- Improved outcomes after blastocyst-stage frozen-thawed embryo transfers compared with cleavage stage: a Society for Assisted Reproductive Technologies Clinical Outcomes Reporting System study. [Journal Article]
- FSFertil Steril 2018 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing FET, blastocyst-stage transfer is associated with higher live-birth rates when compared with cleavage-stage transfers. Furthermore, perinatal outcomes are similar between the groups.
- Cigarette smoking impairs clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction technologies: a meta-analysis of the literature. [Review]
- RTReprod Toxicol 2018 Jun 12
- There is convincing evidence that cigarette smoking can impair female reproductive potential. This meta-analysis updates the knowledge regarding the effects of cigarette smoking on clinical outcomes ...
There is convincing evidence that cigarette smoking can impair female reproductive potential. This meta-analysis updates the knowledge regarding the effects of cigarette smoking on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Twenty-six studies were included in this meta-analysis. Results were expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and statistical heterogeneity between the studies was evaluated with Higgins (I2), Breslow (τ2), Birge's ratio (H2) indices and Chi-square test (χ2). A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The analysis showed a significant decrease in live birth rate per cycle for smoking patients (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.44-0.79; P = 0.0005), a significant lower clinical pregnancy rate per cycle for smoking women (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41-0.68; P < 0.0001), and a significant increase in terms of spontaneous miscarriage rate (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.10-4.48; P = 0.025) for smokers. These findings demonstrate clear negative effects of cigarette smoking on the outcome of ART programs.
- Spatial distribution of preantral follicles in the equine ovary. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0198108
- Comprehensive studies on spatial distribution of preantral follicles in the ovary are scarce. Considering that preantral follicles represent the main ovarian reserve, harvesting of these follicles is...
Comprehensive studies on spatial distribution of preantral follicles in the ovary are scarce. Considering that preantral follicles represent the main ovarian reserve, harvesting of these follicles is crucial for the development/use of assisted reproductive techniques. Therefore, knowledge on follicle spatial distribution can be helpful for targeting areas with richer number of preantral follicles through biopsy procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and localization of equine preantral follicles according to: (i) age, (ii) ovarian portion (lateral and intermediary) and region (dorsal and ventral), (iii) distance from the geometric center, and (iv) follicular class. Ovaries from young and old mares (n = 8) were harvested in a slaughterhouse and submitted to histological processing for further evaluation. For data analyses, a novel methodology was developed according to the geometric center of each histological section for a precise determination of preantral follicle distribution. Results indicated that (i) equine preantral follicles are clustered and located near to the ovarian geometric center, and that aging induced their dispersion through the ovarian cortex; (ii) the distance from the geometric center was shorter for developing follicles than primordial; and (iii) secondary follicles were more distant from the geometric center but closer to the ovulation fossa. In conclusion, the spatial distribution of preantral follicles was successfully determined in the equine ovary and was affected by age, region, and portion.
- Vitamin D Receptor TaqI Polymorphism Is Associated With Reduced Follicle Number in Women Utilizing Assisted Reproductive Technologies. [Journal Article]
- FEFront Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018; 9:252
- CONCLUSIONS: We identified an association between the VDR TaqI polymorphism and reduced follicle number in women undergoing COS, suggesting that VDR signaling affects the ovarian response to stimulation via unknown mechanisms.
- Why AMPK agonists not known to be stressors may surprisingly contribute to miscarriage or hinder IVF/ART. [Review]
- JAJ Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Jun 07
- Here we examine recent evidence suggesting that many drugs and diet supplements (DS), experimental AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonists as well as energy-depleting stress, lead to decreases i...
Here we examine recent evidence suggesting that many drugs and diet supplements (DS), experimental AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonists as well as energy-depleting stress, lead to decreases in anabolism, growth or proliferation, and potency of cultured oocytes, embryos, and stem cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. Surprising data for DS and drugs that have some activity as AMPK agonists in in vitro experiments show possible toxicity. This needs to be balanced against a preponderance of evidence in vivo that these drugs and DS are beneficial for reproduction. We here discuss and analyze data that leads to two possible conclusions: First, although DS and drugs that have some of their therapeutic mechanisms mediated by AMPK activity associated with low ATP levels, some of the associated health problems in vivo and in vitro fertilization/assisted reproductive technologies (IVF/ART) may be better-treated by increasing ATP production using CoQ10 (Ben-Meir et al., Aging Cell 14:887-895, 2015). This enables high developmental trajectories simultaneous with solving stress by energy-requiring responses. In IVF/ART, it is ultimately best to maintain handling and culture of gametes and embryos in the quietest state with low metabolic activity (Leese et al., Mol Hum Reprod 14:667-672, 2008; Leese, Bioessays 24 (9):845-849, 2002) using back-to-nature or simplex algorithms to identify optima (Biggers, Reprod Biomed Online 4 Suppl 1:30-38, 2002). Stress markers, such as checkpoint proteins like TRP53 (aka p53) (Ganeshan et al., Exp Cell Res 358:227-233, 2017); Ganeshan et al., Biol Reprod 83:958-964, 2010) and a small set of kinases from the protein kinome that mediate enzymatic stress responses, can also be used to define optima. But, some gametes or embryos may have been stressed in vivo prior to IVF/ART or IVF/ART optimized for one outcome may be suboptimal for another. Increasing nutrition or adding CoQ10 to increase ATP production (Yang et al., Stem Cell Rev 13:454-464, 2017), managing stress enzyme levels with inhibitors (Xie et al., Mol Hum Reprod 12:217-224, 2006), or adding growth factors such as GM-CSF (Robertson et al., J Reprod Immunol 125:80-88, 2018); Chin et al., Hum Reprod 24:2997-3009, 2009) may increase survival and health of cultured embryos during different stress exposure contexts (Puscheck et al., Adv Exp Med Biol 843:77-128, 2015). We define "stress" as negative stimuli which decrease normal magnitude and speed of development, and these can be stress hormones, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines, or physical stimuli such as hypoxia. AMPK is normally activated by high AMP, commensurate with low ATP, but it was recently shown that if glucose is present inside the cell, AMPK activation by low ATP/high AMP is suppressed (Zhang et al., Nature 548:112-116, 2017). As we discuss in more detail below, this may also lead to greater AMPK agonist toxicity observed in two-cell embryos that do not import glucose. Stress in embryos and stem cells increases AMPK in large stimulation indexes but also direness indexes; the fastest AMPK activation occurs when stem cells are shifted from optimal oxygen to lower or high levels (Yang et al., J Reprod Dev 63:87-94, 2017). CoQ10 use may be better than risking AMPK-dependent metabolic and developmental toxicity when ATP is depleted and AMPK activated. Second, the use of AMPK agonists, DS, and drugs may best be rationalized when insulin resistance or obesity leads to aberrant hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity that negatively affect fertility. Under these conditions, beneficial effects of AMPK on increasing triglyceride and fatty acid and glucose uptake are important, as long as AMPK agonist exposures are not too high or do not occur during developmental windows of sensitivity. During these windows of sensitivity suppression of anabolism, proliferation, and stemness/potency due to AMPK activity, or overexposure may stunt or kill embryos or cause deleterious epigenetic changes.
