- Identification of Tobacco Types and Cigarette Brands Using an Electronic Nose Based on Conductive Polymer/Porphyrin Composite Sensors. [Journal Article]
- AOACS Omega 2018 Jun 30; 3(6):6476-6482
- Three tobacco types (Burley, Flue Cured, and Oriental) and eight cigarette brands were unequivocally identified using an electronic nose formed by only three sensors based on a single novel conductin...
Three tobacco types (Burley, Flue Cured, and Oriental) and eight cigarette brands were unequivocally identified using an electronic nose formed by only three sensors based on a single novel conducting polymer (PF-BTB) doped with different porphyrins (H2 TPP, H 2 TPFP, and H 2 BTBOP). The synthesis and characterization of the polymer are also discussed. Small changes in the porphyrin structure caused significant changes in the electrical conductance response patterns of the sensors upon exposure to complex chemical matrixes, representing a novel approach for tuning the selectivity of chemiresistive sensors for e-nose application. This e-nose is fast, cheap, reliable, can be easily operated, and could be a valuable tool for border agents fighting cigarette smuggling around the world, helping them prevent losses of millions in tax revenues and sales.
- Rapid and Easy Extracellular Vesicle Detection on a Surface-Functionalized Power-Free Microchip toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics. [Journal Article]
- AOACS Omega 2017 Oct 31; 2(10):6703-6707
- Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are promising novel cancer biomarkers. However, rapid and easy analysis of EVs is challenging because conventional detection methods require large sample volumes and long...
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are promising novel cancer biomarkers. However, rapid and easy analysis of EVs is challenging because conventional detection methods require large sample volumes and long detection times. Microchip-based analytical systems have particularly attracted attention for development of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Previously, various biomarker detection methods on a portable power-free poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip using laminar flow-assisted dendritic amplification have been developed. Recently, for easy functionalization, we proposed a microchannel inner surface-functionalized power-free PDMS microchip (SF-PF microchip) utilizing electron beam-induced graft polymerization. In this study, we apply the technique and prepare a novel SF-PF microchip. On the microchip, EVs were successfully detected. The required sample volume was 1.0 μL, and the total analysis time was 20 min. The microchip can contribute to EV-based POC cancer diagnosis.
- The Phosphodiesterase 9 inhibitor PF-04449613 promotes dendritic spine formation and performance improvement after motor learning. [Journal Article]
- DNDev Neurobiol 2018 Jul 18
- The cyclic nucleotide cGMP is an intracellular second messenger with important roles in neuronal functions and animals' behaviors. The phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes that hydrolyze...
The cyclic nucleotide cGMP is an intracellular second messenger with important roles in neuronal functions and animals' behaviors. The phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes that hydrolyze the second messengers cGMP and cAMP. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 9 (PDE9), a main isoform of PDEs hydrolyzing cGMP, has been shown to improve learning and memory as well as cognitive function in rodents. However, the role of PDE9 in regulating neuronal structure and function in vivo remains unclear. Here we used in vivo two-photon microscopy to investigate the effect of a selective PDE9 inhibitor PF-04449613 on the activity and plasticity of dendritic spines of layer V pyramidal neurons in the mouse primary motor cortex. We found that administration of PF-04449613 increased calcium activity of dendrites and dendritic spines of layer V pyramidal neurons in mice under resting and running conditions. Chronic treatment of PF-04449613 over weeks increased dendritic spine formation and elimination under basal conditions. Furthermore, PF-04449613 treatment over 1-7 days increased the formation and survival of new spines as well as performance improvement after rotarod motor training. Taken together, our studies suggest that elevating the level of cGMP with the PDE9 inhibitor PF-04449613 increases synaptic calcium activity and learning-dependent synaptic plasticity, thereby contributing to performance improvement after learning. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2018.
- Associative Learning of Food Odor by Social Wasps in a Natural Ecosystem. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chem Ecol 2018 Jul 19
- The ability of insects to associate olfactory cues with food from their environment has been well documented with various insect orders. However, these studies were based on prior training of insects...
