb 19; :1-6
- Artificial insemination has been a landmark procedure in improving animal agriculture over the past 150 years. The utility of artificial insemination has facilitated a rapid improvement in animal gen...
Artificial insemination has been a landmark procedure in improving animal agriculture over the past 150 years. The utility of artificial insemination has facilitated a rapid improvement in animal genetics across agricultural species, leading to improvements of growth, health and productivity in poultry, swine, equine and cattle species. The utility of artificial insemination, as with all assisted reproductive technologies side-steps thousands of years of evolution that has led to the development of physiological systems to ensure the transmission of genetics from generation to generation. The perceived manipulation of these physiological systems as a consequence of assisted reproduction are points of interest in which research could potentially improve the success of these technologies. Indeed, seminal fluid is either removed or substantially diluted when semen is prepared for artificial insemination in domestic species. Although seminal fluid is not a requirement for pregnancy, could the removal of seminal fluid from the ejaculate have negative consequences on reproductive outcomes that could be improved to further the economic benefit of artificial insemination? One such potential influence of seminal fluid on reproduction stems from the question; how does the allogeneic foetus survive gestation in the face of the maternal immune system? Observation of the maternal immune system during pregnancy has noted maternal immune tolerance to paternal-specific antigens; a mechanism by which the maternal immune system tolerates specific paternal antigens expressed on the foetus. In species like human or rodent, implantation occurs days after fertilisation and as such the mechanisms to establish antigen-specific tolerance must be initiated very early during pregnancy. We and others propose that these mechanisms are initiated at the time of insemination when paternal antigens are first introduced to the maternal immune system. It is unclear whether such mechanisms would also be involved in domestic species, such as cattle, where implantation occurs weeks later in gestation. A new paradigm detailing the importance of paternal-maternal communication at the time of insemination is becoming evident as it relates to maternal tolerance to foetal antigen and ultimately pregnancy success.
- Untapped Reserves: Controlling Primordial Follicle Growth Activation. [Review]
- TMTrends Mol Med 2018 Feb 13
- Even with the benefit of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), many women are unable to conceive and deliver healthy offspring. One common cause of infertility is the inability to produce eggs ca...
Even with the benefit of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), many women are unable to conceive and deliver healthy offspring. One common cause of infertility is the inability to produce eggs capable of contributing to live birth. This can occur despite standard-of-care treatment to maximize the recovery of eggs from growing ovarian follicles. Dormant primordial follicles in the human ovary are a 'reserve ' that can be exploited clinically to overcome this problem. We discuss how controlling primordial follicle growth activation (PFGA) can produce increased numbers of high-quality eggs available for fertility treatment(s). We consider the state of the art in interventions used to control PFGA, and consider genetic and epigenetic strategies on the horizon that might improve compromised oocyte quality to increase live births.
- Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation. [Journal Article]
- ARAnnu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 Feb 15; 6:83-98
- Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic...
Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The advent of in vitro cell culture and cryobanking is reviewed here in the context of biodiversity collections of viable cell cultures that represent the progress and limitations of current efforts. The prospects for incorporating collections of frozen viable cell cultures into efforts to characterize the genetic changes that have produced the diversity of species on Earth and contribute to new initiatives in conservation argue strongly for a global network of facilities for establishing and cryobanking collections of viable cells.
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- Esophageal atresia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome in one of the naturally conceived discordant newborn twins: first report. [Journal Article]
- CCClin Case Rep 2018; 6(2):399-401
- Recent studies report a high incidence of monozygotic twinning in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. A phenotypical discordance in monozygotic twins is rare. Twinning and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome show h...
Recent studies report a high incidence of monozygotic twinning in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. A phenotypical discordance in monozygotic twins is rare. Twinning and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome show higher incidence in children born after assisted reproductive techniques. We report on the first observation of esophageal atresia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome in one of the naturally conceived discordant monozygotic twins.