- Framing the ethical and legal issues of human artificial gametes in research, therapy, and assisted reproduction: A German perspective. [Journal Article]
- BBioethics 2018; 32(5):314-326
- Recent results from studies on animals suggest that functional germ cells may be generated from human pluripotent stem cells, giving rise to three possibilities: research with these so-called artific...
Recent results from studies on animals suggest that functional germ cells may be generated from human pluripotent stem cells, giving rise to three possibilities: research with these so-called artificial gametes, including fertilization experiments in vitro; their use in vivo for therapy for the treatment of human infertility; and their use in assisted reproductive technologies in vitro. While the legal, philosophical, and ethical questions associated with these possibilities have been already discussed intensively in other countries, the debate in Germany is still at its beginning. A systematic and detailed analysis of the legal framework in Germany is provided with regard to the three possibilities, including the applicable statutory laws as well as the constitutional law. The question emerges as to whether the statutory laws as well as the constitution justify a distinction to be made between embryos of artificial and natural origin. This question is subject to philosophical analysis, discussing the distinction between person and thing, dignity and price, personality and property, and nature and technique. As a result, the criterion of naturalness alone may not be sufficient to differentiate between embryos of natural and artificial origin, and other criteria need to be identified.
- Elevated incidence of monozygotic twinning is associated with extended embryo culture, but not with zona pellucida manipulation or freeze-thaw procedure. [Journal Article]
- FSFertil Steril 2018 Jun 02
- CONCLUSIONS: Extended culture (advanced embryo stage) in fresh and frozen cycles appeared to be associated with increased rates of MZT. The effect of the number of embryos transferred, ICSI and AH, and freeze-thaw procedures on the risk for MZT was not demonstrated.
- Can a quality-of-life assessment assist in identifying women at risk of prematurely discontinuing IVF treatment? A prospective cohort study utilizing the FertiQoL questionnaire. [Journal Article]
- AGArch Gynecol Obstet 2018; 298(1):223-229
- CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistical difference in a small sample size for FertiQoL scores between all groups. In this study, FertiQoL scores were, therefore, not usable to predict withdrawal from infertility treatment.
- Intragenic sequences in the trophectoderm harbour the greatest proportion of methylation errors in day 17 bovine conceptuses generated using assisted reproductive technologies. [Journal Article]
- BGBMC Genomics 2018 Jun 05; 19(1):438
- CONCLUSIONS: By examining (1) the effects of superovulation and (2) the effects of an in vitro system (oocyte maturation, fertilisation and embryo culture) we have identified that the assisted reproduction process of superovulation alone has the largest impact on the DNA methylome of subsequent embryos.
New Search Next
- Differential success in obtaining gametes between male and female Australian temperate frogs by hormonal induction: A review. [Review]
- GCGen Comp Endocrinol 2018 May 31
- Most Australian frogs fall into two deeply split lineages, conveniently referred to as ground frogs (Myobatrachidae and Limnodynastidae) and tree frogs (Pelodryadidae). Species of both lineages are e...
Most Australian frogs fall into two deeply split lineages, conveniently referred to as ground frogs (Myobatrachidae and Limnodynastidae) and tree frogs (Pelodryadidae). Species of both lineages are endangered because of the global chytrid pandemic, and there is increasing interest and research on the endocrine manipulation of reproduction to support the use of assisted reproductive technologies in conservation. Hormonal induction of gamete release in males and females is one such manipulation of the reproductive process. This paper reviews progress in temperate ground and tree frogs towards developing simple and efficient hormonal protocols for induction of spermiation and ovulation, and presents some new data, that together build towards an understanding of advances and obstacles towards progress in this area. We report that protocols for the non-invasive induction of sperm release, relying on single doses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or human chorionic gonadotropin are very effective in both ground and tree frog species investigated to date. However, we find that, while protocols based on GnRH, and GnRH and dopamine antagonists, are moderately efficient in inducing ovulation in ground frogs, the same cannot be said for the use of such protocols in tree frogs. Although induced ovulation in the pelodryadid tree frogs has not been successfully implemented, and is difficult to explain in terms of the underlying endocrinology, we propose future avenues of investigation to address this problem, particularly the need for a source of purified or recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone for species from this group.