- Clinical significance of the 2016 WHO classification in Japanese patients with gliomas. [Journal Article]
- BTBrain Tumor Pathol 2018 Feb 22
- In this study, we retrospectively compared the prognostic value of the 2016 WHO classification with the former classification in 387 patients with glioma treated at our institution. According to the ...
In this study, we retrospectively compared the prognostic value of the 2016 WHO classification with the former classification in 387 patients with glioma treated at our institution. According to the new classification, diagnoses included oligodendroglioma with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion (5.4%), anaplastic oligodendroglioma with IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion (3.4%), diffuse astrocytoma IDH-mutated (3.9%), anaplastic astrocytoma IDH-mutated (2.8%), glioblastoma IDH-mutated (7.8%), glioblastoma IDH-wildtype (58.4%), diffuse midline glioma H3 K27M mutation (2.6%), oligodendroglioma NOS (1.3%), anaplastic oligodendroglioma NOS (0.8%), diffuse astrocytoma IDH-wildtype (2.8%), and anaplastic astrocytoma IDH-wildtype (10.9%). The prognoses of IDH-mutated astrocytomas clearly varied according to tumor grade. However, we identified no survival difference between IDH-wildtype anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas; additionally, these tumors showed similar gene expression profiles. After exclusion of those without 1p/19q co-deletion, patients with oligodendroglial tumors showed excellent survival regardless of tumor grade. Our evaluation of chromosomal aberrations suggests that the MAPK/PI3K pathway plays a role in acquired malignancy of astrocytic tumors, whereas TP53 participates in tumorigenesis. We suspect the RB pathway also plays a role in tumorigenesis of IDH-mutated gliomas. The new WHO classification more clearly reflects the tumorigenesis of gliomas and improves the prognostic power of classification.
- Long non-coding RNA SPRY4-IT1 promotes the proliferation and invasion of U251 cells through upregulation of SKA2. [Journal Article]
- OLOncol Lett 2018; 15(3):3977-3984
- The long non-coding RNA SPRY4-intronic transcript 1 (SPRY4-IT1) has been shown to promote the progression of cancer; however, the role of SPRY4-IT1 in glioma remains unclear. The present study demons...
The long non-coding RNA SPRY4-intronic transcript 1 (SPRY4-IT1) has been shown to promote the progression of cancer; however, the role of SPRY4-IT1 in glioma remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that SPRY4-IT1 expression was markedly increased in glioma tissues and cells compared with normal brain tissues, whereas knockdown of SPRY4-IT1 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in U251 cells. Spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 2 (SKA2) was found to be a target of SPRY4-IT1 and was downregulated by SPRY4-IT1-knockdown. Additionally, SPRY4-IT1 expression was positively correlated with SKA2 in glioma tissues. To the best of our knowledge, the present study provides the first demonstration that SKA2 may have an oncogenic role in U251 cells. These results indicate that SPRY4-IT1 may serve a notable role in the molecular etiology of glioma and represents a potential target in glioma therapy.
- Seizure-Induced Increased 18F-DOPA Uptake in a Child With Diffuse Astrocytoma and Transient Brain MRI Abnormalities Related to Status Epilepticus. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Nucl Med 2018 Feb 21
- We report the finding of increased F-DOPA uptake in the brain parenchyma surrounding a temporoparietal low-grade diffuse astrocytoma and corresponding to transient seizure-induced MRI abnormalities. ...
We report the finding of increased F-DOPA uptake in the brain parenchyma surrounding a temporoparietal low-grade diffuse astrocytoma and corresponding to transient seizure-induced MRI abnormalities. There was concomitant markedly increased tumoral uptake. This F-DOPA PET phenomenon may represent increased amino acid transport induced by seizures. In the setting of brain tumor imaging, increased F-DOPA uptake of low-grade epileptogenic tumors and adjacent brain parenchyma should be carefully interpreted in light of clinical and electroencephalographic findings related to seizure activity.
- Neuroprotective Effects of Silibinin: An In-silico and In-vitro Study. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Neurosci 2018 Feb 21; :1-26
- Astrogliosis is a key contributor for many neurological disorders involving apoptosis, neuroinflammation and subsequent neuronal death. Silibinin, a polyphenol isolated from milk thistle (Silybum mar...
Astrogliosis is a key contributor for many neurological disorders involving apoptosis, neuroinflammation and subsequent neuronal death. Silibinin, a polyphenol isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been shown to suppress the astrocyte activation in various neurodegenerative disorders and also exhibit a neuroprotective role in neuroinflammation-driven oxidative damage. In the present study, we found that treatment with silibinin significantly attenuates LPS- oxidative-nitrosative stress in C6 astrocytoma cells. We also observed the significant inhibition of induced-astrocyte activity after treatment with silibinin. Moreover, molecular modelling studies have proposed a binding pose of silibinin with binding sites of p38 MAPK, CX3CR1 and P2 × 4 which is an important downstream cascade involved in glia cell activation and neuroinflammation. Overall, the findings from the current study suggests that silibinin exhibits neuroprotective activity by attenuating oxidative damage and astrocytes activation.
- Swept source optical coherence tomography findings of tuberous sclerosis associated retinal astrocytoma. [Letter]
- CEClin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Feb 21
- Retinal astrocytomas are low-grade neoplasms, typically of non-aggressive nature. Tumor characteristics may vary greatly and they most often occur in association with tuberous sclerosis. Less commonl...
Retinal astrocytomas are low-grade neoplasms, typically of non-aggressive nature. Tumor characteristics may vary greatly and they most often occur in association with tuberous sclerosis. Less commonly, astrocytomas may occur with neurofibromatosis or they may be sporadic1,2.