The ability of insects to associate olfactory cues with food from their environment has been well documented with various insect orders. However, these studies were based on prior training of insects to associate odors with food sources in the laboratory or in the field with almost no evidence for the development of this phenomenon in natural ecosystems. In New Zealand's ancient Fuscospora spp. or beech forests, invasive Vespula social wasps were attracted to odor from honeydew (benzaldehyde and n-octanol) but did not respond to a known wasp attractant (isobutanol and acetic acid). On the other hand, wasps in a rural/suburban area in New Zealand did not respond to honeydew odor but responded instead to the known wasp attractant. Similarly, social wasps in Hungary did not respond to honeydew odor, but responded to the known wasp attractant. DNA sequences of Vespula vulgaris from the two locations in New Zealand were 100% identical. Similarly, DNA sequences of V. germanica from the two locations in New Zealand were 100% identical, indicating little or no intra-specific variation. On the other hand, DNA sequences of V. vulgaris and V. germanica from New Zealand were 99.56 and 99.78% matches with V. vulgaris and V. germanica samples from Hungary, respectively. Electroantennogram (EAG) response profiles of wasps from the three locations to benzaldehyde, isobutanol, acetic acid, n-octanol and heptyl butyrate were similar. The high similarity in DNA sequences and EAG profiles, with only a behavioral difference in the response to odor sources, suggests that social wasps in New Zealand's beech forest have naturally developed associative learning for the odor of the carbohydrate-rich honeydew. This is the first study to provide conclusive evidence of the occurrence and the development of associative learning of food odor by social insects in a natural ecosystem free of human interference. The ability of social wasps to naturally develop associative learning of food odor might in part explain why they are extremely successful invaders of new ecosystems, especially those with rich honeydew resources. The finding of our study will have significant implications for the use of attractants in wasp monitoring and control in different habitats.
- An inhibitor of 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (PF915275) alleviates nonylphenol-induced hyperadrenalism and adiposity in rat and human cells. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2018 Jul 18; 19(1):45
- CONCLUSIONS: The effects of NP and PF915275 treatment in both rat and human cell models are similar. Rats may be an appropriate model to study the effects of NP in humans, especially during the developmental period.
- Heterogeneity within the PF-EPN-B ependymoma subgroup. [Journal Article]
- ANActa Neuropathol 2018 Jul 17
- Posterior fossa ependymoma comprise three distinct molecular variants, termed PF-EPN-A (PFA), PF-EPN-B (PFB), and PF-EPN-SE (subependymoma). Clinically, they are very disparate and PFB tumors are cur...
Posterior fossa ependymoma comprise three distinct molecular variants, termed PF-EPN-A (PFA), PF-EPN-B (PFB), and PF-EPN-SE (subependymoma). Clinically, they are very disparate and PFB tumors are currently being considered for a trial of radiation avoidance. However, to move forward, unraveling the heterogeneity within PFB would be highly desirable. To discern the molecular heterogeneity within PFB, we performed an integrated analysis consisting of DNA methylation profiling, copy-number profiling, gene expression profiling, and clinical correlation across a cohort of 212 primary posterior fossa PFB tumors. Unsupervised spectral clustering and t-SNE analysis of genome-wide methylation data revealed five distinct subtypes of PFB tumors, termed PFB1-5, with distinct demographics, copy-number alterations, and gene expression profiles. All PFB subtypes were distinct from PFA and posterior fossa subependymomas. Of the five subtypes, PFB4 and PFB5 are more discrete, consisting of younger and older patients, respectively, with a strong female-gender enrichment in PFB5 (age: p = 0.011, gender: p = 0.04). Broad copy-number aberrations were common; however, many events such as chromosome 2 loss, 5 gain, and 17 loss were enriched in specific subtypes and 1q gain was enriched in PFB1. Late relapses were common across all five subtypes, but deaths were uncommon and present in only two subtypes (PFB1 and PFB3). Unlike the case in PFA ependymoma, 1q gain was not a robust marker of poor progression-free survival; however, chromosome 13q loss may represent a novel marker for risk stratification across the spectrum of PFB subtypes. Similar to PFA ependymoma, there exists a significant intertumoral heterogeneity within PFB, with distinct molecular subtypes identified. Even when accounting for this heterogeneity, extent of resection remains the strongest predictor of poor outcome. However, this biological heterogeneity must be accounted for in future preclinical modeling and personalized therapies.
- Diffusion and perfusion MRI quantification in ileal Crohn's disease. [Journal Article]
- EREur Radiol 2018 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: DCE-MRI and IVIM-DWI, particularly when used in combination, are promising for non-invasive evaluation of small bowel CD.• IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI parameters were significantly different between normal and abnormal bowel segments in CD patients. • DCE-MRI parameters showed a significant association with wall thickness and MRI activity scores. • Combination of IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI parameters led to the highest diagnostic performance for differentiation between normal and abnormal bowel segments, while ADC showed the highest diagnostic performance of individual parameters.
- Anisotropy of Transport Properties Correlated to Grain Boundary Density and Quantified Texture in Thick Oriented Ca₃Co₄O₉ Ceramics. [Journal Article]
- MMaterials (Basel) 2018 Jul 17; 11(7)
- The misfit-layered Ca₃Co₄O₉ oxide is being seen as a potential thermoelectric (TE) candidate for high-temperature power generation in air. Given the very small size and low strength exhibited by sing...