- A case of left frontal high-grade glioma diagnosed during pregnancy. [Journal Article]
- JCJA Clin Rep 2017; 3(1):18
- CONCLUSIONS: Since evidence on the use of adjuvant therapy during pregnancy is limited, extensive resection with functional monitoring is recommended if a brain tumor is presumed to be malignant. Awake craniotomy is considered advantageous to pregnant patients because subjective movement preserves the patient's motor function and reduces fetal exposure to anesthetics. Therefore, providing multidisciplinary discussion takes place within the decision-making process, as well as careful perioperative preparation, awake craniotomy should be considered, even in the case of pregnant patients.
- Novel BRAF mutation in melanoma: A case report. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Clin Oncol 2018; 8(3):460-462
- In melanoma, a number of specific genetic and genomic aberrations have been identified to be important in tumorigenesis. In particular, the mutant B-Raf proto-oncogene, Serine/Threonine kinase (BRAF)...
In melanoma, a number of specific genetic and genomic aberrations have been identified to be important in tumorigenesis. In particular, the mutant B-Raf proto-oncogene, Serine/Threonine kinase (BRAF) gene is the target of tailored therapy with kinase inhibitor molecules. Identification of the array of mutations in patients with melanoma will be useful in determining a genetic profile of the tumor with potential implications for treatment decisions. A rare aminoacidic insertion in codon 599 of the BRAF gene (c.1797_1798insACA, T599insT) was detected by using both direct (Sanger) sequencing and pyrosequencing techniques in a metastatic melanoma of a female elderly patient. As suggested in other clinical contexts including pilocytic astrocytoma, papillary thyroid carcinomas and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, this unusual mutation may be associated with a modified spatial structure of activated P-loop, resulting in a constitutional activation of the BRAF protein. The patient died shortly following the test, thus no biological therapy was performed. Comparable data regarding treatment of melanoma patients with rare BRAF mutations is lacking, and the response to BRAF inhibitors requires further investigation.
- Human iPS-Derived Astroglia from a Stable Neural Precursor State Show Improved Functionality Compared with Conventional Astrocytic Models. [Journal Article]
- SCStem Cell Reports 2018 Feb 09
- In vivo studies of human brain cellular function face challenging ethical and practical difficulties. Animal models are typically used but display distinct cellular differences. One specific example ...
In vivo studies of human brain cellular function face challenging ethical and practical difficulties. Animal models are typically used but display distinct cellular differences. One specific example is astrocytes, recently recognized for contribution to neurological diseases and a link to the genetic risk factor apolipoprotein E (APOE). Current astrocytic in vitro models are questioned for lack of biological characterization. Here, we report human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived astroglia (NES-Astro) developed under defined conditions through long-term neuroepithelial-like stem (ltNES) cells. We characterized NES-Astro and astrocytic models from primary sources, astrocytoma (CCF-STTG1), and hiPSCs through transcriptomics, proteomics, glutamate uptake, inflammatory competence, calcium signaling response, and APOE secretion. Finally, we assess modulation of astrocyte biology using APOE-annotated compounds, confirming hits of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in adult and hiPSC-derived astrocytes. Our data show large diversity among astrocytic models and emphasize a cellular context when studying astrocyte biology.
- Intradural spinal tumors in adults-update on management and outcome. [Review]
- NRNeurosurg Rev 2018 Feb 17
- Among spinal tumors that occur intradurally, meningiomas, nerve sheath tumors, ependymomas, and astrocytomas are the most common. While a spinal MRI is the state of the art to diagnose intradural spi...
Among spinal tumors that occur intradurally, meningiomas, nerve sheath tumors, ependymomas, and astrocytomas are the most common. While a spinal MRI is the state of the art to diagnose intradural spinal tumors, in some cases CT scans, angiography, CSF analyses, and neurophysiological examination can be valuable. The management of these lesions depends not only on the histopathological diagnosis but also on the clinical presentation and the anatomical location, allowing either radical resection as with most extramedullary lesions or less invasive strategies as with intramedullary lesions. Although intramedullary lesions are rare and sometimes difficult to manage, well-planned treatment can achieve excellent outcome without treatment-related deficits. Technical advances in imaging, neuromonitoring, minimally invasive approaches, and radiotherapy have improved the outcome of intradural spinal tumors. However, the outcome in malignant intramedullary tumors remains poor. While surgery is the mainstay treatment for many of these lesions, radiation and chemotherapy are of growing importance in recurrent and multilocular disease. We reviewed the literature on this topic to provide an overview of spinal cord tumors, treatment strategies, and outcomes. Typical cases of extra- and intramedullary tumors are presented to illustrate management options and outcomes.
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- Trapped ventricle after laser ablation of a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma complicated by intraventricular gadolinium extravasation: case report. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosurg Pediatr 2018 Feb 16; :1-5
- Magnetic resonance imaging-guided stereotactic laser ablation of intracranial targets, including brain tumors, has expanded dramatically over the past decade, but there have been few reports of compl...
Magnetic resonance imaging-guided stereotactic laser ablation of intracranial targets, including brain tumors, has expanded dramatically over the past decade, but there have been few reports of complications, especially those occurring in a delayed fashion. Laser ablation of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) is an attractive alternative to maintenance immunotherapy in some children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC); however, the effect of treatment on disease progression and the nature and frequency of potential complications remains largely unknown. The authors report the case of a 5-year-old boy with TSC who underwent stereotactic laser ablation of a SEGA at the right foramen of Monro on 2 separate occasions. After the second ablation, immediate posttreatment MRI revealed gadolinium extravasation from the tumor into the lateral ventricle. Nine months later, the patient presented with papilledema and delayed obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to intraventricular adhesions causing a trapped right lateral ventricle. This was successfully treated with endoscopic septostomy. The authors discuss the potential cause and clinical management of a delayed complication not previously reported after a relatively novel surgical therapy.