The misfit-layered Ca₃Co₄O₉ oxide is being seen as a potential thermoelectric (TE) candidate for high-temperature power generation in air. Given the very small size and low strength exhibited by single crystals, grain-oriented Ca₃Co₄O₉ ceramics are worth elaborating to capitalize on their anisotropy. However, the usual textured pellets are too thin to probe the TE properties along their principal crystallographic directions. In this paper, we report on the anisotropy of TE properties in the 350⁻860 K range within thick textured Ca₃Co₄O₉ ceramics fabricated by moderately pressing at 1173 K stacks of pellets primarily textured using spark plasma sintering (SPS), spark plasma texturing (SPT), and hot pressing (HP). The texture was quantitatively assessed, and the influent microstructural parameters were identified, particularly the grain boundary density parallel (GBDc) and perpendicular (GBDab) to the mean c*-axis. We found that the edge-free processing fostered material texturing and (a,b) plane grain growth, thereby dropping GBDab and increasing GBDc. This resulted in a resistivity ρab reduction, leading to a marked enhancement in power factor PFab, which reached 520 μW·m-1·K-2 at 800 K for the HP sample. The anisotropy ρc/ρab was substantially promoted as the texture was reinforced and the GBDc/GBDab ratio increased, with ρc/ρab (HP) > ρc/ρab (SPT) > ρc/ρab (SPS). The Seebeck coefficient S also revealed an anisotropic behavior, with a ratio Sc/Sab >1 for the SPS-processed materials. This behavior was reversed (Sc/Sab <1) for the more textured SPT and HP specimens. It therefore resulted in a PF anisotropy PFc/PFab (HP) < PFc/PFab (SPT) < PFc/PFab (SPS). The PFab/PFc ratio attained 13.6 at 800 K for the thick HP sample, which is the largest ratio recorded thus far on undoped Ca₃Co₄O₉ ceramics.
- Analyses of prevalence and molecular typing reveal the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella infection across 2 breeder chicken farms1. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Jul 17
- In this study, Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial resistance were evaluated at various production stages in 2 geographically separated breeder farms (referred to as G and F). Day-old chicks for ...
In this study, Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial resistance were evaluated at various production stages in 2 geographically separated breeder farms (referred to as G and F). Day-old chicks for the breeder flock at farm F were purchased from farm G. A total of 219 Salmonella isolates, all identified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, were recovered from 1,430 samples (sick chicken carcasses and/or dead embryos). The isolation rates at breeder farms G and F were 10.53% (56/532) and 18.15% (163/898), respectively. Resistance to 4-6 antimicrobial agents was the most frequent phenotype during the laying stage at both farms, suggesting that chicks are exposed to higher risk of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella infection during this stage of the breeding process. Using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) typing, 5 CRISPR patterns were identified, out of which one pattern was shared by the 2 farms. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing result indicated that 2 clusters (PF-1 and PF-2) were shared among the 2 breeder farms, suggesting that strains were transmitted from breeder farm G to farm F via the trade of day-old chicks. Our findings suggested that the trade of day-old breeder chicks could be one of the potential Salmonella transmission routes, and antibiotics should be administered with caution during the laying stage.
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- Andrographolide ameliorates silica induced pulmonary fibrosis. [Journal Article]
- IIInt Immunopharmacol 2018 Jul 13; 62:191-202
- The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of andrographolide in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in mice and its underlying mechanisms. Male Swiss albino mice were divi...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of andrographolide in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in mice and its underlying mechanisms. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups: Normal control group, disease control group (1.5 mg silica/60 μL/mice) via oropharyngeal route, low dose (LD) group received silica + andrographolide (3 mg/kg), high dose (HD) group received silica + andrographolide (10 mg/kg), andrographolide per se group received 10 mg/kg andrographolide. Various bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, histology and protein expression studies were carried out. Andrographolide significantly reduced total protein concentration, albumin, accumulation of inflammatory cells and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level in BALF. We found that andrographolide intervention led to decreased levels of the inflammatory cells including neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in the BALF of the treated animals. In addition, andrographolide significantly reduced nitrite (p < 0.01 at HD), malondialdehyde (p < 0.01 at HD) and upregulated glutathione (p < 0.01 at HD) in silica challenged animals. Andrographolide showed anti-fibrotic activity by reducing collagen deposition and inflammation in lung. Histopathology revealed that andrographolide decreased irregular cellular nodules, inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Andrographolide intervention significantly reduced the expression of N-cadherin, α-SMA and vimentin (mesenchymal markers) and upregulated the expression of E-cadherin (an epithelial marker). Hence, andrographolide elicits its anti-pulmonary fibrotic effect by halting the progression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via affecting fibroblasts. We, to the best of our knowledge prove for the first time that andrographolide possesses potent antifibrotic activity by targeting inflammatory cells and EMT associated fibroblasts.